Rhaebo guttatus (Schneider, 1799)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhaebo > Species: Rhaebo guttatus

Bufo guttatus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 218. Holotype: "Musei Blochiani" (= ZMB); ZMB 3517 according to Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81. Type locality: "India Orientali"; corrected to Surinam by Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 21.

Bufo Leschenaulti Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 89. Type(s): Not stated, but presumably in MNHNP. Type locality: "India?". Nomen nudum ascribed to Bibron; presumably a jar label name. Synonymy by Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 290.

Bufo leschenaultii Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 662. Holotype: MNHNP 801, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 13. Type locality: "Guiane"; corrected to "Mana (Guyane)" by Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 13.

Phrynomorphus leschenaultiFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32.

Rhaebo leschenaultiiCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo guttatusPeters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81.

Rhaebo guttatusCope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 102.

Bufo crucifer var. pfrimeri Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 134. Holotype: MNRJ 375, according to Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 408. Type locality: Not designated, although clearly Brazil; given as "Poço do Rodrigues, rio da Bagagem, Goiás", Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 19, who considered this a synonym of Rhaebo guttatus. Treated as a member of Rhinella crucifer (as Bufo) by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 64. Placed in the synonymy of Rhaebo guttatus by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 255.

Bufo anderssoni Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 16. Holotype: NHMG 6 according to M.S. Hoogmoed IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 35; recorded in museum records as NHMG Ba.ex.521. Type locality: "Taracuá, Rio Uaupés, Brazil". Synonymy by Barrio-Amorós and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2007, Salamandra, 43: 250-25, Mueses-Cisneros, 2007, Zootaxa, 1662: 58, and Barrio-Amorós and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2008, Salamandra, 44: 59-62.

Bufo melini Andersson, 1945, Ark. Zool., 37A(2): 62. Replacement name for Bufo anderssoni Melin, 1941, thought incorrectly to be preoccupied by Bufo andersoni Boulenger, 1883 (= Bufo stomaticus).

Bufo guttatus guttatusRivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 21.

Bufo crucifer phrimeriBokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 19. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rhaebo guttatusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Rhaebo anderssoniFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Smooth-sided Toad (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 80; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 39).

Spotted Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Andersson's Toad (Rhaebo anderssoni [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Distribution

Amazonian Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela, as well as the Guyanas, and Amazonian central Brazil.

Comment

See comment under Rhaebo glaberrimus. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 62-63, provided a brief account and photo. Lötters, De la Riva, Reichle, and Soto, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Beitr., 49: 75-78, reported this species in Bolivia and diagnosed it from Rhaebo glaberrimus. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 16, provided some comments on distribution in the Venezuela Guyana. Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 8, implied some level of genetic interchange with either Rhaebo anderssoni or Rhaebo glaberrimus (treated as in Bufo) in the foothills of Táchira, Venezuela. Bustamante, Menéndez-Guerrero, and Cisneros-Heredia, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 331, provided the first record for Ecuador. Lutz, 1971, in Bücherl and Buckley (eds.), Venomous Animals and their Venoms, 2: 423-473, was apparently unaware of the objective synonymy of Bufo anderssoni and Bufo melini and listed both names as different taxa. According to Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 16, Bufo anderssoni is related to Rhaebo guttatus and to Rhaebo glaberrimus. Andersson, 1945, Ark. Zool., 37A(2): 63, thought Bufo anderssoni closely allied to Bufo glaberrimus, and Myers and Funkhouser, 1951, Zoologica, New York, 36: 280, thought them synonyms. Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 22, and Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 114, thought that Bufo anderssoni was probably identical to Rhaebo guttatus (as Bufo). Lynch, 2006, Caldasia, 28: 137, discussed misidentifications in Colombia. Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 126-127, provided an account. See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 54-55. Mueses-Cisneros, Cisneros-Heredia, and McDiarmid, 2012, Zootaxa, 3447: 22-40, commented on identifications relating to the delimitation of Rhaebo ecuadorensis and suggested that specimens previously allocated to this species from southern Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil should be carefully evaluated. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 378, for brief account and records for Guyana.

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