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Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Günther, 1864)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus himalayanus

Bufo melanostictus var. himalayanus Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 422. Syntypes: BMNH. BMNH 53.8.12.31, 58.6.24.1 considered a syntype by R.F. Inger in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 48; this discussed by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 148, who noted that several other specimens had been in the syntypic series, and designated BMNH 58.6.24.1 as lectotype. Type locality: "in the Himalayas (in Sikkim and Nepal)"; lectotype from "Nepal".

Bufo himalayanusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 305.

Bufo abatus Ahl, 1925, Zool. Anz., 63: 110. Holotype: ZMB unnumbered in original publication; stated to be ZMB 28016, now lost, by R.F. Inger IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 38; ZMB 4581 (a former paratype) designated neotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 156. Type locality: "Darjeeling", West Bengal, India. Neotype is from "Himalaya". Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 159.

Bufo cyphosus Ye In Sichuan Institute of Biology Herpetology Department, 1977, Acta Zool. Sinica, 23: 55, 62. Holotype: CIB 73I0559, by original designation. Type locality: "Chayü, Xizang [= Tibet], altitude 1540 m", China. by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 102, and Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 128, this rejected by Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 111, and Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 181. 

Duttaphrynus cyphosusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Duttaphrynus himalayanusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Himalaya Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 130; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 28).

Himalayan Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63; Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 158; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 78; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 11).

Himalayan Broad-skulled Toad (Khan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 293).

Günther's High Altitude Toad (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 23).

Darjeeling Toad (Bufo abatus [no longer recognized] Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Ahl's Toad (Bufo abatus [no longer recognized]: Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Projective-occiputed Toad (Bufo cyphosus [no longer recognized]: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 128).

Distribution

Southern slopes of the Himalayas in central and eastern Xizang (China), extreme northwestern Yunnan (China), Azad Kashmir (Pakistan), Nepal, and India (Himanchal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, and Manipur), and adjacent Bangladesh at elevations of 2000–3500 m; presumably also in adjacent Bhutan and Myanmar.

Comment

In the Bufo melanostictus group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107; Dubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 341-410 (who provided an account), and: 77-85, and previous authors. See Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 149-150, for an account. Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 100-102, Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 45-46, Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 130-131, Khan, 2001, Pakistan J. Zool., 33: 293-294, Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 42, and Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 23, provided brief accounts. Ray, 1999, Mem. Zool. Surv. India, 18: 56-61, Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 71, and Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 291, provided brief accounts for India. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 70-71. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 146-148, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 95-96. Li, Lu, Li, Zhao, Hou, and Zhang, 2005, Sichuan J. Zool., 24: 247, provided additional localities in Xizang. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 507-511, provided an account for China and a spot map. Mehta, 2005, in Alfred (ed.), Fauna W. Himalaya, Part 2: 270, reported the species in Himanchal Pradesh, India, without noting specific localities. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 9-10, provided a brief characterization and photograph and did not include Himanchal Pradesh, India, within the range. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 229, provided a brief account (as Bufo himalayanus) including photographs of specimens and habitat. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 28-29, provided an account for Xizang, China, as Bufo himalayanus. The status of Bufo cyphlosus Ye is controversial: considered a synonym of Bufo himalayanus by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 102, and Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 128, this rejected by Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 111, and Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 181. Fang and Zhao, 1992, in Jiang (ed.), Collect. Pap. Herpetol.: 77-88, and Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 133-180. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 128-129, provided a brief account, figure, and map as Bufo cyphlosus. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 500-503, provided an account (as Bufo cyphosus) for China, illustration of the holotype, and spot map. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 223, provided a brief account (as Bufo cyphosus) including photographs of specimens and habitat. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 28-29, provided an account for Xizang, China. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 32, for brief account for Nepal. Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 336–348, compared this species with other Duttaphrynus from northeastern India. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 257, 260, provided accounts (as Duttaphrynus cyphosus: 257; as Duttaphrynus himalayanus: 260), photographs, and a range map for China. 

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