Rhinella spinulosa (Wiegmann, 1834)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella spinulosa

Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann, 1834, in Meyen (ed.), Reise in die Erde K. Preuss. Seehandl., 3(Zool.): 514. Subsequently published by Wiegmann, 1834, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 17: 265. Type(s): Not designated; ZMB 3415, according to Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 80. Type locality: "Peru". The name Bufo spinulosus was published twice: first in 1834 (Wiegmann, 1834, in Meyen (ed.), Reise in die Erde K. Preuss. Seehandl., 3(Zool.): 514), and then in early 1835 (Wiegmann, 1834, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 17: 185-268). For additional discussion see Lavilla, 1997, Cuad. Herpetol., 11: 75-80, Anonymous, 1910, Cat. Books Mss Maps Brit. Mus., Vol. 3, and Bauer and Adler, 2001, Arch. Nat. Hist., London, 28: 313-326.

Phryniscus nigricans Wiegmann, 1834, in Meyen (ed.), Reise in die Erde K. Preuss. Seehandl., 3(Zool.): 514. Subsequently published by Wiegmann, 1834, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 17: 264. Types: Not designated, although presumably originally in ZMB. Type locality: Hochebene des Südlichen Peru. Regarded as a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 146. Synonymy by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 723 (with Chaunus formosus) and by Boulenger, 1894, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 14: 374 (not Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2), who selected Bufo spinulosus as having priority over Phryniscus nigricans. See also Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 7. The name Phryniscus nigricans was published twice: first in 1834 (Wiegmann, 1834, in Meyen (ed.), Reise in die Erde K. Preuss. Seehandl., 3(Zool.)), and then in early 1835 (Wiegmann, 1834, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 17: 185-268). For additional discussion see Lavilla, 1997, Cuad. Herpetol., 11: 75-80, Anonymous, 1910, Cat. Books Mss Maps Brit. Mus., Vol. 3, and Bauer and Adler, 2001, Arch. Nat. Hist., London, 28: 313-326.

Chaunus formosus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 87. Type(s): MNHNP, by original designation. Type locality: Not designated. Nomen nudum. Considered a synonym of Phryniscus nigricans by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 723 (their concept of which was based on specimens of Atelopus stelzneri according to Boulenger, 1894, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 14: 374); Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 150.

Bufo formosusDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 646.

Bufo trifolium Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 169. Type(s): Not designated, but presumably in MHNN and presumably including the frog illustrated by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: pl. 11, fig. 3. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "Ceja- als in der Waldregion", Peru by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 75. Synonymy by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 622-624; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 302; Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 67; Haas, 2002, Salamandra, 38: 155; Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003, Herpetologica, 59: 271.

Bufo lineo-maculatus Guichenot, 1848, in Gay (ed.), Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile, Zool., 2: 128. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "cercanías de Valdivia", Chile. Placed in the synonymy of Bufo rubropunctatus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 83, who gave Bufo rubropunctatus priority over this name. Considered a synonym of Bufo spinulosus by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 302; Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 66.

Bufo lugubrosus Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 424. Holotype: Not stated, but USNM 16359 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 35. Type locality: "Valparaíso, Chili". Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 302.

Bufo simus Schmidt, 1857, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: 10. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.21.18 (formerly 98.9.14.6), ZMH 1527, KM 1029/1351 (5 specimens), ZSM 593-20, and NHMW 16521, according to Savage, 1970, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 38: 273-288. BMNH 1947.2.21.18 designated lectotype by Savage, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 32. Type locality: "Neu-Granada", later restricted by Schmidt, 1858, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 14: 255, to "Diese Art war in ungeheuren Mengen an seichten Stellen des Chiriquiflusses, unweit Bocca del toro, wo sie sich in einer Wassertemperatur von 36-40° R. sehr wohl befanden" (= This species was in enormous quantities in shallow places of the Chiriqui River near Boca del Toro, where it was very well situated in a water temperature from 36-40°). This type locality was doubted by Dunn and Stuart, 1951, Copeia, 1951: 56, and Savage, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 25-33, who suggested that the true type locality was in South America, possibly Peru or Bolivia. Synonymy by De la Riva, 2004, J. Herpetol., 38: 433, who discussed the convoluted taxonomic history.

Phryniscus guttatus Philippi In Philippi and Landbeck, 1861, Arch. Naturgesch., 27: 300. Types: Not designated, and not in MNHNC according to Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 25. Type locality: "Cordillere von Santiago in mehr als 10,000 Fuss Meereshöhe, im Valle largo", Provincia de Santiago, Chile, 10000 pies s.n.m. Considered possibly synonymous with Phryniscus nigricans Wiegmann, 1834, by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 150; and Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 146. Tentatively assigned to the synonymy of Nannophryne variegata Günther, 1870, by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 85. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Synonymy with Bufo spinulosus supported by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 67.

Phrynoidis lugubrosusCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Chilophryne lineomaculataCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358 ("ex Gray").

Bufo nigricansBoulenger, 1894, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 14: 374. Mertens, 1952, in Titschacke (ed.), Beiträge von Fauna Perus, 3: 258.

Bufo spinulosus var. aspera Werner, 1898 "1897", Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Suppl., 4: 277. Syntype(s): presumably ZIUW or NHMW, but not in recent NHMW type list. Type locality: "Pica, Oase der Pampa Tamarugal, Hinterland von Iquique", Chile. Synonymy by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 115; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 164. Junior homonym of Bufo asper Gravenhorst, 1829.

Bufo spinulosus var. ornata Werner, 1898 "1897", Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Suppl., 4: 277. Syntypes: 4 specimens (not traced), presumably originally in ZIUW or NHMW. Type locality: "Coquimbo", Chile. Synonymy by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 115.

Bufo ventralis Philippi, 1899, An. Univ. Chile, 104: 724. Syntypes: MNHNC (5 specimens), according to the original publication; possibly now in IZUC. Type locality: "Habitat prope Valdiviam ubi rarus videtur et in Andibus provinciae Cautin", Chile. Along with the generic name, Stenodactylus, considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 146. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 274; Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 146.

Stenodactylus ventralisPhilippi, 1899, An. Univ. Chile, 104: 724. Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 39.

Aruncus valdivianus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 4. Syntypes: MNHNC (3 specimens), according to the original publication and including animal figured by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 279, who implied that the specimens are lost. Type locality: "provincia de Valdivia", Chile. Along with the generic name, Aruncus, considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 146; and Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 266 (who provided the previously unpublished original illustration). Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 146.

Phryniscus monticola Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 13. Holotype: MNHNC according to the original publication but likely lost by implication of Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Type locality: "Habitat in Andibus provinciae Curicó", Chile. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267; tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Phryniscus formosus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 15. Holotype: MNHNC, according to the original publication. Type locality: "Chile". Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84; synonymy supported by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 67.

Phryniscus carbonarius Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 16. Syntypes: MNHNC (numerous individuals), according to the original publication. Type locality: Not designated (presumably Chile). Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Phryniscus pictus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 18. Syntypes: MNHNC (more than 20 specimens), according to the original publication. Type locality: "Patria. Aculeo . . . . Supongo que esta especie es de Validivia", Chile. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Phryniscus alacer Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 20. Holotype: MNHNC according to the original publication. Type locality: "Habitat ad rivulos praedü Mansel et racicis Andium provinciae Linares, l. d. Quinamavida, ubi ipse legi .... orillas de un riachuelo, cerca de los Banos de Apoquindo", Chile. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Phryniscus sexmaculatus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 22. Holotype: MNHNC according to the original publication. Type locality: "cerca de los Baños de Poquindo", Chile. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Phryniscus asper Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 23. Syntypes: MNHNC (4 specimens), according to the original publication. Type locality: "habitat in Andibus de Chillan dictis". Secondary homonym of Bufo asper Gravenhorst, 1829, when in Bufo. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Bufo papillosus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 30. Syntypes: MNHNC according to the original publication, likely lost by implication of Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: : 265-288. Type locality: "alta cordillera que separa la provincia chilena de Cautin, de la Patagonia" (= High cordillera that separates the Provinces of Cautín and Patagonia), Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 146. Synonymy by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267; Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 49; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 60.

Bufo spinulosus var. arapensis Andersson, 1908, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturkd., Wiesbaden, 61: 306. Syntypes: Not designated, but shared between NHRM and MWNH, according to E. Ahlander (personal commun.). MWNH 153/1 designated lectotype (rendering 153/2-4 as paralectotypes) by Köhler and Güsten, 2007, Spixiana, München, 30: 280, who discussed and supported the synonymy. Type locality: "Arapa, [Departamento Puno,] Peru, 4500 m above the sea level".

Bufo spinulosus spinulosusAndersson, 1908, Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Naturkd., Wiesbaden, 61: 306. Shreve, 1941, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 18: 76; Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 22; Gallardo, 1961, Breviora, 141: 2; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 63.

Bufo spinulosus trifoliumShreve, 1941, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 18: 76. Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 22.

Telmatobius halli edentatus Capurro-S., 1955, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 2: 150. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "región de los Geysers, ubicada al interior de San Pedro de Atacama en las faldas de volcán Tatío a 2.500 metros de altura mas o menos", Chile. Synonymy by Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 38; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 166.

Bufo spinulosus flavolineatus Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 25. Syntypes: MUSM (formerly MHNJP) 279 (5 specimens); MUSM (formerly MHNJP) 3898 (renumbered) designated lectotype by Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 2. Type locality: "Capillacocha", Estado de Junín", Peru. Córdova, 1999, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A—Biol., 600: 1-28, doubted the distinctiveness of this taxon from Bufo spinulosus. Synonymy by Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003, Herpetologica, 59: 271.

Bufo spinulosus altiperuvianus Gallardo, 1961, Breviora, 141: 2. Holotype: AMNH 14418, by original designation. Type locality: "Challapata, Department of Oruro, Bolivia".

Bufo arunco spinulosusCei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 77.

Bufo spinulosus aruncoCei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 45.

Bufo spinulosus papillosusGallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 60.

Bufo trifoliumCei, Erspamer, and Roseghini, 1968, Syst. Zool., 17: 237. Cei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91.

Bufo flavilineatusCei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo flavolineatusCei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 83.

Chaunus spinulosusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella spinulosaChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211. By implication

Rhinella spinulosusPramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

English Names

Warty Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Huanuco Toad (Bufo trifolium [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Capillococha Toad (Bufo spinulosus flavolineatus [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Flatnose Toad (Bufo simus [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Distribution

Andean Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru.

Comment

See comments under Rhinella arunco, Rhinella arequipensis, Rhinella atacamensis, Rhinella chilensis, Rhinella limensis, and Rhinella vellardi. Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 83, suggested that Rhinella spinulosa spinulosa (as Bufo) was composed of several cryptic species. Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 38-41, 45-48, provided an account for the Chilean population. Records for Ecuador apply to Rhinella amabilis. Correa-Quezada, Pastenes-O., Sallaberry-Ayerza, Veloso, and Méndez-Torres, 2010, Amphibia-Reptilia, 31: 85-96, reported on molecular phylogeography in northern Chile. Gallardo, Hernández, Diniz, Palma, and Méndez, 2011, Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat., 84: 391-406, reported on landscape genetics in Chile.

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