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Asterophryinae Günther, 1858
Asterophrydidae Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 346. Type genus: Asterophrys Tschudi, 1838.
Asterophrydina — Mivart, 1869, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869: 294.
Xenorhinidae Mivart, 1869, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869: 286. Type genus: Xenorhina Peters, 1863.
Genyophrynidae Boulenger, 1890, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1890: 326. Type genus: Genyophryne Boulenger, 1890. Synonymy by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 225.
Genyophryninae — Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 139.
Symphignathinae Méhely, 1901, Termés. Füzetek, 24: 219. Type species: Not designated. Unavailable family-group name for reason of not being based on a valid generic name. Original delimited to include Xenorhina, Mantophryne, and Gnathophryne.
Genyophrynidae — Van Kampen, 1919, Bijdr. Dierkd., 21: 51.
Asterophryidae — Fejérváry, 1923, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 20: 181.
Asterophrynae — Fejérváry, 1923, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 20: 181.
Asterophrynidae — Parker, 1940, Novit. Zool., 42: 1.
Asterophryninae — Tamarunov, 1964, in Orlov (ed.), Osnovy Paleontologii, 12: 133.
Phrynomantini Burton, 1986, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 19: 405-450. Type genus: "Phrynomantis Peters, 1867". See nomenclatural comment under Callulops.
Asterophrynini — Burton, 1986, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 19: 405-450.
Barygenini Burton, 1986, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 19: 405-450. Type genus: Barygenys Parker, 1936.
Xenorhinini — Burton, 1986, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 19: 405-450.
Callulopini Dubois, 1988, Alytes, 7: 3. Type genus: Callulops Boulenger, 1888.
Asterophryidae — Bossuyt and Roelants, 2009, in Hedges and Kumar (eds.), Timetree of Life: 358.
Microbatrachus pusillus Roux, 1910, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 33: 228. Holotype: NHMB 2732 according to Forcart, 1946, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 57: 133. Type locality: "Pobdjetur, Terangan", Aru Is., Indonesia. * Sphenophryne pusilla—Tyler, 1978, J. Nat. Hist., 12: 457-460 (Aru Land Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 92. Nomen dubium discussed by Zweifel, 2000, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 253: 94.)
Microbatrachus Roux, 1910, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 33: 228. Type species: Microbatrachus pusillus Roux, 1910, by monotypy. Nomen dubium discussed by Zweifel, 2000, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 253: 94.
Southern Peninsular Malaysia, and in Bornean Malaysia in Sarawak and Sabah; presumably will be found in northwestern Kalimantan, Indonesia; southern Philippines, Sulawesi, and Bali, eastward through Indonesia and New Guinea to New Britain and extreme northern Australia; Moluccas.
This subfamily was combined with Sphenophryninae (ca. Genyophryninae of later authors) by Savage, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 351-445, on the basis of biogeography but Zweifel, 1972, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 148: 411-546, retained both subfamilies. For review, revision, and synonymies for all Asterophryinae (excluding Genyophryninae) species recognized at that time, see Zweifel, 1972, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 148: 411-546. See Burton, 1986, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 19: 405-450, for a discussion of phylogeny and recognition of tribes of Asterophryinae prior to synonymy of Genyophryninae. See Dubois, 1988, Alytes, 7: 1-5, for a discussion of nomenclature regarding tribe names. Sumida, Allison, and Nishioka, 2000, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 28: 733, suggested on the basis of allozyme distance that Barygenys (Asterophryinae) is more closely related to Cophixalus than Cophixalus is with Sphenophryne (both in Genyophryninae), suggesting that subfamilial assignment or even the basic formulation of the subfamilies needed to be revisited. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, provided molecular evidence for the paraphyly of Genyophryninae with respect to former Asterophryinae and placed them together in one subfamily, for which the oldest name is Asterophryinae. Köhler and Günther, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 47: 353-365, provided a molecular tree of Asterophryinae that corroborated the general result of Frost et al. (2006) and also provided evidence for the nonmonophyly of several of the nominal genera. (See genus records for additional comments.) Hoskin, 2008, Mem. Queensland Mus., 52: 233-237, provided a key to the species of Australia. Bossuyt and Roelants, 2009, in Hedges and Kumar (eds.), Timetree of Life: 357-364, considered this taxon a distinct family based on its Mesozoic origin. Günther, Stelbrink, and von Rintelen, 2010, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 86: 245-256, discussed molecular relationships among a subset of the genera. Matsui, Hamidy, Belabut, Ahmad, Panha, Sudin, Khonsue, Oh, Yong, Jiang, and Nishikawa, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 167-176, suggested on an analysis of mtDNA that Gastrophrynoides (Microhylidae, unassigned to subfamily) may be related to Asterophryinae, their exemplar being Oreophryne monticola. Anstis, Parker, Hawkes, Morris, and Richards, 2011, Zootaxa, 3052: 1-50, reported on the ontogeny of direct development in this subfamily, specifically reporting on Austrochaperina, Cophixalus and Oreophryne. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences suggested that Asterophryinae is the sister taxon of Melanobatrachinae.
Contained taxa (298 sp.):
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