Rhinella poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella poeppigii

Bufo Poeppigii Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 169. Type(s): Not designated; MHNN 90.77 is a type according to museum records. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "in den Montañas von Monobamba", Peru according to Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 75.

Bufo molitor Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 169. Types not designated but MHNN 90.87 according to museum records and presumably including frog illustrated by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: pl. 12. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "in den peruanischen Wäldern" by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 75. Synonymy by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 624; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 138. Stejneger IN Barbour, 1920, Am. Nat., 54: 286; Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 105, considered this a synonym of Bufo marinus. Andersson, 1900, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26: 18, considered this synonymous with Bufo andianus Cope and Rana marginata Linnaeus.

Docidophryne LazarusFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Phrynoidis aguaCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Phrynoidis molitorCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo andianus Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 115. Syntypes: USNM 4350 and 6112 (3 specimens), lost; not mentioned in USNM type list of Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220. Type locality: "Carthagena, New Grenada [= Colombia]". Synonymy (with Bufo molitor) by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 624; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315; (with Bufo poeppigii) by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 138. Thought by some authors (e.g., Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 623; Easteal, 1986, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 395: 1) to be a junior synonym of Bufo marinus.

Bufo marinus andinensis Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 14. Syntypes: 4 specimens, including NHMG 457 (2 specimens), according to museum records. Type locality: "Roque, Peru".

Bufo marinus poeppigiMertens, 1952, in Titschacke (ed.), Beiträge von Fauna Perus, 3: 259; Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 35; Cei, Erspamer, and Roseghini, 1968, Syst. Zool., 17: 239; Henle, 1985, Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ., 20: 167-173.

Bufo poeppigiiDuellman and Schulte, 1992, Copeia, 1992: 168.

Chaunus poeppigiiFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella poeppigiiChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Gray Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Distribution

Humid montane forests on the eastern Andean slopes of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, 800-1670 m; reported from the Serranía de Sira in Amazonian Peru.

Comment

In the Bufo marinus group of Blair, 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo: 345. The synonymy of Bufo poeppigi with Bufo marinus (most recently by Henle, 1985, Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ., 20: 167-173), was rejected by Duellman and Schulte, 1992, Copeia, 1992: 162-172. Chaunus poeppigii had been considered a subspecies of Bufo marinus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 81. Not occurring in Colombia according to Ruiz-Carranza, Ardila-Robayo, and Lynch, 1996, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 20: 368. See brief account by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 85-86. De la Riva, 2002, Graellsia, 58: 49-57, discussed the validity and distinctiveness of this species with respect to the similar Bufo marinus. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479-485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Maciel, Garcia, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787-797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of this species, suggesting that it is the sister species of Rhinella schneideri. Venegas and Ron, 2014, Herpetol. Notes, 7: 713–716, reported records for Ecuador and provided a range map. 

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