Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Pseudinae > Genus: Pseudis > Species: Pseudis paradoxa

Rana paradoxa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 212. Syntypes: Animals figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 78, by original designation, and NHRM 144-148, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 199. Type locality: "Surinami".

Rana piscatrix Fermin, 1765, Hist. Nat. Hollande Equinox.: 15. Type(s): Not designated nor known to exist. Type locality: "Hollande Equinoxiale" (= Surinam). Reported as a substitute name for Rana paradoxa Linnaeus, 1758, by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 199; there is no mention of the latter in Fermin's publication (DRF). Synonymy by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 199. Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works by Opinion 660 (Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 187-190).

Rana piscis Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12, 1(1): 356. Substitute name for Rana paradoxa. Synonymy by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 67.

Proteus raninus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 36. Type(s): By indication frogs illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 78, and a plate (number not stipulated) in volume 2. as well as specimens referenced by Merian, 1705, Diss. Generat. Metamorph. Insect. Surinam.: 71. Type locality: "Surinami". Synonymy by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 67; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 164; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 330; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 5.

Rana jackia Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 5. Type(s): Based on Linnaeus, 1764, Mus. Adophi Friderici, 2: 40 [which = Rana paradoxa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 212, according to Linnaeus, 1764]. Type locality: "Surinam". Presumably a substitute name for Rana paradoxa Linnaeus (DRF; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 67, and Cuvier, 1817, Regne Animal., 2: 93, give the common name for Rana paradoxa as "La Jakie" and the latter cites Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 78, which includes an illustration of a Pseudis tadpole. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 306, 458, considers "la Jackie" to be Rana paradoxa Linnaeus.) Synonymy by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 330. Pseudis paradoxaWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 203.

Pseudes paradoxaWiegmann, 1832, in Wiegmann and Ruthe (eds.), Handbuch der Zool., Amph.: 201. Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 146; Leunis, 1860, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 2: 148.

Pseudis merianae Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 330. Syntypes: MNHNP 587, 4351, 4353, 4355-56, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 25, as well as animals illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 78, figs. 15-21, and other illustrations and indications listed by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 330. Type locality: "Surinam". A substitute name for Rana paradoxa Linnaeus, 1758. Synonymy by Troschel, 1848, in Schomburgk (ed.), Reisen Britisch-Guiana, 3: 659; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 5. Published as a junior synonym of Rana paradoxa Linnaeus, 1758, and therefore unavailable under Art. 1.6.1 (International Code of Zoological Nomenclature—1999).

Batrachythys paradoxaPizarro, 1876, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 1: 34.

Pseudis paradoxusSavage and Carvalho, 1953, Zoologica, New York, 38: 193-200.

Pseudis paradoxus paradoxusGallardo, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 125: 114.

Pseudis paradoxus caribensis Gallardo, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 125: 116. Holotype: MCZ 19890, by original designation. Type locality: "Mayaro Bay, Trinidad, B.W.I."

Pseudis paradoxus nicefori Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 89. Holotype: MHNLS 443, by original designation. "Montería, [Departament of] Córdoba, Colombia".

Pseudis paradoxa caribensisMurphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 95.

English Names

Paradoxical Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 120; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 152; Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 146).

Jackie (Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 79).

Jacky (Anonymous, 1837, Synops. Contents Brit. Mus., Ed. 32: 23).

Proteus Frog (Barnes, 1826, Am. J. Sci. Arts, 11: 275).

Paradox Frog (common usage).

Swimming Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 97).

Distribution

Lower Río Magdalena Valley as well as Arauca and Meta in Colombia; Guianas from northeastern Venezuela east through Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana to the mouth of the Amazon, thence west in the Amazon Valley to northern Bolivia and southeastern Peru; Trinidad.

Comment

Six subspecies were recognized by Gallardo, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 125: 111-134; an isolated population in lower Río Magdalena Valley, Colombia was recognized as a seventh subspecies by Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 89. (Three of these taxa, Pseudis paradoxa fusca, Pseudis paradoxa bolbodactyla, and Pseudis paradoxa platensis, subsequently were considered distinct species.) See Duellman and Salas, 1991, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 143: 5, and Morales and Chandler, 1992, Caribb. J. Sci., 28: 224-226, for Peru records. De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 52, discussed subspecific variation in Bolivia (presumably also including Pseudis platensis). Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 284-285, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 63-66, and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 95-96, provided brief account for Trinidad. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 85, commented on range in Venezuela. Rojas-Runjaic, Barros-Blanco, and Infante-Rivero, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 334, provided a record for Trujillo (state) in Venezuela and briefly discussed the range. See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 170-173.See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 414-415, for brief account and records for Guyana. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 42–44, described, diagnosed, and pictured the larva. 

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