Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti, 1768)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella margaritifera

Rana margaritifera Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 30. Types: By indication including frogs illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 71, fig. 6, 7, and (var. beta) 8; the specimens illustrated in fig. 6 and 7 designated lectotypes by Avila-Pires, Hoogmoed, and Rocha, 2010, Bol. Mus. Parense Emilio Goeldi, Cienc. Nat., 5: 64. This considered in error on the basis of Art. 73 of the International Code (1999) by Lavilla, Caramaschi, Langone, Pombal, and de Sá, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 251–264, who designated MNRJ 71538, as neotype. Subsequently, these authors rediscovered (Lavilla, Langone, Caramaschi, Pombal, and de Sá, 2017, Zootaxa, 4286) the holotype so the neotype designation is invalid, but see comment below. Type locality: "Brasilia". Neotype from "Municipality of Humaitá (07° 30’ S, 63° 01’ W; approx. 60 m a.s.l.; datum WGS84), State of Amazonas, Brazil". Synonymy by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 719 (under Bufo margaritifer). Incorrectly placed as a junior synonym of Rana typhonia Linnaeus, 1758 (= Rana tigerina) by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 623; O'Shaughnessy, 1875, Zool. Rec., 10: 97; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 317.

Rana gemmata Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 303, 458. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account starting on page 545. Substitute name for Rana margaritifera Laurenti, 1768. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Rana gemmata Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 4. Substitute name for Rana margaritifera Laurenti, 1768.

Bufo nasutus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 217. Syntypes: "Musei Linckiani", presumably now lost and specimen figure by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: Pl. 71, fig. 9. Type locality: "Surinamse" and "Brasiliae". Synonymy by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 89, and Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 719 (under Bufo margaritifer); Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 47 (with Bufo margaritifera); Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 317; Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 39.

Bufo typhoniusSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 207. Nomenclaturally based on Rana typhonia (= Rana tigerina), but most of the literature of Bufo margaritifer uses this name, although as early as Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 436, it was recognized that Bufo typhonius sensu Schneider, 1799 was synonym of Bufo margaritifer and not of Hoplobatrachus tigerinus.

Bufo margaritifer —Latreille In Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 118; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 89.

Bufo mitrata Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 79. Substitute name for Rana margaritifera.

Bufo perlatus Cuvier, 1817, Regne Animal., 2: 97. Substitute name for Rana margaritifera.

Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) naricus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 49. Type(s): Not designated but including animal figured on pl. 14, fig. 2 of the original, presumably in ZSM, now lost according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 375. Type locality: "flumen Amazonum" (= Amazon River), Brazil. Synonymy by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 719 (under Bufo margaritifera); Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 47 (with Bufo margaritifera); Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 139. Considered a nomen dubium by Lötters and Köhler, 2000, Spixiana, München, 23: 300.

Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) nasutusSpix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 50.

Bufo (Otilophis) margaritiferCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 112 (as "Otilophis Cuv. " with the combination implied. The Latin equivalent not formally formed until Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 84.

Bufo (Rhinella) naricusCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 111, by implication.

Bufo (Rhinella) nasutusCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 111, by implication.

Bufo margaritiferWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 207.

Otolophus margaritiferFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32.

Trachycara fusca Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 169. Types: Not designated, although presumably MHNN. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "Cejaregion auf dem Wege zwishcen Jauja und Uchubamba im feuchten Moose auf einer Höhe von ungefähr 9500 Fuss ü. M", Peru, by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 77. Synonymy by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 624; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 317.

Bufo pleuropterus Schmidt, 1857, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: 13. Holotype: KM 1030/1348 according to Savage, 1970, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 38: 273-288. Type locality: "Bolivia"; subsequently, given by Schmidt, 1858, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 14: 253, as "Grenzegebiet von Bolivia gegen Peru, in etwa 3000 Höhe", from an area now in Peru according to Lötters and Köhler, 2000, Spixiana, München, 23: 300, who considered the application of this name to be uncertain. Synonymy by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 624; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 317. Lötters and Köhler, 2000, Spixiana, München, 23: 300, noted that the type locality is likely currently in Peru, given the collectors itinerary and the loss of Peruvian territory to Bolivia in 1909.

Otilophus margaritiferSchmidt, 1858, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 14: 251.

Otilophus margaritiferGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 69.

Otilophus ? pleuropterusCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo margaritiferusCope, 1870 "1869", Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 11: 156.

Bufo margaritiferPeters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 624.

Bufo margaritiferaHoogmoed, 1989, in Fontenet (ed.), Treballs Ictiol. Herpetol., 2: 167-180. Incorrect gender.

Rhinella margaritiferFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 366. Incorrent gender of species name.

English Names

Mitred Toad (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 159; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 41).

South American Common Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Distribution

Throughout Amazonian South America.

Comment

See Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 101-102, for synonymy. Also see comment under Bufo iserni. Hoogmoed, 1977, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 51: 274, indicated that there are a number of sibling species confused under this name. Hoogmoed, 1986, in Rocek (ed.), Studies in Herpetol.: 147-150, suggested that the name Bufo typhonius was a nomen dubium that did not apply to a Bufo, but possibly to some species of Rana (see comment in synonymy of Rana tigerina), and removed Bufo proboscideus, Bufo acutirostris, and Bufo roqueanus from synonymy. See additional comments by Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 117-120, who, besides summarizing the 1987 paper, noted an unnamed species from the lower Amazon and French Guiana; an unnamed form in Guyana (north of the Amazon drainage); a form from west of the Andes of Ecuador and Colombia (which has subsequently been assigned to Rhinella alata); a form in the Atlantic Coast forest of Brazil; another form in Bolivia; and at least one other in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia. These were further discussed and some geographic distributions estimated by Hass, Dunski, Maxson, and Hoogmoed, 1995, Biotropica, 27: 238-249. Rana typhonia Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 211, is a name wrongfully associated with this synonymy but misapplied to this species almost universally until 1989. See synonymy of Trachycephalus typhonius for combinations based on this name and relevant literature. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 14–15, provided a brief account, as Bufo typhonius.  Vélez-Rodriguez, 1995, PhD Dissert., Univ. Nac. Colombia, suggested that at least 15 species are masquerading under this name in Colombia alone. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 64-67, provided a brief account and photo and noted that more than one species under this name was present in French Guiana. Fouquet, Vences, Salducci, Meyer, Marty, Blanc, and Gilles, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 567-582, suggested on the basis of molecular data that nominal Rhinella margaritifera may be composed of as many as 11 species and paraphyletic with respect to Rhinella castaneotica and Rhinella ocellata. See comment under Rhinella martyi. Jansen, Bloch, Schulze, and Pfenninger, 2011, Zool. Scripta, 40: 567-583, suggested that records for Bolivia are likely more correctly applied to Rhinella paraguayensis or some close relative. Lisboa, Figueiré-do, Melo, Andrade, and Moura, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 99, provided a record for Pernambuco, Brazil, and commented on the range. See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 62-65. Lavilla, Caramaschi, Langone, Pombal, and de Sá, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 251–264, discussed the nomenclatural odyssey of this species. On the basis of molecular and morphological data Santos, Ibáñez D., and Ron, 2015, ZooKeys, 501: 109–145, redelimited Rhinella alata to include the populations Panama and Chocoan Colombia and Ecuador formerly assigned to Rhinella margaritifera.  Lavilla, Langone, Caramaschi, Pombal, and de Sá, 2017, Zootaxa, 4286: 113–114, rediscovered the holotype from the imprecise type locality "Brasilia", rendering their previous neotype designation invalid. While these authors not the extreme instability this causes the taxonomy of Rhinella margaritifera-group animals, they apparently have not applied to the ICZN to stabilize the situation. For this reason I (DRF) maintain the taxonomy as it was prior to the appearance of this paper. 

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