Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella marina

Rana marina Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 211. Type(s): By indication including specimen illustrated in Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 76, fig. 1. Type locality: "America"; restricted by Müller and Hellmich, 1936, Wissenschaft. Ergebn. Deutschen Gran Chaco Exped., Amph. Rept.: 14, to Surinam.

Bufo brasiliensis Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 26. Syntypes: Frogs illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: Pl.. 73, fig. 1 and 2. Type locality: Brazil. Synonymy (with Bufo agua) by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 99, and Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 209. Synonymy by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 138.

Rana gigas Walbaum, 1784, Schr. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 5: 239. Types: Formerly in the Endler Collection, now lost, according to Smith, Schneider, and Smith, 1977, J. Herpetol., 11: 423. Type locality: "Virginia", although considered to be in error in the original description. Considered to be a replacement name for Rana marina by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 54. Synonymy by Smith, Schneider, and Smith, 1977, J. Herpetol., 11: 423–425.

Rana humeris-armata Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 297, 458; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account on page 539. Substitute name for Rana marina Linnaeus, 1758. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Rana humeris-armata Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 6. Substitute name for Rana marina Linnaeus, 1758.

Bufo marinusSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 219.

Rana brasiliana Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 160. Substitute name for Bufo brasiliensis Laurenti.

Bufo horridus Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 97. Holotype: Frog figured on pl. 36 of Daudin, 1802, and in the MNHNP. Type locality: Unknown. Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61 (with Bufo agua); by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315.

Bufo humeralis Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 205. Syntypes: "collection of madame Bonaparte", presumably now in the MNHNP if still extant. Type locality: "Cayenne", French Guiana. Synonymy by Raddi, 1823, Mem. Mat. Fis. Soc. Ital. Sci. Modena, 19: 69; Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 54; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 705; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61 (with Bufo agua); Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315.

Bombinator maculatus Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 178. Syntypes: Based in part on frogs figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 73, fig. 1–2; Bufo brasiliensis Laurenti, 1768, and "Bufo aqua Lacep. Quadr. Ovip. 1. page 606". Type locality: "Brasilia". Synonymy is objective through the types.

Rana maxima Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 182. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: Not designated. Attributed in error to Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 155 (who actually provided the non-Linnaean description Rana maxima fusco-flavescens verrucosa, . . .). Coined as a synonym of Bufo horridus. Preoccupied by Rana maxima Laurenti, 1768.

Bombinator horridusMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 179.

Bufo maculiventris Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 43. Syntypes: 4 specimens (including animal figured on pl. 14, fig. 1 of the original publication), presumed lost from ZSM by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 371. This confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 161. Type locality: "in sylvis et aquis paludosis ad ripam fluminis Solimoëns", Brazil. Restricted by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 21, to "desde Tabatinga na fronteira com o Peru e Colombia ate a desembocadura do rio Negro", Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88 and Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 235 (under Bufo agua); Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 704; Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315.

Bufo lazarus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 45. Syntypes: 2 specimens, deposition not noted although including animal figured on pl. 17, fig. 1 of the original; syntypes were ZSM 2513/0 (2 specimens), presumed lost, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 371. This confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 161. Type locality: "Habitat in sylvis fluvii Amazonum" (= Amazon River); Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 21, considered the type locality to be on the Amazon between the mouth of the Rio Negro and the mouth of the Amazon on the Atlantic, Brazil. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88 (using Bufo agua); Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 704; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61 (with Bufo agua); Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315.

Bufo albicans Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 47. Syntypes: ZSM 1140/0 and RMNH 2191 2 specimens, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 371; ZSM 1140/0 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 371. Type locality: "flumen Nigrum" (= Río Negro), Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226.

Bufo marinusGravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 54.

Docidophryne LazarusFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Bufo marinus var. fluminensis Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 199. Syntypes: MNCN; given as MNCN 3062–3063 (Brasil); 3066–3069, 3072 (either Facenda Imperial de Santa Cru (Brasil), Chonana (Guayas, Ecuador), or Babahoyo (Los Rios, Ecuador); 3073 (Bahia), Brasil); 3076 (Tabatinga, orillas del Amazonas y frontera del Perú y Brasil), by González-Fernández, García-Díez, and San Segundo, 2009, Spixiana, München, 32: 268. Type localities: "la cuenca del Guayas o rio de Guayaquil", Ecuador; "provincia de Rio-Janeiro", Brazil; "Fazenda imperial de Santa Cruz, á 14 leguas de la capital", Brazil; "Bahia", Brazil; "Rio-Janeiro y la Tijuca", Brazil: "Tabatinga, orillas del Amazonas y frontera del Perú y Brasil"; "Fazenda Santa Cruz", Brazil; "Chonana", Ecuador; "Babahoyo", Ecuador. (Obviously a composite as some of the type localites are outside of the known species distribution—DRF.)

Bufo marinus var. napensis Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 201. Syntypes: MNCN; given as MNCN 3058–3060 ("Archidona de Quijos, provincia oriental (Currently Napo Province) Ecuador"); 3061 Tabatinga, (Brazil and Peru border), Amazonas, Brasil"–but considered likely to come from "Cotapino near Sa Rose de Napo (Ecuador)"); 3074-3075 (San Jose de Moti. Type localities: "Cotapino, cerca de Santa Rosa de Napo", "Archidona de Quíjos", and "San Jose de Moti", Ecuador., by González-Fernández, García-Díez, and San Segundo, 2009, Spixiana, München, 32: 268.

Bufo pithecodactylus Werner, 1899, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 49: 481. Holotype: (formerly ZIUG) ZFMK 27999 ; by implication by Böhme and Bischoff, 1984, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 19: 178. Type locality: "La Union", Colombia. Provisional synonymy by Boulenger, 1900, Zool. Rec., 36: 29. Synonymy by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 138.

Bufo marinisBarbour and Noble, 1920, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63: 425. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo marinus marinusSchmidt, 1932, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 18: 159.

Bufo pythecodactylusRivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 27. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Chaunus marinusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella marinaChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

Rhinella marinusPramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo (Rhinella) marinusFouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 318. See comment under Bufonidae on how this arrangement as suggested by the authors requires substantial paraphyly. 

English Names

Marine Toad (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 155; Griffith in Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9: 401; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: x; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 52)

Shoulder-knot Frog (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 240).

Agua (Bufo brasiliensis [no longer recognized]: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 317).

Agua Toad (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 168).

Giant Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42, in the sense of Rhinella marina, as including Rhinella horribilis).

Cane Toad (Cogger, 1975, Rept. Amph. Australia, Ed. 2: 114; in the sense of being applied to Rhinella marina).

Distribution

East of the Andes throughout Amazonian and Guianan South America (the Guianas to central Brazil, and Amazonian Colombia, Peru and Bolivia); introduced widely worldwide (Florida [USA], Antilles, Hawaii, Fiji, Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Is. (Japan), New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Australia, and many Pacific islands).

Comment

In the Bufo marinus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Reviewed by Easteal, 1986, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 395: 1–2, in the sense of including Rhinella horribilis. See comment under Rhinella poeppigii. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 68–69, provided a brief account and photo.Slade and Moritz, 1998, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 265: 769–777, reported on mtDNA phylogeography and noted a large genetic break between populations on either side of the Venezuelan Andes, with Bufo paracnemis (= Rhinella schneideri of this catalog) being nested within the eastern lineage. The western lineage has subsequently been recognized as Rhinella horribilis, but the analytic paraphyly of nominal Rhinella marina remains problematic. Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 59–61, and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 59–60, provided accounts for Trinidad. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 14, provided a brief account. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 147–175, discussed introduced populations. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 52–54, provided an account for introduced Japanese populations. Paice, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 331–332, provided a record for Mustique Island in the Grenadines, Lesser Antilles.  Almendáriz C. and Orcés, 2004, Politécnica, Quito, 25: 108, provided distributional data for Ecuador, in the sense of including Rhinella horribilis as part of Rhinella marinaKwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479–485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Daudin and de Silva, 2007, Appl. Herpetol., 4: 163–175, reported on island distribution in the Grenadines, Lesser Antilles. Lorvelec, Pascal, Pavis, and Feldmann, 2007, Appl. Herpetol., 4: 131–161, discussed the original range and introductions within the French West Indies. Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 132–133, provided an account.  Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128–140, provided molecular evidence that the Amazonian population of Rhinella marina (which carried the name when the nominal species was partitioned) is most closely related to other members of the Rhinella marina complex, but distant from two clades, one in Central America (and presumably including populations extending north into Mexico as well), and another in western Ecuador. The name Bufo horribilis Wiegmann may be available for the Central American clade, while the western Ecuadorian population apparently lacks a name (DRF). The Mexico to western Ecuador populations have subsequently been segregated as Rhinella horribilis. Maciel, Garcia, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787–797, also reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella marina group, including this species in the sense of including Rhinella horribilis. Ugueto and Rivas-Fuenmayor, 2010, Amph. Rep. Margarita Coche Cubagua: 69–71, provided an account for the population on the Venezuelan island of Margarita. Sequeira, Sodré, Ferrand de Almeida, Bernardi, Sampaio, Scheider, and Vallinoto, 2011, BMC Evol. Biol., 11(264): 1–15, reported on unidirectional hybridization with Rhinella schneideri. See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 66–69. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 379, for brief account and records for Guyana. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 30–31, summarized the natural history literature for the Antilles (as Bufo marinus). Arteaga-Navarro, Bustamante, and Guayasamin, 2013, Amph. Rept. Mindo: 35–38, provided an account and map for Ecuador.     

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