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Limnonectes Fitzinger, 1843

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Limnonectes
61 species

Limnonectes Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Type species: Rana kuhlii Tschudi, 1838, by original designation.

Elachyglossa Andersson, 1916, K. Svensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 55: 13. Type species: Elachyglossa gyldenstolpei Andersson, 1916, by monotypy. Placement as subgenus of Limnonectes by Ohler and Dubois, 1999, Zool. Scripta, 23: 269-279. Without discussion, treated as a distinct genus within Limnonectini by Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 16.

Bourretia Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 61. Type species: Rana toumanoffi Bourret, 1941, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Limnonectes. Synonymy with subgenus Elachyglossa by Ohler and Dubois, 1999, Zool. Scripta, 23: 269-279.

Taylorana Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 63. Type species: Polypedates hascheanus Stoliczka, 1870, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Limnonectes Fitzinger. See comment. Synonymy with Bourretia by Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 243. Without discussion, treated as a distinct genus within Limnonectini by Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 16.

Liurana Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 65-66. Type species: Cornufer xizangensis Hu, 1977, by original designation. Suggested as a subgenus of Ingerana. Treated as a synonym of Ingerana by Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 236. Treated as a synonym of Taylorana by Borah, Bordoloi, Purkayastha, Das, Dubois, and Ohler, 2013, Herpetozoa, 26: 45. 

Liurana — Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1997, Cultum Herpetol. Sinica, 6–7: 77-79. Treated as a distinct genus.

Incertae Sedis

Limnonectes abditus Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Java. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes torajae Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 885. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sulawesi. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes minagkabau Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 885. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sulawesi. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes swarnae Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 885. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sumatra. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes inflatus Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sulawesi. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes parjatmoi Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 885. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sumatra. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes morowali Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 885. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sulawesi. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes bosschai Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sumtra. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes acuticeps Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sumatra. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes crybetes Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Malaya and Sumatra. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes saxeus Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 885. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Java. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes barisan Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sumatra. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes bassi Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Borneo. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes tumpang Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 885. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sulawesi. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

Limnonectes larviparus Inger and Voris, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 884. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: Not given beyond Sulawesi. Nomen nudum attributed to D. T. Iskandar.

English Names

Wart Frogs (Limnonectes: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 99).

Gyldenstolpe's Frogs (Elachyglossa [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 98).

Taylor's Frogs (Taylorana: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 110).

Distribution

Asia from southern and eastern and southern China (including Hainan I.), south through Indochina to the the Sundas to Timor I.; New Guinea; southern Japan; Philippines.

Comment

Formerly placed in the subfamily Raninae, tribe Dicroglossini by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 57; subfamily Dicroglossinae, tribe Limnonectini, by Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315. Considered a subgenus of Rana by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 225-284, equivalent to the Rana kuhlii group of Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 3. Elevated from subgeneric status under Rana by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 60-64, who recognized five subgenera: Bourretia Dubois, 1987 (now a synonym of Limnonectes), Fejervarya Bolkay, 1915 (now treated a distinct genus), Hoplobatrachus Peters, 1863 (now treated a distinct genus), Limnonectes Fitzinger, 1843, and Taylorana Dubois, 1987 "1986" (now a synonym of Limnonectes). Emerson and Berrigan, 1993, Herpetologica, 49: 22-31, discussed phylogeny within this group (as the subgenus Limnonectes, within Rana) and disagreed with the taxonomy of this group proposed by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5. Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 244, suggested that Fejervarya be excluded from Limnonectes, Taylorana should be synonymized with Bourretia, and that the Limnonectes microdiscus group should be recognized generically, although demurred from proposing a name for this group pending completion of additional work. Das, 1996, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 2: 127-134, provided a key to the species of Nicobars, the Malay Peninsula, and the Sundas. Emerson, Inger, and Iskandar, 2000, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 16: 131-141, reported on phylogenetics of the group and considered the taxon to be a subgenus of Rana and rejected the sub-taxa of Dubois as nonmonophyletic. Emerson, Inger, and Iskandar, 2000, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 16: 131-142, addressed the taxon via molecular evidence and defined four species groups, the Limnonectes kuhlii group, the Limonectes pileata group, the Limnonectes blythii group, and a group restricted to Sulawesi and the Philippines; they also suggested that Limnonectes as presently constructed (sensu Dubois) is paraphyletic with respect to Occidozyga. Taylorana Dubois, 1987, was removed from status as a subgenus of Limnonectes to generic status within the subfamily Dicroglossinae, tribe Ceratobatrachini, by Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 314. Inger, 1996, Herpetologica, 52: 243, disputed that character support of this assignment and suggested on the basis of a study by Emerson and Berrigan, 1993, Herpetologica, 49: 22-31, that Taylorana is part of a lineage which includes species within Dubois' subgenus Bourretia of Limnonectes. Dubois, Ohler, and Biju, 2001, Alytes, 19: 55, retained Taylorana without addressing the paraphyly of Limnonectes. Dubois and Ohler, 2001, Alytes, 19: 82, noted that Elachyglossa should replace Bourretia as the subgeneric name for that subgenus in Limnonectes. Evans, Brown, McGuire, Supriatna, Andayani, Diesmos, Iskandar, Melnick, and Cannatella, 2004, Syst. Biol., 52: 794-819, reported on phylogenetics of the group and provided an extensive discussion of the evidentiary issues of previous taxonomies and biogeographic scenarios. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 140, provided a key for species of Borneo. Zhang, Nie, Peng, Ge, Wang, Xu, and Tang, 2005, Acta Zool. Sinica, 51: 354-359, reported on a mtDNA phylogenetic study of Chinese Limnonectes. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 3: 1328-1345, provided accounts and range maps for the species of China. McLeod, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 991-1000, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex and noted several unnamed species. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences confirmed the monophyly of this taxon, its position as sister taxon of Nanorana + Quasipaa, and an estimate of phylogeny for exemplar species. Borah, Bordoloi, Purkayastha, Das, Dubois, and Ohler, 2013, Herpetozoa, 26: 39-48, discussed taxonomy of this group and reallocated some poorly known species to Limnonectes on the basis of morphological similarity. Additionally, they attempted to resurrect Taylorana although recognition would require the paraphyly of Limnonectes sensu stricto. 

Contained taxa (61 sp.):

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