Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella granulosa

Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) granulosus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 51. Type(s): Not designated, although including animal figured on pl. 21, fig. 2 of the original publication; this being that holotype and ZSM 40/0, now lost according to Gallardo, 1965, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 134: 110; this confirmed by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 374, and Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 160. Type locality: "Provincia Bahiae", Brazil.

Bufo globulosus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 51. Type(s): Not designated although including animal figured on pl. 19, fig. 1 of the original publication; ZSM 41/0, now lost, considered holotype by Gallardo, 1965, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 134: 110. Type locality: "flumen Itapicuru" (= Itapicurú River, Queimadas, Bahia, Brazil). This locality probably between Caxias (04° 50′ S, 43° 21′ W) and Arrarial (02° 37′ S, 44° 41′ W), according to Vanzolini, 1981, in Adler (ed.), Herpetol. Brazil Spix and Wagler: xx. Synonymy by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 324. See comments by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 374; Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 160; and Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1-73 (who regarded the type locality as only tentatively identified).

Chaunus marmoratus Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 744. Substitute name for Bufo globulosus Spix, 1824.

Bufo (Rhinella) granulosusCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 111, by implication.

Chaunus globulosusWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 205.

Bufo nasutulus Wiegmann, 1833, Isis von Oken, 26: 656. Types: Not designated in original publication; ZMB 3521-22 considered syntypes by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81. Type locality: not stated but based on specimens noted to have come from "India Orientali" by Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 222. Synonymy by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 324. Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 170, suggested that this name is doubtfully assigned to this synonymy and should be reexamined.

Phrynoidis granulosusCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo granulosus granulosusMüller and Hellmich, 1936, Wissenschaft. Ergebn. Deutschen Gran Chaco Exped., Amph. Rept.: 12, by implication.

Chaunus granulosusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Rhinella granulosaChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1-73.

Rhinella granulosusPramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76. incorrect subsequent spelling.

English Names

Granular Toad (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 96; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 39).

Common Lesser Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Distribution

Eastern Brazil from Rio de Janeiro north through eastern Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Bahia, Piaui, and eastern Maranhão east to Pernambudo and Rio Grando do Norte.

Comment

In the Bufo granulosus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 56. Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 65, noted that Bufo granulosus has priority over Bufo globulosus by reason of the actions taken by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 324, under the Principle of First Revisor. Bufo scaber Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 223 (see Incertae sedis at level of Rhinella ) regarded as a senior synonym of Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824, by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81. Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1-73, revised the species group, provided an account for this redelimited species, and noted hybridization with Rhinella mirandaribeiroi in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Silva, Santos, Alves, Sousa, and Annunziata, 2010, Sitientibus, Ser. Cienc. Biol., 7: 334-340, provided records for Piauí. Oliveira, Weber, and Napoli, Herpetol. J., 24: 229–236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. 

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