Incilius occidentalis (Camerano, 1879)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius occidentalis

Bufo intermedius Günther, 1858, Arch. Naturgesch., 24: 322. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.3.6.43-46 (formerly 58.9.20.3-6) according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 65. Type locality: "Anden von Ecuador"; Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 65, noted that the jar labels gave "Guayaquil and the Andes of Ecuador" and noted that the collector was working at Gualaquiza and at Zamora in the eastern slope of Ecuador. Hoogmoed, 1989, Zool. Verh., Leiden, 250: 27, noted that jar labels also give "Guayaquil" and notes that the published type locality is likely in error, more likely being in Mexico or Central America. Synonymy with Bufo occidentalis by Mendelson, Barclay, Geiser, and Streicher, 2016, Copeia, 2016: 201, who stated they have applied to the ICZN to conserve the name Bufo occidentalis Camerano

Phrynoidis intermedius — Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo occidentalis Camerano, 1879, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat., 14: 887. Syntypes: MZUT (3 specimens), by original designation; MZUT An 210-2 designated lectotype by Santos-Barrera, 2014, Rev. Mexicana Biodiversidad, 85: 419 (the other two specimens, 210-1 and 210-3 rendered as lectoparatypes). Type locality: "Messico" = Mexico. Restricted to "Guanajuato", Guanajuato, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 330, this restricted being invalid by reason of resting on undisclosed information, although Santos-Barrera, 2014, Rev. Mexicana Biodiversidad, 85: 422, suggested that on the basis of the morphology of the lectotype that Guanajuato was a reasonable choice. Coined inadvertantly as a manuscript name of De Filippi and as a junior synonym of Bufo intermedius Günther.

Bufo monksiae Cope, 1879, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 18: 263. Holotype: USNM 9896, according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 66, and Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 36. Type locality: "Guanajuato, Mexico". Restricted to "Guanajuato", Guanajuato, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 330. Synonymy by Firschein, 1950, Copeia, 1950: 220–224.

Cranopsis occidentalisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Rhinella intermedia — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 366.

Ollotis occidentalisFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Cranopsis intermedia — Caramaschi and Pombal, 2006, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 46: 252.

Ollotis intermedia — Frost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius intermedius — Frost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

Incilius occidentalisFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418–419, by implication.

English Names

Pine Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 17; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18).

Gunther's [sic] Tropical Toad (Bufo intermedius: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Distribution

Below 2800 m in the mountains of Durango, Nayarit, Aguascalients, Queretaro, Hidalgo, and Veracruz south through the highlands to the west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico (see comment). 

Comment

Confused with Bufo simus in early literature. In the former Bufo occidentalis group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 49. Resurrected from the synonymy of Bufo simus by Firschein, 1950, Copeia, 1950: 220–224, who discussed the issue that Camerano considered the name Bufo occidentalis to be a nomen nudum coined by De Filipi as synonymous with Bufo intermedius (as maintained by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 65). Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that Incilius occidentalis is a member of an unnamed monophyletic group (the name Incilius alvarius group is availabe: DRF) that includes Incilius alvarius, Incilius occidentalis, Incilius mccoyi, and Incilius tacanensis. López-Mejía and Goyenechea, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 298, provided a record for the Municipality of Tecozautla, Hidalgo, Mexico. Oliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 85–88, provided an account for Mexico (as Ollotis occidentalis) in the older sense of including Incilius mccoyi. Valdes-Lares, Martín-Muñoz de Cote, and Muñiz-Martínez, 2013, Herpetol. Rev., 44: 646, provided a new record for southeastern Durango, Mexico. Santos-Barrera, 2014, Rev. Mexicana Biodiversidad, 85: 414-428, discussed morphometric and systematics, but included a record from north of its segregate Incilius mccoyi in northeastern Sonora. It would seem likely that this is a misidentified specimen of Incilius mccoyi. Moreover and confusingly, the specimens-examined section includes many records that previously were assigned to Incilius mccoyi as well. Bufo intermedius Camerano was removed from Rhinella (as the Bufo margaritifer group) by Hoogmoed, 1989, Zool. Verh., Leiden, 250: 28, who suggested that it was a member of the former Bufo valliceps group. Included in the synonymy of Bufo simus Schmidt, 1857, by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 131. Mendelson, Barclay, Geiser, and Streicher, 2016, Copeia, 2016: 697–701, identified Bufo intermedius and Bufo occidentalis as conspecific. Quintero-Díaz, Carbajal-Márquez, and Chávez-Floriano, 2017, Mesoam. Herpetol., 4: 621–622, provided a maximum elevation record for the species in Aguascalientes, Mexico. 

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