Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella ornata

Bufo ornatus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 45. Syntypes: Not designated, although including animal figured on pl. 17, fig. 1 of the original; syntypes include ZSM 2691/0 and RMNH 2157, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 373, who designated ZSM 2691/0/A (= ZSM 2691/0/1) as lectotype. Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 161, disputed that status of RMNH 2157 as a syntype and discussed the types. Type locality: "Provincia Rio de Janeiro", Brazil. Given as "provàvelmente Rio de Janeiro", Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 22.

Bufo dorsalis Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 46. Syntypes: 5 specimens including the animal figured on pl. 17, fig. 2 in the original publication; these orginally in ZSM (5 specimens), including ZSM 1141/0 and RMNH 2189 (presumably exchanged from ZSM), according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 373, who designated ZSM 1141/0/3 lectotype. See comments by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 159. Type locality: "Provincia Rio de Janeiro", Brazil. Synonymy by Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 207 (with Bufo cinctus); Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61 (with Bufo ocellatus); Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 316. See comment by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 319-415. Synonymy with Bufo melanotis by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 710. Synonymy with Bufo ornatus by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 261.

Bufo spixii Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 65. Syntypes: ZSM 1343/0 and RMNH 2190; ZSM 1343/0 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 373. Type locality: Brazil; given as "Provincia do Rio de Janeiro", Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 24. A new name for specimens referred by Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 47, pl. 20, fig. 1, to Bufo scaber (not Bufo scaber Daudin). Synonymy with Bufo margaritifer by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 317; with Bufo crucifer by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 372. Synonymy with Bufo ornatus by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 261.

Oxyrhynchus spixiiWied-Neuwied, 1827, Abbild. Naturgesch. Brasil., Heft 11: pl. 46, fig. 3.

Bufo gracilis Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 424. Types: Not designated, although presumably originally in USNM or ANSP. Type locality: "Rio de Janeiro, Brazil". Synonymy with Bufo crucifer by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 316. ynonymy with Bufo ornatus by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 261.

Phrynoidis ornatusCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Rhaebo gracilisCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo lentiginosus dorsalisGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 43, by implication.

Bufo levicristatus Boettger, 1885, Z. Naturwiss., Halle, 58: 246. Types: 3 specimens (presumably originally SMF), by original designation. These specimen lost according to Axel Kwet in Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 274. ZISP 1422 is a surviving syntype according to Milto, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 257-258. Type locality: "Paraguay, Amer. merid." Synonymy by Milto, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 257-258.

Bufo crucifer var. roseanus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 134. Holotype: MNRJ 361, according to Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 408. Type locality: Not designated, although clearly in Brazil; reported as "woods of Rio d'Ouro, State of Rio de Janeiro" Brazil, by Miranda-Ribeiro, in Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 19. Synonymy with Bufo ornatus by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 261.

Bufo crucifer inornatus Lutz, 1934, Mem. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 28: 126, 151. Types: MNRJ. Type locality: "Rio de Janeiro e na visinhança do Instituto", Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Synonymy with Bufo ornatus by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 261.

Bufo crucifer mayi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 8: 69. Holotype: MNRJ 362, according to Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 408. Type locality: "Gavea—Rio de Janeiro", Brazil. Synonymy with Bufo ornatus by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 261.

Bufo laevicristatusCochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 19. Incorrect subsequent spelling.Bufo pombali Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 267. Holotype: MNRJ 22311, by original designation. Type locality: "BRAZIL, MINAS GERAIS, Reserva Biológica de Peti, Municipality of São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo (19° 49′ S, 43° 21′ W, altitude 650 m)".

Bufo pombali Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 267. Holotype: MNRJ 22311, by original designation. Type locality: "BRAZIL, MINAS GERAIS, Reserva Biológica de Peti, Municipality of São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo (19° 49′ S, 43° 21′ W, altitude 650 m)". Noted to be a hybrid of Rhinella ornata x Rhinella crucifer by Thomé, Zamudio, Haddad, and Alexandrino, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12 1-13. 

Chaunus pombali — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Chaunus ornatus — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella pombali — Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

Rhinella ornataChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

English Names

None noted.

Distribution

Atlantic rain forest from the state of Espírito Santo, through the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo to northern Paraná, Brazil; possibly into northeastern Argentina in the provinces of Misiones and Corrientes and adjacent eastern Paraguay.

Comment

Removed from the synonymy of Rhinella crucifer (as Bufo) by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 261 (who provided an account), where it had been placed by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 316. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 18, briefly discussed the range in Paraguay.A hybrid with Rhinella crucifer, "Rhinella pombali" is found throughout the Atlantic rainforest and in its transitional areas with the Cerrado in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Oliveira, Weber, and Napoli, Herpetol. J., 24: 229–236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. 

Thomé, Zamudio, Giovanelli, Haddad, Baldissera, and Alexandrino, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 55: 1018-1031, in their study of the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella crucifer group, first noted noted ambiguity in the mtDNA molecular evidence with respect to the diagnosability of this species and subsequently Thomé, Zamudio, Haddad, and Alexandrino, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12 1-13, documented its hybrid status.  

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