Bufo verrucosissimus (Pallas, 1814)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo verrucosissimus

Rana verrucosissimus Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 15. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Kaukasus.

Bufo colchicus Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "in Colchide" (= Cochis at the Black Sea shore of the Caucasus). Synonymy with Bufo bufo sensu lato by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125 (as Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303. Synonymy with Bufo verrucosissimus by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 239.

Bufo caucasicusMénétriés, 1832, Cat. Raisonne Objets Zool. Voy. Caucase et Perse: 74.

Bufo cinereus var. colchicaEichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 160.

Bufo bufo turowi Krasovsky, 1933, Izvestia Vtorogo Severo-Kavkazkogo Pedagogicheskogo Institute, Vladikavkaz, 10: 90-91. Holotype: ZMM, lost according to Dunayev and Orlova, 1994, Russ. J. Herpetol., 1: 63, although 3 paratypes remain in the ZMM. Type locality: Chernorechenskii dordon of Caucasus reserve (Krasnodar region, Russia); near falling of Urushten river into M. Laba. Synonymy by Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 13-24. Distinctiveness of this nominal taxon rejected by Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 38.

Bufo bufo verrucosissimaTerentjev and Chernov, 1936, Brief Guide Amph. Rept. USSR: 24; Tuniyev and Beregovaya, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 136; Tuniyev and Beregovaya, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 136.

Bufo verrucosissimus verrucosissimusOrlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 15.

Bufo verrucosissimus turowiOrlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 16.

Bufo verrucosissimus circassicus Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 20. Holotype: ZMM A-2267, by original designation. Type locality: Stanistsa Krepostnaya, Krasnodar region, Russia, 40 km from Krasnodar. Distinctiveness of this nominal taxon rejected by Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 38.

Bufo verrucosissimus turoviDunayev and Orlova, 1994, Russ. J. Herpetol., 1: 63. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus verrucosissimusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus circassicusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus turowiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Caucasus Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Caucasian Common Toad (Tuniyev, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 3: 51).

Caucasian Toad (Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 238; Tarkhnishvili and Gokhelashvili, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 4: v).

Distribution

Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia, Georgia, Azerbaiajn, Turkey, west along the northern and southern coasts of Asia Minor; isolated populations in Syria and Lebanon (see comment).

Comment

Borkin, 1987, Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 158: 47-58, first suggested that Bufo verrucosissimus is a distinct species from Bufo bufo, but he did not make the change. See Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 13-24, for subspecies and taxonomic discussion. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 238-245, who noted that Bufo verrucosissimus verrucosissimus and Bufo verrucosissimus circassicus met in a narrow hybrid zone. Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 19-43, rejected subspecies. Tosunoglu and Taskavak, 2001, Ital. J. Zool., 68: 165-168, considered specimens from Turkey as Bufo bufo verrucosissimus and not distinguishable immunologically from Bufo bufo spinosus. Tuniyev, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 3: 51-52, discussed the taxonomic history of this species as well as geographic variation. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 128-130, provided an account (as Bufo bufo verrucosissima) for Iran. See comments under Bufo bufo. Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 19-43, redelimited that species range by including western Turkish populations formerly referred to Bufo bufo spinosus (now assigned to Bufo bufo). The inclusion of the populations in Syria and Lebanon is provisional, based solely on geographic propinquity (DRF). Arntzen, Recuero, Canestrelli, and Martínez-Solano, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 69: 1203–1208, discussed the phylogenetics and species taxonomy of this and near relatives and conclused that Bufo verrucosissimus is a distinct species. See comments under Bufo bufo and Bufo spinosus for additional relevant comments. Nöllert, Grosse, Buschendorf, and Geiger, 2016, Mertensiella, 24: 7–32, summarized and discussed the taxonomic history of this species and its recognition within the Bufo bufo group and provided a range map.  

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.