Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus
27 species

English Names

Dutta's Toad (Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 766). .  


Southeastern Iran, possibly to southern Afghanistan; from northwestern Saudi Arabia south along the western mountains south to Yemen and with isolated populations in northeastern Oman and adjacent United Arab Emirates; east to northern Pakistan and Nepal to southern India and Sri Lanka; to southwestern and southern China (including Taiwan and Hainan) through Indochina to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali.


Duttaphyrynus provisionally contains the Bufo melanostictus, Bufo scaber, and Bufo stomaticus groups of previous authors. Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 113-126, discussed (as Bufo) the Chinese species. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 145-162, provided a key and accounts for the species (under Bufo) of Nepal. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 129, suggested that Duttaphrynus is only distantly related to other Asiatic bufonids. Smith and Chiszar, 2006, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 1: 6-8, implied that this taxon should be considered a subgenus of Bufo; see comment under Bufonidae. Matsui, Yambun Imbun, and Sudin, 2007, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 24: 1159-1166, provided evidence that Duttaphrynus is most closely related to other taxa, particularly Pelophryne with a more distant relationship to Didynamipus, Ingerophrynus, Leptophryne, and Sabahphrynus. Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 203-212, placed Duttaphrynus as the sister taxon of Schismaderma. Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 72-83, provided evidence that Duttaphrynus is in a clade containing Schismaderma and Phrynoidis (having not studied Pelophryne). Van Bocxlaer, Loader, Roelants, Biju, Menegon, and Bossuyt, 2010, Science, 327: 679-682, suggested Duttaphrynus to form the sister taxon of Xanthophryne. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested that Duttaphrynus is paraphyletic with respect to Xanthophryne (although this is obscured by their explicit adoption of an out-dated and non-monophyletic taxonomy), its placement as the sister taxon of Bufotes (excluding "Bufo" raddei and "Bufo" brongersmai, sometimes included in that genus), and provided a tree of exemplar species. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 766–777, provided accounts, photographs, and dot maps for the species of ChinaPratihar, Bhattacharya, and Deuti, 2016, MtDNA, Part A, 27: 2881-2882, reported on a 2-locus tree of Duttphrynus from India. Zhang, 2017, Amph. Rept. Fanjing Mts.: 94–97, provided taxonomic and natural history information for the Fanjing Mountains population in northeastern Guizhou, China. Roy, Begum, and Ahmed, 2019, J. Threatened Taxa, 10: 12943, reported an unidentified, possibly new or, more likely from the photograph, Duttaphrynus himalayanus, from Mipi and Anini, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India.  

Contained taxa (27 sp.):

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