Sclerophrys pusilla (Mertens, 1937)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Sclerophrys > Species: Sclerophrys pusilla

Bufo regularis pusillus Mertens, 1937, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 435: 17. Holotype: SMF 22247 by original designation and according to Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 40. Type locality: "Leteba-Camp, [Kruger National Park,] Gr. Letaba-River, Ost Transvaal", Limpopo Province, South Africa. Synonymy of Tandy and Keith, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 119-170.

Bufo pusillus — Pienaar, 1963, Koedoe, 6: 78; Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 53; Poynton, 1969 "1966", Mem. Inst. Invest. Cient. Moçambique, Ser. A, Cienc. Biol., 8: 15.

Bufo latifrons savannae Inger, 1968, Explor. Parc Natl. Garamba, Miss. H. de Saeger, 52: 30. Holotype: MRAC 73067 B 765, by original designation. Type locality: "source of the Nabakoyo River, Parc National de la Garamba, Congo [= Dem. Rep. Congo], at approximately 750 m". Synonymy with Bufo maculatus by Tandy and Keith, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 159. Synonymy by implication of Poynton, Loader, Conradie, Rödel, and Liedtke, 2016, Zootaxa, 4098: 73_94. 

Bufo maculatus pusillus — Hulselmans, 1970, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 81: 149-154.

Sclerophrys pusilla — Poynton, Loader, Conradie, Rödel, and Liedtke, 2016, Zootaxa, 4098: 84. 

English Names

Merten's Striped Toad (Pienaar, 1963, Koedoe, 6: 78).

Lesser Square-marked Toad (Broadley, 1971, Puku, 6: 108; Broadley, 1973, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 10: 22; Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 70).

Flat-backed Toad (Stewart and Wilson, 1966, Ann. Natal Mus., 18: 298; Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 70; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 84; Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 78; Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.:146).

Striped Toad (Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 70, as Bufo maculata).

Spotted Toad (Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 14, as Bufo maculata).

Lesser Cross-marked Toad (Bufo pusillusLambiris, 1990 "1989", Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 10: 52, as Bufo maculata).

Distribution

Generally in humid savanna and forest-edge from southern Cameroon south to the coast of Rep. Congo and eastern through Central African Rep. through South Sudan to southwestern Ethiopia, thence south though eastern Dem. Rep. Congo and Uganda to Mozambique and northeastern Rep. South Africa, east through Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbagwe to Angola and northern Namibia. 

Comment

Poynton, Loader, Conradie, Rödel, and Liedtke, 2016, Zootaxa, 4098: 73–93, removed Sclerophrys pusilla from the synonymy of Sclerophrys maculata and redescribed the holotype of this species.  See comments under Sclerophrys maculata for relevant literature. Angola records in Poynton and Haacke, 1993, Ann. Transvaal Mus., 36: 1-16 (as Bufo maculata). Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 460-463, discussed the uncertainty of the synonymy of Bufo pusillus with Bufo maculatus, citing immunological evidence of Maxson, 1981, Herpetologica, 37: 96-104. See also Lambiris, 1988, Lammergeyer, 39: 51, who recognized Bufo pusillus, and Channing, 1989, Lammergeyer, 40: 1, who disputed Lambiris' conclusion. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 47-53, Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 84, Lötters, Wagner, Bwong, Schick, Malonza, Muchai, Wasonga, and Veith, 2007, Fieldguide Amph. Rept. Kakamega Forest: 14-15, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 146-147, provided accounts (as Bufo maculata). SeeLargen, 2001, Tropical Zool., 14: 320-321, for comments on distribution (as Bufo maculata). Frétey and Blanc, 2001, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 126: 380, reported this species from Gabon. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 85-86, provided an account. Wanger, 2005, Salamandra, 41: 27-33, provided Gambia records. Boycott, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 69-71, provided an account (as Bufo maculatus) for South Africa. Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 541-545, provided a discussion of biology and taxonomy and doubted the distinctiveness of Bufo pusillus from Bufo maculatusJackson and Blackburn, 2007, Salamandra, 43: 149-164, provided a record for Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Rep. Congo (as Bufo maculatus). Jacobsen, 2009, Afr. Herp News, 47: 2-20, reported this species from east-north-central Central African Republic  (as Bufo maculatus). See account (as Bufo maculatus), photograph, and map for Ethiopia by Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 82-83. Mercurio, 2011, Amph. Malawi: 122-126, provided an account  (as Bufo maculatus) for Malawi. Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 110–111, provided a brief account  (as Bufo maculatus). Portik, Mulungu, Sequeira, and McEntee, 2013, Herpetol. Rev., 44: 395, provided records (as Bufo maculatus) for Niassa and Zambézia provinces, Mozambique. Ohler and Frétey, 2014, J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist., 103: 82, provided a brief account for northern Mozambique (as Bufo maculatus).   

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