Pleurodema thaul (Schneider, 1799)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Leptodactylidae > Subfamily: Leiuperinae > Genus: Pleurodema > Species: Pleurodema thaul

Rana lutea Molina, 1782, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili: 216. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "Chili". Synonymy by Ferraro and Lavilla, 2013, Zootaxa, 3608: 264–272, who noted that this name is a nomen oblitum.

Bufo thaul Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 227. Type(s): including "Museum Huttuini no. 120", current location unknown. Type locality: "Chilenses".

Rana thaulDaudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 69. See discussion by Ferraro and Lavilla, 2013, Zootaxa, 3608: 264–272.

Cystignathus bibroni Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 410. Holotype: MNHNP. Type locality: "Chili". Junior homonym of Cystignathus bibroni Tschudi, 1838, according to Ferraro and Lavilla, 2013, Zootaxa, 3608: 264–272.

Pleurodema elegans Bell, 1843, Zool. Voyage Beagle, Part 5: 37. Types: Not designated, presumably BMNH. Type locality: "Valparaiso, Valdivia, and Archipelago of Chiloe", Chile. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Cystignathus elegansGuichenot, 1848, in Gay (ed.), Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile, Zool., 2: 101.

Pleurodema darwini elegansGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 31.

Pleurodema bibroniGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 38.

Bufo luteusWeyenbergh, 1876, in Napp (ed.), Die Argentinische Republik: 160. Synonymy with Bufo spinulosus by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 115; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 164. Provisionally placed in this synonymy by Ferraro and Lavilla, 2013, Zootaxa, 3608: 264–272.

Paludicola frenata Cope, 1890 "1889", Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 12: 143. Holotype: USNM 15129 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 68. Type locality: "Lota", Chile. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema andicola Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 135. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "Cordillera de la prov. de Cautin", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 500. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema andina Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 127. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "Andibus provinciae Valdivia, . . . et in Andibus provinciae Cautin", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema aspera Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 139. Syntypes: MNHNC (4 specimens). Type locality: "Totoralillo, in provincia Aconcagua", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema belli Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 124. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "provinciae Valdivia; e praedio meo San Juan attuli; posteo etiam a Valdivia accepi", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501; and Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 276. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema bibroni var. grandis Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 132. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "fundo de San Juan", Valdivia, Chile. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema coquimbensis Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 129. Syntypes: MNHNC (21 specimens). Type locality: "la Serena", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema carbonaria Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 138. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "provincia Valdivia", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema glandulosa Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 134. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "Concepcion", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema longipes Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 137. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "Valdivia specimen attuli, et quidem e paredio meo San Juan", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema plebeya Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 136. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "provincia Coquimbo", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Recognized by Schmidt, 1954, Lunds Univ. Ärsskrift, N.F., Avd. 2, 49: 4. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema phryniscoides Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 140. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: Not stated (presumably Chile). Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema pseudophryne Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 126. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "insulis Chonos" (= Chonos Archipelago), Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501; and Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 276. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1966, Das Tierreich, 85: 155.

Pleurodema verrucosa Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 142. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "provincia Valdivia", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Secondary homonym of Pleurodema verrucosa (Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862) Parker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 476. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema fusca Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 129. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "Valdivia", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 501. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema bibroni var. gracilisPhilippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 132. Error for Pleurodema bibroni var. grandis. See Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 92.

Pleurodema frenataNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 495.

Physalaemus coquimbensisParker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 465.

Pleurodema thaulDonoso-Barros, 1969, Bol. Soc. Biol. Concepción, 41: 161-162.

English Names

Chile Four-eyed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

Distribution

Widely distributed in Chile from the north (Carrera Pinto) to the southern Nothofagus forest from sea level to the vegetation line on the western slopes of the Andes (Aysén region); in Argentina widely distributed from the western shoe of Laguna Superior de Epulafquen, Departamento Minas (Neuquen) south to the area between La Plata and La Chico lakes, Departamento Rio Senguer (Chubut), 0-2100 m elevation.

Comment

Duellman and Veloso, 1977, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 64, regarded this species as a composite of three forms. However, Rosset, Basso, and Lombardo, 2001, Alytes, 19: 154-172, performed a morphometric analysis of the different populations and could find no distinctions among them. See Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 367-372, for account. Ferraro and Casagranda, 2009, Zootaxa, 2024: 33-55, provided a detailed discussion of range in Argentina. Correa-Quezada, Riveros, Lobos, and Velásquez, 2010, Check List, 6.: 10-12, discussed the northern part of the range and mapped localities.

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