Allobates femoralis (Boulenger, 1884)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Dendrobatoidea > Family: Aromobatidae > Subfamily: Allobatinae > Genus: Allobates > Species: Allobates femoralis

Prostherapis femoralis Boulenger, 1884 "1883", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883: 635. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.14.21-22; UMMZ 48070 considred a "cotype" (presumably exchanged from BMNH) by Peters, 1952, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 539: 21. BMNH 1947.2.14.21 designated lectotype by Silverstone, 1976, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 27: 31. Type locality: "Yurimaguas, Huallaga River, [Loreto,] Northern Peru".

Phyllobates femoralisBarbour and Noble, 1920, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63: 401; Silverstone, 1976, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 27: 5.

Dendrobates femoralisMyers, Daly, and Malkin, 1978, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 161: 332.

Epipedobates femoralisMyers, 1987, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 36: 303.

Allobates femoralisZimmermann and Zimmermann, 1988, Salamandra, 24: 137; Clough and Summers, 2000, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 70: 515-540.

Allobates femoralisGrant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 162.

English Names

Brilliant-thighed Poison Frog (Walls, 1994, Jewels of the Rainforest: 25; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 50).

Brilliant-thighed Poison-arrow Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 49).

Distribution

Lowland forests of eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana, and of the Amazon drainage of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil; dense forests of the Napo and Pastaza drainages of Ecuador, east of the Andes; southern Cordillera Oriental of Peru.

Comment

See comment under Phyllobates aurotaenia (Dendrobatidae). Clough and Summers, 2000, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 70: 515-540, suggested that Allobates femoralis is likely a species complex as well as the sister taxon of the toxic dendrobatids, although this latter point is not consistent with the results of Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 94-95, provided a brief account (as Epipedobates femoralis) and photo. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 17–18, provided a brief account as Epipedobates femoralis.  Schulte, 1999, Pfeilgiftfrösche: 253-260, provided an account. See De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 29, for Bolivian record. Barrio-Amorós, 2004, Rev. Ecol. Latino Am., 9: 9, reported on distribution and noted that the record for Amazonian Venezuela was based on a specimen of Epipedobates guanayensis (now Ameerega picta). See account by Lötters, Jungfer, Henkel, and Schmidt, 2007, Poison Frogs: 304-310. Amézquita, Lima, Jehle, Castellanos, Ramos, Crawford, Gasser, and Hödl, 2009, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 98: 826-838, reported on geographic variation in calls, morphology, and molecular markers. Simões, Lima, and Farias, 2010, Zootaxa, 2406: 1-28, noted that populations in the state of Acre are more closely related to Allobates hodli than to more distant populations of nominal Allobates femoralis. Barrio-Amorós and Santos, 2010, Check List, 6: 208–209, provided records for the state of Bolívar, eastern Venezuela. See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 20-22. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 370, for brief account of population in Guyana. Simões, Lima, and Farias, 2012, Conserv. Genetics, 13: 1145–1159, reported on a hybrid zone in western Amazonia with Allobates hodli. Grant, Rada, Anganoy-Criollo, Batista, Dias, Jeckel, Machado, and Rueda-Almonacid, 2017, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 12 (Special Issue): 1–90, provided phylogenetic results that suggests that nominal Allobates femoralis is composed of several lineages, some of which are closer to other species. 

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