Schismaderma carens (Smith, 1848)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Schismaderma > Species: Schismaderma carens

Bufo carens Smith, 1848, Illust. Zool. S. Afr., 3 (Part 27): pl. 68, fig. 1 and facing page. Syntypes: BMNH 65.5.11.124-126, 58.11.25.91-93, according to A.G.C. Grandison IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 76. Type locality: "Interior of Southern Africa".

Schismaderma lateralis Smith, 1849, Illust. Zool. S. Afr., 3 (Part 28, Errata sheet): 1 p. and Smith, 1849, Illust. Zool. S. Afr., 3 (Appendix): 28. Replacement name for Bufo carens.

Schismaderma carensGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 138. Van Dijk, 1966, Ann. Natal Mus., 18: 255.

English Names

Red Toad (Rose, 1950, Rep. Amph. S. Afr.: 107; Rose, 1962, Rep. Amph. S. Afr., Ed. 2: 102; Pienaar, 1963, Koedoe, 6: 78; Wager, 1965, Frogs S. Afr.: 108; Broadley, 1971, Puku, 6: 110; Broadley, 1973, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 10: 22; Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15; Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 78; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 44; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 103; Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 117; Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 190).

Red-backed Toad (Lambiris, 1990 "1989", Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 10: 64).

African Split-skin Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 45).

Distribution

Southwestern Kenya, extreme eastern Angola, and southeastern Dem. Rep. Congo through Zimbabwe and along the Botswana border to northeastern Rep. South Africa, possibly into Lesotho.

Comment

Reviewed by Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 60-62, as Bufo carens. See accounts by Poynton and Broadley, 1988, Ann. Natal Mus., 29: 484-485, Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 103-105, Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 117-119, Theron and Minter, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 92-94, Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 554-555, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 190-192, provided accounts. Stevens, 1974, Arnoldia, Zimbabwe, 6: 5, reported one specimen from near Chikwawa in southeastern Malawi. Bates and Haacke, 2003, Navors. Nas. Mus. Bloemfontein, 19: 141, suggested the possible presence of this species in Lesotho. Mercurio, 2011, Amph. Malawi: 133-134, provided an account for Malawi.Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 153–155, reported on comparative tadpole morphology. Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 156–157, provided a brief account and photograph for the Eastern Arc Mountains region of Tanzania and Kenya. Viertel and Channing, 2017, Alytes, 33: 38–46, reported on larval morphology. 

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