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Hoplophryninae Noble, 1931
Hoplophrynidae — Bossuyt and Roelants, 2009, in Hedges and Kumar (eds.), Timetree of Life: 358.
Usambara, Uluguru, Nguru, and Magrotto mountains, Tanzania.
Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 229, discussed the taxonomic issues and provisionally retained these African taxa in Melanobatrachinae. Van Bocxlaer, Roelants, Biju, Nagaraju, and Bossuyt, 2006, PLoS One, 1: 1-6, provided evidence that Hoplophryne (their exemplar of this subfamilial taxon) is phylogenetically distant from Melanobatrachus and possibly the sister taxon of all other microhylids, with the exception of Phrynomantis. Savage, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 355, considered; without discussion, hoplophrynines to be more closely related to Phrynomerinae. Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 196) considered Hoplophryninae of Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 538-539, part of Melanobatrachinae, although Laurent, 1986, in Grassé and Delsol (eds.), Traite de Zool., 14: 744, Dubois, 1984, Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, A—Zool., 131: 1-64, and Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 15, did not accept this, without discussion. Bossuyt and Roelants, 2009, in Hedges and Kumar (eds.), Timetree of Life: 357-364, considered this taxon a distinct family based on its suggested Mesozoic origin. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested Hoplophryninae to be the sister taxon of Cophylinae.
Contained taxa (3 sp.):
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