Incilius fastidiosus (Cope, 1875)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius fastidiosus

Cranopsis fastidiosus Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 96. Syntypes: USNM 32584-87; USNM 32585 designated lectotype by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 39 (and neotype of Ollotis coerulescens by Savage, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 25). Type locality: "2500 feet elevation on the slope of the Pico Blanco [, Cantón de Talamanca, Provincia Limón], in the district of Uren", Costa Rica. Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 110, commented on the type locality.See discussion of type locality by Arias and Chaves, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 176–180, who concluded that the type locality is actually "Around the small village of Ourut, elev. 750 m", Provincia de Limón, Costa Rica.

Ollotis coerulescens Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 98. Types: USNM, not located. Type locality: "from 3000 to 5000 feet elevation on Pico Blanco" = Cerro Kamuk (Pico Blanco)[actually Cerro Utyum], probably between the Rio Uren and Rio Lari at 760 m, Talamanca region of southeastern Costa Rica. Synonymy, discussion of type, and type locality by Savage, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 25. Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 110, commented on the type locality and gave it as "Cerro Utyum, between 3000 and 5000 ft, Cantón de Talamanca, Provinca de Limon; 914-1524 m", Costa Rica.

Bufo caerulescensBrocchi, 1882, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 2): 83. Incorrect subsequent spelling of species name.

Bufo fastidiosusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 326. Brocchi, 1882, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 2): 83.

Cranophryne fastidiosaCope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 260, by implication.

Nannophryne coerulescensCope, 1890 "1889", Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 12: 142. Günther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 164: 257.

Nannophryne fastidiosaGünther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 164: 257.

Bufo coerulescensNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 135.

Cranopsis fastidiosaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis fastidiosaFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius fastidiosusFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419.

English Names

Pico Blanco Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Distribution

Atlantic slopes of the Cordillera de Talamanca–Chiriquí of southeastern Costa Rica and adjacent western Panama, 760–2100 m elevation.

Comment

Savage, 1972, J. Herpetol., 6: 25, grouped this species, together with Bufo holdridgei and Bufo peripatetes in an assemblage related to the lowland Bufo valliceps group; subsequently Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 195, named this group the Bufo fastidiosus group and provided an account for this species. Graybeal and de Queiroz, 1992, J. Herpetol., 26: 84-87, supplied behavioral data to support the monophyly of this group plus Osornophryne, although this is incongruent with subsequently published evidence. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo cristatus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 183. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1-34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius coniferus group that includes Incilius coniferus, Incilius chompipe, Incilius epioticus, Incilius fastidiosus, Incilius guanacastes, Incilius holdridgei, Incilius karenlipsae, Incilius periglenes, and Incilius peripatetes. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104–115, compared this species to others in Central America and provided a range map and photograph.

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