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Holoadeninae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008
Holoadeninae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 97. Type genus: Holoaden Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920.
Pacific lowlands of Ecuador and southern Colombia; in the Andes of southern Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, and in the Amazon Basin of Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and adjacent Brazil; Atlantic coastal forests in southeastern Brazil.
Association of Atopophrynus, Dischidodactylus, Euparkerella, and Geobatrachus was made provisionally with this taxon by Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 1-182, substantially on the basis of geography (p. 97). Padial, Castroviejo-Fisher, and De la Riva, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 52: 911-915, provided molecular evidence for the monophyly of the group. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, redelimited the group, suggested that it might be the sister taxon of Pristimantinae, and excluded taxa not included on the basis of character evidence. Canedo and Haddad, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 610-620, suggested that Strabomantinae may be the sister taxon of Holoadeninae. Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 53, transferred Hypodactylus, Lynchius, Oreobates, and Phrynopus into this subfamily, noted that no morphological synapomorphies are apparent although they did discuss relationships uncovered by molecular analysis that had been previously discovered by study of morphology.
Contained taxa (117 sp.):
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