Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Hoplobatrachus > Species: Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

Rana tigerina Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 64. Holotype: Animal figured on pl. 20, of the original; originally in MNHNP, now lost. Type locality: "Bengale", India.

Rana tigrinaMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 174; Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 192; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 9. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana picta Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 39. Type(s): "museo Lampeano", current status unknown. Type locality: Unknown. Synonymy by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 376; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 10; provisional synonymy by Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 17. Primary homonym of Rana picta Gravenhorst, 1807, if not identical (see record in incertae sedis at level of Anura—DRF.)

Rana gracilis var. pulla Stoliczka, 1870, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 39: 139. Holotype: ZSIC 3529 according to Sclater, 1892, List Batr. Indian Mus.: 5; lost, according to Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 155. Type locality: "small pool of water at a height of about 2,000 feet on the Penang hill". Preoccupied by Rana pullus Smith, 1921. Considered a synonym of Rana limnocharis by Boulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 450, although Sclater, 1892, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1892: 344, considered it to be based on a juvenile Rana tigerina. Considered a nomen dubium by Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 155. Considered incertae sedis within Hoplobatrachus or Fejervarya by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 60; without discussion.

Rana tigerinaBarbour, 1912, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 44: 63.

Rana (Fejervarya) tigrinaBolkay, 1915, Anat. Anz., 48: 175.

Rana (Rana) tigrinaBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 6.

Dicroglossus tigrinusDeckert, 1938, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1938: 138.

Rana tigrina tigrinaSmith, 1940, Rec. Indian Mus., 42: 465-486.

Rana tigerina tigerinaMertens, 1969, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., 197: 17.

Rana (Dicroglossus) tigerina tigerinaDubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 341-411.

Rana (Euphlyctis) tigerinaDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 239, by implication.

Euphlyctis tigerinaPoynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 27: 124, by implication.

Limnonectes (Hoplobatrachus) tigerinusDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59.

Tigrina tigrinaFei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 144. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the species name.

Hoplobatrachus tigerinusDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315.

English Names

Turkey Frog (Rana malabarica [no longer recognized]: Jerdon, 1853, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 22: 531).

Malabar Bull Frog (Rana malabarica: Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 191).

Golden Frog (Rana tigerina: Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 192).

Bull Frog (Jerdon, 1853, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 22: 531).

Indian Bull Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 129; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 38; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 35).

Tiger Frog (Minton, 1966, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 54; Khan, 1979, Biologia, Lahore, 25: 46; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 79).

Tiger Peters Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 99).

Indian Bullfrog (CITES; Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 188).


Low to moderate elevations in Nepal, Bhutan, western and central Myanmar through Bangladesh and India to northern Pakistan and south to the Western Ghats; northeastern Afghanistan; introduced on Madagascar.


In the Hoplobatrachus tigerinus group of Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315 (following Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 60). See also Dubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 341-411. Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 148, noted that previous Chinese records of Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (as Rana tigerina) were based on specimens of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (formerly known as Rana tigerina rugulosa). See account by Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 99-103. Choudhury, Hussain, Buruah, Saikia, and Sengupta, 2002, Hamadryad, 26: 278, commented on the range in Assam, India. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 136-141, provided a brief account (as Rana tigerina). Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 234-243, provided an account for the Nepal population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 78-79. Andreone, Glaw, Nussbaum, Raxworthy, Vences, and Randrianirina, 2003, J. Nat. Hist., London, 37: 2119-2149, discussed the occurrence of this species on Nosy Be. Glaw and Vences, 2007, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Madagascar, Ed. 3: 98, provided a brief account for Madagascar. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 85-86, provided a brief account for West Bengal, India. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 119-120, provided range in India, comments on misidentifications in the literature, and a partial bibliography. Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 60-62, provided an account for Pakistan. Ao, Bordoloi, and Ohler, 2003, Zoos' Print J., 18: 1117-1125, provided a specific locality for Nagaland, northeastern India. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 188-191, provided an account for peninsular India. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317-324, provided a record (as Limnonectes tigerinus) for Manipur, northeastern India. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 38, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 35-36, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Mahony, Hasan, Kabir, Ahmed, and Hossain, 2009, Hamadryad, 34: 80-94. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 55, for brief account for Nepal. Hasan, Islam, Khan, Alam, Kurabayashi, Igawa, Kuramoto, and Sumida, 2012, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 29: 162-172, using molecular techniques reported genetic distances as high as 6% among samples within Bangladesh, suggesting cryptic species diversity (including what is now Hoplobatrachus litoralis). The recognition of two species from the region of the imprecise type locality (Bengale) will likely require recognition of a neotype. Masroor, 2012, Contr. Herpetol. N. Pakistan: 62–64, provided an account for northern Pakistan. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 54–55, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala, India. See Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 7–8, for Sikkim, India, records. 

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