Dendrobates tinctorius (Cuvier, 1797)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Dendrobatoidea > Family: Dendrobatidae > Subfamily: Dendrobatinae > Genus: Dendrobates > Species: Dendrobates tinctorius

Rana tinctoria Cuvier, 1797 "An. VI", Tabl. Element. Hist. Nat. Animaux: 295. Type(s): Not designated, although likely orginally in MNHNP. Type locality: "Amérique". Placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 2009, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 66: 103-105.

Calamita tinctorius Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 175. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist; LACM 43927 designated neotype by Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 47. Type locality: "Americae meridionalis"; neotype from "lower Rivière Matarony (Approuague drainage), Bruynzeel lumber camp, French Guiana, 35 m." (see comment).

Hyla tinctoriaDaudin, 1800, Hist. Nat. Quad. Ovip., Livr. 1: 7. Latreille IN Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 170; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 25.

Rana tinctoriaShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 135.

Calamita tinctoriusMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 169.

Hylaplesia tinctoria —Boie in Schlegel, 1826, Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., Paris, Ser. 2, 9: 239.

Dendrobates tinctoriusWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 202. Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 143.

Dendrobates tinctorius var. daudini Steindachner, 1864, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 14: 262. Types: Based on animal figured by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: pl. 8, fig. 1, by original designation. Type locality: Not designated. Synonymy by Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 11.

Dendrobates machadoi Bokermann, 1958, Neotropica, 4: 73. Holotype: WCAB 3083, by original designation; now in MZUSP. Type locality: "Serra do Navio, Territorio Federal de Amapa, Brasil". Synonymy by Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 11.

Dendrobates azureus Hoogmoed, 1969, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 44: 134. Holotype: RMNH 13837A, by original designation. Type locality: "Sipaliwini, forest island on western slope Vier Gebroeders Mountain, 2° N 55° 58′ W, Surinam". Synonymy by Wollenberg, Veith, Noonan, and Lötters, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 623-629.

Dendrobates tinctorumSilverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 11. Typographic error.

Dendrobates tinctorius azureusOuboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 106.

English Names

Tinging Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 135; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 175).

Dyeing Poison-arrow Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 50).

Dyeing Poison Frog (Walls, 1994, Jewels of the Rainforest: 24; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 50).

Blue Poison Frog (Dendrobates azureus [no longer recognized]: Walls, 1994, Jewels of the Rainforest: 20; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 49).

Blue Poison-arrow Frog (Dendrobates azureus [no longer recognized]:Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 48).

Giant Poison Frog (Dendrobates azureus [no longer recognized]:CITES).

Distribution

Lowland forests of the Guianas and adjacent Brazil.

Comment

The nomenclatural history of this species was reviewed by Lescure, 1976, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 377: 484-486. Hoogmoed, 1971, Aquar. Terrar. Z., 24: 1-7, discussed distribution in Surinam. Problems associated with the neotype designation were discussed by Lescure, 1982, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 39: 267. See account by Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 45-49. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 88-91, provided a brief account and photo. Wollenberg, Veith, Noonan, and Lötters, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 623-629, discussed polymorphism and geographic genic variation. Noonan and Gaucher, 2006, Mol. Ecol., 15: 4425-4435, reported on geographic genic variation and the marks on this of vicariant biogeography. Lötters, Jungfer, Henkel, and Schmidt, 2007, Poison Frogs: 546-558, provided an account. Wollenberg, Lötters, Mora-Ferrer, and Veith, 2008, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 93: 433-444, reported on color pattern variation and evolution. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as nominal Dendrobates azureus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 228. Avila-Pires, Hoogmoed, and Rocha, 2010, Bol. Mus. Parense Emilio Goeldi, Cienc. Nat., 5: 48, disputed the synonymy of Dendrobates azureus by way of the argument that the Wollenberg et al., 2008, molecular and morphometric data, favoring synonymy, might be wrong, but without offering counter-evidence beyond opinion. See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 102-107.See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 392-393, for brief account and records for Guyana.

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