Sclerophrys garmani (Meek, 1897)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Sclerophrys > Species: Sclerophrys garmani

Bufo garmani Meek, 1897, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 1: 176. Syntypes: FMNH 415, MCZ 19082 (on exchange from FMNH, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1946, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 96: 83). Type locality: "Haili" (= Haileh), foot of Gobis range about 30 mi. southeast of Berbera, Somalia; corrected to "Halleh, British Somaliland", by Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 55. (Note—the discussion of the type locality in the original text suggests that the true type locality could be anywhere within 20 miles of the stated type locality—DRF.)

Bufo regularis humbensis Monard, 1937 "1936", Bull. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat., 62: 26. Syntypes: MHNB and MCZ 23712 (on exchange from MHNB according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1946, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 96: 84). Type locality: "Mulondo", Angola. Transferred from the synonymy of Bufo regularis to Bufo garmani by Tandy and Keith, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 159.

Bufo pseudogarmani Hulselmans, 1969, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 79: 393-402. Holotype: SMF 46403, by original designation. Type locality: "Goanikontes, S. W. Africa [= Namibia]". Synonymy by Tandy and Keith, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 159; Channing, 1972, Cimbebasia, Windhoek, Ser. A, 2: 93-96. Synonymy discussed by Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 455-459.

Bufo garmani pseudogarmaniMertens, 1971, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 529: 6.

Bufo garmani garmaniMertens, 1971, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 529: 6.

Bufo bisidanae Hulselmans, 1977, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 91: 407. Holotype: BMNH 1969.101, by original designation. Type locality: "River Bisidana, East of Harrar (Ethiopia), 1500 m". Synonymy by Tandy, Bogart, Largen, and Feener, 1982, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 17: 3. Not included in synonymy presented by Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 455.

Amietophrynus garmaniFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Sclerophrys garmani  Ohler and Dubois, 2016, PeerJ, 4(e1553): 9.

English Names

Garman's Toad (Broadley, 1971, Puku, 6: 110; Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 39; Lambiris, 1990 "1989", Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 10: 57; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 72; Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 74).

Olive Toad (Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 72; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 39).

Northern Mottled Toad (Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 72).

Light-nosed Toad (Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 72).

Garman's Square-marked Toad (Broadley, 1973, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 10: 22; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 72).

Garman's Square-backed Toad (Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 74 [alternative name]).

Eastern Olive Toad (Turner, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 65; Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 140).

Distribution

In disjunct populations in East Africa from Ethiopia and northern Somalia south to northeastern parts of the Rep. South Africa, and eastern Caprivi Strip of Namibia, also likely in extreme eastern Angola (see comment) .

Comment

Removed from the synonymy of Bufo regularis by Mertens, 1971, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 529: 6, where it had been placed by Boulenger, 1898, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 18: 716. Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 455-459, discussed the taxonomic problems among Bufo poweri, Bufo garmani, and Bufo pseudogarmani. See Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 72, for account, who noted that the relationship of this taxon with Bufo poweri is not clear. See Largen, 2001, Tropical Zool., 14: 315-316, for comments on habitat and distribution as well as the suggestion that populations from south of Tanzania (within which this species has only been recorded in the far north-northeast) are possibly a distinct species. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 74-75, provided an account for East Africa. Turner, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 65-67, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 140-141, provided brief accounts for southern Africa. Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 521-525, regarded populations of Amietophrynus garmani (as Bufo) from Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to be referrable to Amietophrynus poweri (as Bufo). See comment by Broadley, 2007, Afr. J. Herpetol., 56: 175-177, regarding the assignment of southern African populations to Amietophrynus poweri (as Bufo). See account (as Bufo garmani), photograph, and map for Ethiopia by Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 87. Mercurio, 2011, Amph. Malawi: 110-115, provided an account for Malawi and discussed the issue of relationship with Amietophrynus poweriHarper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 104–105, provided a brief account.

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