Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella schneideri

Bufo schneideri Werner, 1894, Zool. Anz., 17: 411. Holotype: NHMB 1916, according to M.S. Hoogmoed IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 59. Type locality: "Paraguay". Considered a primary homonym of "Bufo schneideri Merrem", 1820 (= Lithodytes lineatus) by Boulenger, 1895, Zool. Rec., 31: 40, although this is in error. Merrem, 1820, used the name Rana schneideri which is neither a primary or secondary homonym so the name is available.

Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925, C. R. Mém. Hebd. Séances Soc. Biol. Filial., Paris, 93 (1925, vol. 2): 213. Syntypes: Not stated; USNM 97238-39 are syntypes according to M.S. Hoogmoed IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 54. Type locality: "l'etat de Minas . . . de Belo Horizonte", Brazil; given as "Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil" by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 36. Synonymy with Bufo schneideri by Gallardo, 1962, Physis, Buenos Aires, 23: 96. See comment.

Bufo marinus paracnemisMüller and Hellmich, 1936, Wissenschaft. Ergebn. Deutschen Gran Chaco Exped., Amph. Rept.: 14.

Bufo paracnemisFreiberg, 1942, Physis, Buenos Aires, 19: 223. Cei, 1949, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 7: 528; Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 32.

Bufo pisanoi Casamiquela, 1967, Ameghiniana, 5: 162. Holotype: FML 2197, incomplete skeleton, by original designation. Type locality: "Proximadades del puente Ruta Nacional No. 3, a unas 20 cuadras (aguas abajo) sobre la margen derecha del rio Quequén [Salado], Provincia de Buenos Aires", Argentina. [Upper Pliocene fossil.] Considered a likely synonym by Sanchíz, 1998, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 4: 125.

Bufo schneideriFrank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43.

Chaunus schneideriFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella schneideriChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Cururu Toad (Bufo paracnemis: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Schneider's Toad (Bufo schneideri: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).


Brazil, from the Atlantic coast (Ceará south to Rio Grande do Sul) inland through Paraguay to Amazonian and eastern Bolivia; and southwest to northern and central Argentina and northern Uruguay.


In the Bufo marinus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Formerly confused with Chaunus marinus. According to the original publication Bufo schneideri is most closely related to Bufo sternosignatus. Gallardo, 1962, Physis, Buenos Aires, 23: 96, apparently studied the holotype of Bufo schneideri and concluded that Bufo paracnemis is a junior synonym of Bufo schneideri. Inasmuch as Bufo schneideri Werner is not a primary homonym of Rana schneideri Merrem, Bufo schneideri Werner takes precedence as the oldest available name of this taxon. See brief account by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 85. See comments under Rhinella marina and Rhinella jimi. Langone, 1995 "1994", Mus. Damaso Antonio Larrañaga, Ser. Divulg. 5: 21-22, and Achaval and Olmos, 2003, Anf. Rept. Uruguay, ed. 2: 13, provided for the Uruguayan population a brief account (as Bufo paracnemis) and photograph. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479-485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 20, briefly discussed the range in Paraguay. Maneyro and Kwet, 2008, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, noted that populations from Bahia and Pernambuco (Brazil) may actually be assignable to Rhinella jimi; these authors also summarized the taxonomic, geographic, and conservation status as well as summarizing what is know of its natural history. Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 31-32, provided a photograph and brief account. Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128-140, and Maciel, Garcia, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787-797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella marina group, including this species. Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 64-65, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Jansen, Bloch, Schulze, and Pfenninger, 2011, Zool. Scripta, 40: 567-583, noted deep genetic divergences within this nominal species. Sequeira, Sodré, Ferrand de Almeida, Bernardi, Sampaio, Schneider, and Vallinoto, 2011, BMC Evol. Biol., 11(264): 1-15, reported on unidirectional hybridization with Rhinella marinaOliveira, Weber, and Napoli, Herpetol. J., 24: 229–236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 18–20, characterized the larva of Rhinella cf. schneideri from Bolivia. 

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