Rhinella diptycha (Cope, 1862)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella diptycha

Bufo diptychus Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 353. Holotype: USNM 5841, by original designation (apparently lost); not mentioned in USNM type list by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220, or for ANSP by Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 345-375. Type locality: Not mentioned specifically, but the Page Expedition visited many localities now in Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and southern Paraguay, along the drainages of the Paraná and Paraguai Rivers.

Bufo schneideri Werner, 1894, Zool. Anz., 17: 411. Holotype: NHMB 1916, according to M.S. Hoogmoed IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 59. Type locality: "Paraguay". Considered a primary homonym of "Bufo schneideri Merrem", 1820 (= Lithodytes lineatus) by Boulenger, 1895, Zool. Rec., 31: 40, although this is in error. Merrem, 1820, used the name Rana schneideri which is neither a primary or secondary homonym so the name is available. Synonymy by Lavilla and Brusquetti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4442: 161. 

Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925, C. R. Mém. Hebd. Séances Soc. Biol. Filial., Paris, 93 (1925, vol. 2): 213. Syntypes: Not stated; USNM 97238-39 are syntypes according to M.S. Hoogmoed IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 54. Type locality: "l'etat de Minas . . . de Belo Horizonte", Brazil; given as "Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil" by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 36. Synonymy with Bufo schneideri by Gallardo, 1962, Physis, Buenos Aires, 23: 96. See comment.

Bufo marinus paracnemisMüller and Hellmich, 1936, Wissenschaft. Ergebn. Deutschen Gran Chaco Exped., Amph. Rept.: 14.

Bufo paracnemisFreiberg, 1942, Physis, Buenos Aires, 19: 223; Cei, 1949, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 7: 528; Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 32.

Bufo pisanoi Casamiquela, 1967, Ameghiniana, 5: 162. Holotype: FML 2197, incomplete skeleton, by original designation. Type locality: "Proximadades del puente Ruta Nacional No. 3, a unas 20 cuadras (aguas abajo) sobre la margen derecha del rio Quequén [Salado], Provincia de Buenos Aires", Argentina. [Upper Pliocene fossil.] Considered a likely synonym of Bufo schneideri by Sanchíz, 1998, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 4: 125.

Bufo schneideriFrank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43.

Chaunus schneideriFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Chaunus diptychus — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella diptycha — Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

Rhinella schneideriChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

Rhinella diptycha Lavilla and Brusquetti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4442: 161. 

English Names

Cururu Toad (Bufo paracnemis: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Schneider's Toad (Bufo schneideri: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Cope's Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Distribution

Brazil, from the Atlantic coast (Ceará south to Rio Grande do Sul) inland through Paraguay to Amazonian and eastern Bolivia; and southwest to northern and central Argentina and northern Uruguay.

Comment

In the Bufo marinus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Formerly confused with Chaunus marinus. According to the original publication Bufo schneideri is most closely related to Bufo sternosignatus. Gallardo, 1962, Physis, Buenos Aires, 23: 96, apparently studied the holotype of Bufo schneideri and concluded that Bufo paracnemis is a junior synonym of Bufo schneideri. Inasmuch as Bufo schneideri Werner is not a primary homonym of Rana schneideri Merrem, Bufo schneideri Werner takes precedence as the oldest available name of this taxon. See brief account by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 85. See comments under Rhinella marina and Rhinella jimi. Langone, 1995 "1994", Mus. Damaso Antonio Larrañaga, Ser. Divulg. 5: 21-22, and Achaval and Olmos, 2003, Anf. Rept. Uruguay, ed. 2: 13, provided for the Uruguayan population a brief account (as Bufo paracnemis) and photograph. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479-485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 20, briefly discussed the range in Paraguay. Maneyro and Kwet, 2008, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, noted that populations from Bahia and Pernambuco (Brazil) may actually be assignable to Rhinella jimi; these authors also summarized the taxonomic, geographic, and conservation status as well as summarizing what is know of its natural history. Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 31-32, provided a photograph and brief account. Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128-140, and Maciel, Garcia, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787-797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella marina group, including this species. Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 64-65, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Jansen, Bloch, Schulze, and Pfenninger, 2011, Zool. Scripta, 40: 567-583, noted deep genetic divergences within this nominal species. Sequeira, Sodré, Ferrand de Almeida, Bernardi, Sampaio, Schneider, and Vallinoto, 2011, BMC Evol. Biol., 11(264): 1-15, reported on unidirectional hybridization with Rhinella marinaOliveira, Weber, and Napoli, Herpetol. J., 24: 229–236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 18–20, characterized the larva of Rhinella cf. schneideri from Bolivia. Lavilla and Brusquetti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4442: 161–170, discussed the nomenclatural problems surrounding the name Bufo diptychus Cope, 1862, and considered this taxon to be conspecific with, and the name senior to, Bufo schneideri Werner, 1894. 

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