Megophrys parva (Boulenger, 1893)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Megophryidae > Genus: Megophrys > Species: Megophrys parva

English Names

Burmese Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 86; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 78).

Myanmar Pelobatid Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Concave-crowned Horned Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 114; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 57).

Tubercular Breasted Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 11).

Brown Spine-eyed Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 85).

Brown Horn Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 85; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 43).

Lesser Stream Horned Frog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 86).

Small Spadefoot Toad (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 15).

Mountain Horned Frog (Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 29).


Western to eastern Nepal and Bhutan at moderate elevations, Sikkim, and Assam and Manipur (India) through Bangladesh and Myanmar to western Thailand; isolated records in southeastern Xizang (southern Medog), southern Yunnan (Jinghong, Mengla, and Mengyang), and southwestern Guangxi, China; northern Vietnam and northern Laos.


See accounts by Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 66-67; Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 299-302; Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 60-62; Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 38; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 114-115. See Dubois, 1982, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 4: 266, for nomenclature discussion. Choudhury, Hussain, Buruah, Saikia, and Sengupta, 2002, Hamadryad, 26: 277, reported the species from Assam and Meghalaya, India. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 11, provided a brief account for the Indian population. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 47, provided an account for Guangxi. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 84, provided the Vietnam component of the range statement. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 76. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 85, provided a brief characterization of this species, but Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 101, suggested that the animal photographed could not be allocated to this species. Bain and Nguyen, 2004, Am. Mus. Novit., 3453: 11, provided the record for Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 84-85, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 15, provided specific localities for Vietnam. In the Megophrys parva group of Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 82. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 474-475, provided records for Phongsaly and Huaphahn provinces, Laos. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317-324, and Ningombam and Bordoloi, 2007, Zoos' Print J., 22: 2688-2690, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 33, provided a brief account (as Megophrys parva) for Yunnan, China. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 464-468, provided an account for China and spot map. Mahony, 2008, Hamadryad, 32: 34-45, suggested that nominal Megophrys parva is a species complex. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 29, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 57-58, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 205, provided a brief account including photographs. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 41, for brief account for Nepal.Ghose and Ray, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 302, provided a record for northeastern Bangladesh and commented on the range. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 233, provided an account, photographs, and a range map for China. Mahony, Teeling, and Biju, 2013, Zootaxa, 3722: 157, commented on confusion in the literature of this species in India with Megophrys oropedionFei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 696–698, provided an account, photographs, and dot map, as Xenophrys caudoprocta.  

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