Bufotes pewzowi (Bedriaga, 1898)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufotes > Species: Bufotes pewzowi

Bufo viridis var. Pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898, Wissenschaft. Result. Przewalski Cent. Asien Reisen, 3(1): 56. Syntypes: ZISP1488, 1602, 1809, 1818, and clearly including animal figured on pl. 1, fig. 2, of the original publication; ZISP 1818 designated lectotype by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 279 (see their fig. 10A of the lectotype). Type localities: "Oase Tscharchalyk [= Ruoqiang County] am Lob-Nor [= Lop Nor]", "Karassai im nördlichen Kuen-lun [= Kunlun Mountains]", "Dshungaraei [=Junggar Basin]", and "Kok-Far [= Kokyar], Ost-Turkestan", Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Restricted to Kokyar (= Pishan, 37° 25′ N, 77° 10′ E), Xinjiang, China, by lectotype designation. Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 279, noted that this simultaneously published name has priority over Bufo viridis var. strauchi Bedriaga, 1898, and Bufo viridis var. grumgrzimailoi Bedriaga, 1898, under the first revisor action of Fei, Ye, Huang, and Chen, 1999, Zool. Res., Kunming, 20: 295.

Bufo viridis var. strauchi Bedriaga, 1898, Wissenschaft. Result. Przewalski Cent. Asien Reisen, 3(1): 56. Syntypes: ZISP 1051-1052-53, 1066, 1253-54, 1600, 1602, 1604, 1610, 1804, 1810-12, 1814, 2008. ZISP 1053.1 designated lectotype by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 283. Type localities: "Fluss Tumandy bei Kobdo [= Hovd],, nord-östliche Mongolei", "Umgebung von Chami [=Hami Shi]", "Turfan [= Turpan]", "Balgantai-Gol im [=Balguntay He] Tjan-Schan", "Juldus", "Chorgos im Tjan-Schan [= Korgas He, Tianshan]", "Fluss Tauschkan-Darja im südlichen Tjan-Schan", "Sawa-Kurgan bei Chotan", "Oase Chotan", "Oasen Dal und Sampula bei Chotan", "Oase Tscharchalyk, Lob-nor", "Zwischen Tschertschen und der Oase Nija im östlichen Turkestan", "Faschil-Kul, Pamir" (= Jashil Kul acc. toZISP catalogue—M. Stöck, personal commun.), "Unterlauf des Tarim", "Jarkand". Restricted to "Unterlauf des Tarim [probably 2500 feet a.s.l.; 41° N, 86° E]", by lectotype designation and as discussed by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 283. Synonymy with Bufo viridis by Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 130. Synonymy with Bufo pewzowi by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 281.

Bufo viridis var. grum-grzimailoi Bedriaga, 1898, Wissenschaft. Result. Przewalski Cent. Asien Reisen, 3(1): 56. Syntypes: ZISP; ZISP 1813.1 (formerly 1813b) designated as lectotype by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 286, who rejected its distinctiveness from tetraploid Bufo pewzowi strauchi. Type locality: "Tschik-Tym [= Qiktim], Turfan [= Turpan]", Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, 43° 00′ N, 90° 36′ E, according to Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 285, whoc (p. 286) considered this taxon a synonym of Bufo pewzowi strauchi.

Bufo viridis unicolor Kashchenko, 1909, Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 14: 128. Types: Either lost or in the Tomsk State University collection; see discussion by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 286, regarding possible syntypes in Tomsk State University. Type locality: Kok-Muninak Station [= Kokmoinok Settlement], a station on the railway from Bishkek to the Issyk-Kul lake through the Chu River Valley, about 42 °29′ N, 75° 51′ E, Kyrgyzstan, according to Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 287]. Synonymy with Bufo danatensis Pisanetz by Borkin, Rozanov, Terbish, and Caune, 1986, in Vorobyeva (ed.), Gerpetologicheskie Issledovaniya v Mongolkoi Narodnoi Respublike: 127. Synonymy with tetraploid Bufo pewzowi strauchi considered likely by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 289.

Bufo nouettei Mocquard, 1910, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, 16: 153. Syntypes: MNHNP 1909.38, 1909.81-87, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 14. MNHNP 1909.0087 designated lectotype by Stöck, 1998, Z. Feldherpetol., 5: 162. Type localities: "Kachgar [= Kashi Shi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region]", "Cha-Tehcou [= Dunhuang County] (Kan-Sou [= Gansu Province]), sur le versant ouest du Nan-Chan (monts de Humboldt)", "environs de Sou-Tcheou [= Jiuquan County] (Kan-Sou [= Gansu Province]), sur le versant nord du Nan-Chan", China; restricted (implied) by Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 210, to "Kaschgar, Sinkiang, W-China". Restricted by lectotype designation to "Kachgar" (= environs of Kashi Shi, Xinjiang, China, approx. 39° 29′ N, 75° 58′ E, by Stöck, 1998, Z. Feldherpetol., 5: 162, who determined topotypic specimens to be tetraploid, and the paralectotypes to belong to Bufo raddei; and Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 289, who also synonymized this taxon with Bufo pewzowi pewzowi). Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 210, considered Bufo nouettei to be a subspecies of Bufo viridis. Stejneger, 1925, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 66: 8, questionably placed it in synonymy of Bufo raddei, and Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 203; and Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 114, synonymized it with Bufo raddei. Removed from the synonymy of Bufo viridis (or Bufo raddei) by Stöck, Grosse, Schmid, and Steinlein, 1998, Zoology, Jena, 101: 76, who placed it in the synonymy of Bufo pewzowi pewzowi.

Bufo nouttiGuibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 14. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo viridis nouetteiEiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 210.

Bufo tianschanica Toktosunov, 1984, Ecol. Basis Altitude Adapt. Vert. Tien-shan: 130. Syntypes: Deposition not stated; restricted to the "the specimen from the population at Issyk-Kul of which the tetraploid karyotype is shown in Toktosunov (1984: 36, Fig. 7: (3)", by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 290. Type locality: Tien Shan mountains and deserts of the southern regions of the Balkhash lake (Burybaital); restricted by lectotype designation to "Issyk-Kul (lake), Kyrgyzstan". Synonymy with Bufo danatensis by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 265. Synonymy with Bufo pewzowi unicolor by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 290, who discussed its tortuous nomenclatural history.

Bufo danatensis pewzowiFei, Ye, Huang, and Chen, 1999, Zool. Res., Kunming, 20: 295.

Bufo danatensis taxkorensis Fei, Ye, and Huang In Fei, Ye, Huang, and Chen, 1999, Zool. Res., Kunming, 20: 297. Holotype: CIB 74SI0177, by original designation. Type locality: Taxkorgan (37° 40′ N, 75° 12′ E), 3120 m a.s.l., Xinjiang, China. 

Bufo pewzowi taxkorensis — Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 291. Stöck, Steinlein, Lamatsch, Schartl, and Schmid, 2005, Genetica, 124: 255.

Bufo pewzowi pewzowi — Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 279.

Bufo pewzowi strauchi — Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 281.

Bufo tianschanicus — Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 290. Correction of gender of species name.

Bufo taxkorensis — Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 93, 257-258.

Pseudepidalea pewzowiFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Pseudepidalea taxkorensis — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Bufo (Bufotes) pewzowiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufotes pewzowiFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

English Names

Southern Xinjiang Toad (Pseudepidalea pewzowi pewzowi:  Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 266). 

Northern Xinjiang Toad (Pseudepidalea pewzowi strauchiFei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 264). 

Distribution

Found in isolated oasis populations along the margins of the Tarim Basin, northern and eastern slope (and likely the southern slope) of the Tien Shan and the northern slope of Kuen-Lun, and eastern Pamirs, Xinjiang, China; east to western Mongolia and west through eastern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kygyzstan and adjacent Russia.

Comment

In the Bufo viridis group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo; and the Bufo viridis subgroup of Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 269, 281. Removed from the synonymy of Bufo viridis (where it had been placed by Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 130) by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 279–291, who discussed previous confusion of this tetraploid taxon with Bufo oblongus, its junior synonym Bufo danatensis, and Bufo viridis. See preliminary map in Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 308, in connection with Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: App.I; Borkin, Eremchenko, Helfenberger, Panfilov, and Rosanov, 2001, Russ. J. Herpetol., 8: 45-53, discussed its distribution as "Bufo danatensis" in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Wang, Song, and Fang, 1996, J. Sichuan Univ., Nat. Sci., 33: 96-100, reported tetraploid toads, referred to Bufo danatensis from Xinjiang, China. Stöck, Steinlein, Lamatsch, Schartl, and Schmid, 2005, Genetica, 124: 255–272, suggested on the basis of karyology that Bufotes pewzowi is an allopolyploid. Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 93, 257–258, provided their justification for considering Bufotes taxkorensis to be a species and not a local variant of Bufo pewzowi, as suggested by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 291, although subsequent molecular evidence by Stöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 663–689, appears decisive, although Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 798, continue to recognized Bufotes taxkorensis as distinct without addressing evidence.  Zhang, Stöck, Zhang, Wang, Zhou, and Qu, 2008, Genetica, 134: 353-365, reported on phylogeography of the species in Kazakhstan, Dzungaria, and the Tarim Basin region of central Asia. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 550-561 (Bufo pewzowi) and 567-572 (Bufo taxkorensis), provided an account for China and a spot map. Dujsebayeva, 2008, Selevinia, 2008: 100-107, discussed misidentifications of this species in Uzbekistan as Pseudepidalea danatensis. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 233 (as Bufo pewzowi pewzowi), page 234-235 (as Bufo pewzowi strauchi), and page 239 (as Bufo taxkorensis) provided brief accounts including photographs of specimens and habitat. Litvinchuk, Kazakov, Pasynkova, Borkin, Kuranova, and Rosanov, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 290-298, discussed the range with species reference to Russia. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 264–266, provided accounts (as Pseudepidalea pewzowi pewzowi (pp. 264–267), Pseudepidalea pewzowi strauchi (p. 266), Pseudepidalea taxkorensis (p. 267), photographs, and range map for China. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 791–800, provided accounts by subspecies, photographs, and dot maps for China. A tetraploid species according to Betto-Colliard, Sermier, Perrin, and Stöck, 2015, Heredity, 114: 301. See discussion and map by Ficetola and Stöck, 2016, J. Biogeograph., 43: 703–715. 

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