Megophrys parva (Boulenger, 1893)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Genus: Megophrys > Species: Megophrys parva

Xenophrys monticola Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 414. Syntypes: 2 specimens, BMNH 1947.2.25.13 from Sikkim and 1853.8.12.52 from Khasya. Type locality: "Sikkim and from Khasya [= Khasi Hills, India]"; restricted to Sikkim by lectotype designation. BMNH 1947.2.25.13 designated lectotype by  Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 755. BM 1853.8.12.52 from "Khassia" subsequently and invalidly designated lectotype by Deuti, Grosjean, Nicolas, Vasudevan, and Ohler, 2017, Alytes, 34: 28. Secondary homonym of Megophrys monticola Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822. Senior synonym suppressed for purposes of Principle of Priority but not Principle of Homonymy by action of Opinion 1763, Anonymous, 1994, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 51: 84-85. See also Dubois, 1989 "1988", Alytes, 7: 97-100.

Xenophrys monticolaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 441.

Leptobrachium monticolaBoulenger, 1889, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 7: 748-750.

Leptobrachium parvum Boulenger, 1893, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 13: 344. Syntypes: (5 specimens) BMNH, MSNG, and ZMB 11587; MSNG 29412 designated lectotype by Capocaccia, 1957, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 3, 69: 211. Type locality: "District of Karin Bia-po", Myanmar.

Megalophrys parvaBoulenger, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1908: 419.

Megophrys parvaBourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 203; Liu and Hu, 1960 "1959", Acta Zool. Sinica, 11: 514; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 66.

Megophrys (Megophrys) parvaDubois, 1980, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 49: 472.

Panophrys parvaRao and Yang, 1997, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 7: 98-99.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) parvaDubois and Ohler, 1998, Dumerilia, 4: 14; Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 755. 

Xenophrys parvaKhonsue and Thirakhupt, 2001, Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ., 1: 75; Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 23; by implication; Delorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2006, Alytes, 24: 17; Chen, Zhou, Poyarkov, Stuart, Brown, Lathrop, Wang, Yuan, Jiang, Hou, Chen, Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Duong, Papenfuss, Murphy, Zhang, and Che, 2016, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 106: 41. 

Xenophrys (Xenophrys) parva — Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 696. 

Megophrys (Xenophrys) monticola — Mahony, Foley, Biju, and Teeling, 2017, Mol. Biol. Evol., 34: 755. Unexplained recognition. 

English Names

Burmese Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 78).

Myanmar Pelobatid Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Concave-crowned Horned Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 114; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 57).

Tubercular Breasted Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 11).

Brown Spine-eyed Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 85).

Brown Horn Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 85; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 43).

Lesser Stream Horned Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 86).

Small Spadefoot Toad (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 15).

Mountain Horned Frog (Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 29).


Western to eastern Nepal and Bhutan at moderate elevations, Sikkim, and Assam and Manipur (India) through Bangladesh and Myanmar to western Thailand; isolated records in southeastern Xizang (southern Medog), southern Yunnan (Jinghong, Mengla, and Mengyang), and southwestern Guangxi, China; northern Vietnam and northern Laos.


See accounts by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 203-204; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 66-67; Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 299-302; Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 60-62; Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 38; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 114-115. See Dubois, 1982, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 4: 266, for nomenclature discussion. Choudhury, Hussain, Buruah, Saikia, and Sengupta, 2002, Hamadryad, 26: 277, reported the species from Assam and Meghalaya, India. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 11, provided a brief account for the Indian population. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 47, provided an account for Guangxi. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 84, provided the Vietnam component of the range statement. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 164-167, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 76. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 85, provided a brief characterization of this species, but Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 101, suggested that the animal photographed could not be allocated to this species. Bain and Nguyen, 2004, Am. Mus. Novit., 3453: 11, provided the record for Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 84-85, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 15, provided specific localities for Vietnam. In the Megophrys parva group of Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 82. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 474-475, provided records for Phongsaly and Huaphahn provinces, Laos. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317-324, and Ningombam and Bordoloi, 2007, Zoos' Print J., 22: 2688-2690, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 33, provided a brief account (as Megophrys parva) for Yunnan, China. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 464-468, provided an account for China and spot map. Mahony, 2008, Hamadryad, 32: 34-45, suggested that nominal Megophrys parva is a species complex. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 29, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 57-58, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 205, provided a brief account including photographs. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 41, for brief account for Nepal.Ghose and Ray, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 302, provided a record for northeastern Bangladesh and commented on the range. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 233, provided an account, photographs, and a range map for China. Mahony, Teeling, and Biju, 2013, Zootaxa, 3722: 157, commented on confused in the literature of this species in India with Megophrys oropedion. See Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 8–9, for Sikkim, India, record. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 696–698, provided an account, photogrphs, and dot map, as Xenophrys caudoprocta.  

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