Pleurodema bibroni Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Leptodactylidae > Subfamily: Leiuperinae > Genus: Pleurodema > Species: Pleurodema bibroni

Pleurodema Bibroni Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 85. Type(s): Syntypes in MNHNP (several, not traced yet nor mentioned in MNHNP online database of specimens) according to Ortiz and Lescure, 1990 "1989", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 11: 117, and RMNH 2277 (a specimen of Pleurodema thaul), which was referred to by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 85 as "Syn. Bombinator occellatus Mus. Lugd." according to M.S. Hoogmoed in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 255 who noted that this specimen is from Valparaíso, Chile, not Monte-Video as given in the original publication. Tschudi did not explicitly mention specimens from the MNHNP. MNHNP 4501 designated lectotype by Ortiz and Lescure, 1990 "1989", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 11: 118, who provided an extensive discussion. Ferraro, 2015, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 10: 63–66, reported on the morphology of the specimen suggested that RMNH 2277 is not a type and concurred with Hoogmoed's earler determination that it represents a specimen of Pleurodema thaul. Type locality: "America merid. (Monte-Video)". Ortiz and Lescure, 1990 "1989", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 11: 118, noted the lectotype to come from "Buenos Ayres", Argentina. Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 92, suggested the type locality, apparently in error, to be "Chile (Penco, Concepción)", Chile.

Bombinator ocellatus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 85. Name proposed as an objective synonym of Pleurodema bibroni to reference jar label names of the types in the RMNH.

Bombinator ocellatus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 410. Substitute name for Pleurodema bibroni Tschudi, 1838.

Pleurodema darwinii Bell, 1843, Zool. Voyage Beagle, Part 5: 36. Syntypes: Not stated, BMNH 1947.2.17.84, according to BMNH records. Type locality: "Maldonado, near the mouth of the river La Plata", Uruguay". Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 31; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 233; Donoso-Barros, 1969, Bol. Soc. Biol. Concepción, 41: 162. (Recognized as distinct by Gallardo, 1968, Physis, Buenos Aires, 28: 140.)

Pleurodema granulosum Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 95. Syntypes: 2 specimens, presumably in the MNCN; given as MNCN 1685-1686 by González-Fernández, García-Díez, and San Segundo, 2009, Spixiana, München, 32: 276. Type locality: "Montevideo", Uruguay; given as "Cercanías de Montevideo, (Canelones, Uruguay)" by González-Fernández, García-Díez, and San Segundo, 2009, Spixiana, München, 32: 276. Synonymy by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 217. Formerly considered a synonym of Physalaemus fuscomaculatus by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 233, and Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 345. Transferred to this synonymy by XXX.

Paludicola darwiniiBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 231.

Paludicola bibroniiBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 231.

Pleurodema darwiniiNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 496. Parker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 474; Gallardo, 1968, Physis, Buenos Aires, 28: 135.

Pleurodema bibroni var. brevipes Philippi In Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 273. Nomen nudum. Unpublished figure (Plate 9, fig. 6) from Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile, published in 1958, so therefore not a description by indication. Types: MNHNC. Type locality: "Santiago", Chile. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 265-288.

Pleurodema brevipesCei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 275.

English Names

Four-eyed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

Distribution

Southern Uruguay (with an isolated record in northern Uruguay) and southwestern Paraná and northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and presumably in at least the western part of Santa Catarina, Brazil. 0-1100 m elevation.

Comment

This species was long confused with Pleurodema thaul, until the work of Donoso-Barros, 1969, Bol. Soc. Biol. Concepción, 41: 161-162. See Braun, 1973, Iheringia, Zool., 44: 28-31, for Brazilian distribution. See Barrio, 1977, Physis, Buenos Aires, 37: 311-331, for review, distribution, and biology. See comment under Pleurodema kriegi. Duellman, 1993, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 21: 128, suggested that the generic name is neuter. See brief account by Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 197-199. Achaval and Olmos, 2003, Anf. Rept. Uruguay, ed. 2: 33, provided a brief account and photograph for the Uruguay population. Natale and Maneyro, 2008, Check List, 4: 47-49, reported on recently-collected specimens (the first since 1982). See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 623. Kolenc, Borteiro, Baldo, Ferraro, and Prigioni, 2009, Zootaxa, 1969: 1-35, reported on larval morphology and provided a distribution map. Trein, Lima, Ulandowski, and Morato, 2014, Check List, 10: 417–418, provided a range extension to Paraná, Brazil. 

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