Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Dicroglossidae > Subfamily: Dicroglossinae > Genus: Euphlyctis > Species: Euphlyctis hexadactylus

Rana hexadactyla Lesson, 1834, in Bélanger (ed.), Voy. Indes-Orientales N. Eur. Caucase Georgie Perse, Zool.: 331. Type(s): Not stated; presumably originally in MNHNP. Type locality: "Pondichéry"; Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 37, gives data for a paratype (MNHNP 4363) as "Bengale" although this is not mentioned in the original publication.

Dactylethra bengalensis Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 339. Name attributed incorrectly to Lesson, 1834, in Bélanger (ed.), Voy. Indes-Orientales N. Eur. Caucase Georgie Perse, Zool.: 331 (who used Bufo bengalensis Daudin in a different sense). Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 17.

Rana cutipora Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 338. Substitute name for Rana hexadactyla Lesson, 1834.

Rana saparoua Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 338. Substitute name for Rana hexadactyla Lesson, 1834.

Rana robusta Blyth, 1855 "1854", J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 23: 298. Syntypes: Not stated; ZSIC 9123-24 according to Sclater, 1892, List Batr. Indian Mus.: 2. Type locality: "Ceylon". Synonymy with Rana cutipora by Blyth, 1856 "1855", J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 24: 720. Synonymy with Rana hexadactyla by Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 405; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 17.

Phrynoderma cutiporumFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 414.

Rana (Rana) hexadactylaBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 5. Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 37.

Rana (Dicroglossus) hexadactylaDubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 341-411.

Rana (Euphlyctis) hexadactylaDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 240.

Euphlyctis hexadactylaPoynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 27: 124, by implication.

Occidozyga (Euphlyctis) hexadactylaDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 59.

Euphlyctis hexadactylusDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 315.

English Names

Indian Five-fingered Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 99).

Six-toed Frog (Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 79).

Six-toe Green Frog (de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 68).

Indian Pond Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 123; Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 182; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 29).

Indian Bullfrog (CITES).

Indian Green Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 64; Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 182).

Green Pond Frog (Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 81).

Distribution

Coast plain of India, from Tripura through Bangladesh to Tamil Nadu and Manipur, northeastern India; Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan; Sri Lanka.

Comment

See accounts by Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 12; Mondal, 1970, Sci. Cult., Calcutta, 36: 138-143; Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 26-29, and Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 116-119. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 114, provided a brief account (as Rana hexadactyla). Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 79, rejected all records of Euphlyctis hexadactylus from Nepal as likely based on misidentified Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis. See brief accounts by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 81-83, and Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 84-85. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 116-117, provided the distribution in India, a record for Pakistan, a partial bibliography, and a systematic comment. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 182-185, provided a brief account for peninsular India. Ningombam and Bordoloi, 2007, Zoos' Print J., 22: 2688-2690, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Nair and Kumar, 2005, Cobra, Chennai, 60: 18-25, reported on aspects of external variation in a population from Karnataka, India. Sen and Mathew, 2004, Cobra, Chennai, 55: 1-4, discussed the morphological distinctiveness of Euphlyctis hexadactylus from Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis. Alam, Igawa, Khan, Islam, Kuramoto, Matsui, Kurabayashi, and Sumida, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 515-527, suggested that Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi Euphlyctis hexadactylus are not conspecific; and that several unnamed parapatric taxa exist in the Western Ghats of South India; the oldest name for the Sri Lankan population is Rana robusta Blyth (DRF). Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 29, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Mahony, Hasan, Kabir, Ahmed, and Hossain, 2009, Hamadryad, 34: 80-94, provided the first vouchered records for the species in Bangladesh and discussed the range. de Silva, 2009, Amph. Rep. Sri Lanka Photograph. Guide: 68, provided a brief account and color photograph for Sri Lanka. Bopage, Wewelwala, Krvavac, Jovanovic, Safarek, and Pushpamal, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 173-177, reported the species in lowland forest in the Kanneliya Forest of southwestern Sri Lanka. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 53, noted the dubious status of old records for Nepal. Hasan, Islam, Khan, Alam, Kurabayashi, Igawa, Kuramoto, and Sumida, 2012, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 29: 162-172, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that populations in Bangladesh represent a different cryptic species that the South India (including the type locality) population. Rana and Selim, 2016, Herpetol. Rev., 47: 247, provided a record from Sonankandi, Narayangani District, Dhaka Division, Bangladesh and discussed the known range in Bangladesh.  Priti, Naik, Seshadri, Singal, Vidisha, Ravikanth, and Gururaja, 2016, Asian Herpetol. Res., 7: 229–241, suggested on the basis of molecular data and morphology that nominal Euphlyctis hexadactylus represents a species complex, of which they named the distinctive population from coastal Karnataka, India, as Euphlyctis karaavali. 

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