Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella crucifer

Bufo crucifer Wied-Neuwied, 1821, Reise Brasil. Jahr. 1815–1817, 2: 132. Types: Not designated; possibly in AMNH but not recognized. Type locality: "Reise von S. Pedro d'Alcantara duch die Urwälder . . . Barra da Vareda" = Between São Pedro de Alcantara [Santa Catarina] and Barra da Vereda [, Bahia], Brazil; from the text it is clear that the actual type locality can be narrowed down to "entre o corrego Piabanda e o ribeirao issara, ambos afluentes do rio Ilheus, cerca de 40 km acima de Itabuna", as noted by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 19.

Bufo cinctus Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 177. Holotype: Deposition not noted, but part of Wied collection, possibly now in AMNH. Type locality: "Sümpfen von Brasilien"; restricted to "Espírito Santo, Estado do Espírito Santo", Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 19, who discussed the provenance of the type. Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61 (with Bufo ornatus); Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315; Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 18.

Bufo stellatus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 46. Types: Not designated although including animal figured on pl. 18, fig. 1 of the original publication; presumably originally in ZSM or RMNH though not there now, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 373. Type locality: "Provincia Bahiae", Brazil. Synonymy by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 144. Synonymy with Bufo melanotis by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 710; with Bufo agua by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 65; with Bufo crucifer by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226.

Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) semilineatus Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 51. Type(s): Not designated, but including animal figured on pl. 21, fig. 1 of the original, this being ZSM 1331/0 and the holotype according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 373. Type locality: "flumen Itapicuru", Brazil; restricted by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 23, to "[the city of] Queimadas, rio Itapicurú, Bahia", Brazil. Type locality noted by Vanzolini, 1981, in Adler (ed.), Herpetol. Brazil Spix and Wagler: xx, as probably between Caxias (04 50 S, 43 21 W), and Arrarial(02° 37′ S, 44° 41′ W). Synonymy by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 226; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 144.

Bufo (Rhinella) semilineatusCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 111, by implication.

Bufo melanotis Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 710. Types: Not designated; presumably originally in the MNHNP, and still there by implication of comment of communication with MNHNP staff by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 22. Type locality: "Cayenne et au Brèzil"; Cayenne locality questioned by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 21-22. Synonymy with Bufo cinctus by Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 54. Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 61 (with Bufo ocellatus); Müller, 1885, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 7: 672; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 144.

Otolophus cinctusFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Bufo crucifer var. stellataMiranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 134; Lutz, 1934, Mem. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 28: 127, 153.

Bufo crucifer var. melanotisMiranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 134.

Bufo pombali Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 267. Holotype: MNRJ 22311, by original designation. Type locality: "BRAZIL, MINAS GERAIS, Reserva Biológica de Peti, Municipality of São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo (19° 49′ S, 43° 21′ W, altitude 650 m)". Noted to be a hybrid of Rhinella ornata x Rhinella crucifer by Thomé, Zamudio, Haddad, and Alexandrino, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12 1-13. 

Chaunus pombali — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Chaunus cruciferFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella pombali — Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

Rhinella cruciferChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

English Names

Striped Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Distribution

Atlantic Forest of the states of Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Sergipe, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Comment

In the Bufo crucifer group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57, and Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 200-203 (who provided an account and synonymy). Records for Uruguay are in error according to E. Gudynas IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 42. Most similar to members of the Bufo marinus group according to Duellman and Schulte, 1992, Copeia, 1992: 162-172. See accounts by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 18-22, and Heyer, Rand, Cruz, Peixoto, and Nelson, 1990, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 31: 246-247. Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 28, provided a brief account and photo. Haddad and Sazima, 1992, in Morellato (ed.), Hist. Nat. Serra do Japi: 190, suggested that more than one species existed under this binominal. Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 47, applied the name Bufo scaber Daudin to this species incorrectly according to Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315, although the Daudin's animals must be considered part of the original type series under the Code. Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 255-282, revised the species group, removed sibling species from synonymy, and provided an account. Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128-140, suggested that Rhinella crucifer (and by extension, the Rhinella crucifer group) sits phylogenetically within the Rhinella marina group. Lisboa and Nascimento, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 301, provided a collection site in Alagoas, Brazil, and commented on the range. A hybrid with Rhinella ornata, "Rhinella pombali" is found throughout the Atlantic rainforest and in its transitional areas with the Cerrado in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Thomé, Zamudio, Giovanelli, Haddad, Baldissera, and Alexandrino, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 55: 1018-1031, in their study of the molecular biogeography of members of the Rhinella crucifer group first noted noted ambiguity in the mtDNA molecular evidence with respect to the diagnosability of this species and subsequently Thomé, Zamudio, Haddad, and Alexandrino, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12 1-13, documented the hybrid status of "Rhinella pombali".  Oliveira, Ruas, Mendes, and Solé, 2014, Zootaxa, 3784: 97-98, reported on the advertisement call. Oliveira, Weber, and Napoli, Herpetol. J., 24: 229–236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus of this species and a synonym, Rhinella pombali.  

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