Phrynoidis juxtasper (Inger, 1964)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Phrynoidis > Species: Phrynoidis juxtasper

Bufo juxtasper Inger, 1964, Fieldiana, Zool., 44: 154. Holotype: FMNH 77472, by original designation. Type locality: "on the banks of the Sungei Tawan, Kalabakan, Tawau District, Sabah", Malaysia (Borneo).

Phrynoidis juxtasperaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365. Incorrect gender. 

Phrynoidis juxtasper — Schmidtler, 2013, Herpetozoa, Wien, 26: 15-26, by implication of gender correction.

English Names

Sungei Tawan Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Giant River Toad (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 150; Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 28).


Borneo and Sumatra below 1600 m elevation.


In the Bufo asper group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 69-70, for account. Confused by some authors with Bufo asper. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 31-32. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 77-80, provided an account. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 149, provided a brief description. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 28, provided a photograph and a brief account (as Bufo juxtasper). Amram, Zainudin, and Wahid, 2018, Sains Malaysiana, 47: 1-7, reported on the mating call. 

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