Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella icterica

Bufo bimaculatus Wied-Neuwied, 1821, Reise Brasil. Jahr. 1815–1817, 1: 52. Type(s): Not stated; originally in Wied collection but now presumably lost: Type locality: "Serra de Inuá", Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; given as "Serra de Inoã, Inoã, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro", Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 18, who suggested this as a senior synonym of Bufo ictericus. A nomen oblitum. See comments by Vanzolini and Myers, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 395: 77–78. 

Bufo fuliginosus Wied-Neuwied, 1821, Reise Brasil. Jahr. 1815–1817, 1: 52. Type(s): Not designated, presumably now lost. Type locality: "Serra de Inua, bei Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro", Brazil. Given as "Serra de Inoã, Inoã, município de Marica, Rio de Janeiro", Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 20. Redescribed in Wied-Neuwied, 1824, Isis von Oken, 14: 672, and Wied-Neuwied, 1825, Beitr. Naturgesch. Brasil., 1: 558. Synonymy with Bufo ictericus by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 20. A nomen oblitum.See comments by Vanzolini and Myers, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 395: 77–78.

Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 44. Syntypes: Including RMNH 2182, the other in ZSM is lost; RMNH 2182 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 372. Type locality: "Provinciae Rio de Janeiro", Brazil.

Bufo agua Latreille in Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 130. Types: MNHNP, presumably including the frog illustrated by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 100, pl. 37. Type locality: "principalement au Brésil et dans l'île de Cuba". Synonymy with Bufo marinus by Suckow, 1798, Anfang. Theoret. Angwewant. Naturgesch. Thiere, Amph.: 60 (with Bufo brasiliensis) (treating Lacépède's nonbinomial "Agua" as a binominal); Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 99, Wied-Neuwied, 1825, Beitr. Naturgesch. Brasil., 1: 551, Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 235, and Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88 (using Bufo agua);Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 704; Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315. Synonymy with Rhinella icterica by Vanzolini and Myers, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 395: 77. 

Docidophryne agua — Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32.

Docidophryne ictericaFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Phrynoidis agua — Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358. Presumably based on specimens of Rhinella schneideri (pers. commun., Norman Scott to DRF, 25 Sept. 2014). 

Bufo missionum Berg, 1896, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 5: 195. Holotype: Collection of deposition not stated, although originally in the collection of the Universidad de Buenos Aires according to Gallardo, 1961, Neotropica, 7: 33-38. MACN 3558 considered holotype by Faivovich and Carrizo, 1997, Cuad. Herpetol., 11: 81. Type locality: "Territorio de Misiones", Argentina. Synonymy with Bufo rufus by Gallardo, 1961, Neotropica, 7: 34. Synonymy with Bufo ictericus by Faivovich and Carrizo, 1997, Cuad. Herpetol., 11: 81.

Bufo marinus ictericusMüller, 1927, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 40: 261.

Bufo ictericusVellard, 1948, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 5: 147. Schmidt and Inger, 1951, Fieldiana, Zool., 31: 444; Cei, Erspamer, and Roseghini, 1968, Syst. Zool., 17: 239; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 182.

Bufo ictericus mertensi Cochran, 1950, J. Washington Acad. Sci., 40: 238. Holotype: USNM 105244, by original designation. Type locality: "Nova Teutonia, Itá, Santa Catharina", Brazil.

Bufo ictericus ictericusCochran, 1950, J. Washington Acad. Sci., 40: 238.

Chaunus ictericusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella ictericaChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

English Names

Yellow Cururu Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Distribution

Southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul north to Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Goiás); eastern Paraguay and Misiones, Argentina.

Comment

In the Bufo marinus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Long considered a synonym of Bufo marinus but Müller, 1927, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 40: 261, showed consistent differences between the two taxa. For accounts and discussion see Müller, 1969, Aquar. Terrar. Z., 22: 340-342, Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 182-185, Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 26-29, and Heyer, Rand, Cruz, Peixoto, and Nelson, 1990, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 31: 247-249. Slade and Moritz, 1998, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 265: 769-777, reported on phylogeography within the species. Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 29, provided a brief account and photo. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479-485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 18, briefly discussed the range in Paraguay. Maneyro and Kwet, 2008, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, provided brief discussion of taxonomic, geographic, and conservation status as well as what is know of natural history. Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128-140, and Maciel, Garcia, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787-797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella marina group, including this species. Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 60-61, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Oliveira, Weber, and Napoli, Herpetol. J., 24: 229–236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. Batista, Oda, Amaral, Costa, Maciel, and Bastos, 2017, Herpetozoa, Wien, 30: 100–105, reported on release and distress calls. 

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