Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo gargarizans

Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, 9: 483. Type(s): Not stated, presumably originally in BMNH. Type locality: "Chusan . . . Island", East China Sea, off northeastern coast of Zhejiang, China.

Bufo griseus Hallowell, 1861 "1860", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12: 506. Holotype: Deposition not stated, presumably ANSP or USNM. Type locality: "Hong-Kong, China ... in the marshes of Whampoa [= Huangpu]", actually Guangdong Province, China, according to Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 128, who made the synonymy. Formerly placed in the synonymy of Bufo bufo (sensu lato) by Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569, into Bufo bufo gargarizans by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 59, and Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 119, and into Bufo melanostictus by Boettger, 1888, Ber. Offenbach. Ver. Naturkd., 1888: 99.

Bufo maculiventris Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415. Type(s): Presumably NHMW, but not mentioned in recent type lists. Type locality: "Shanghai", China. Preoccupied by Bufo maculiventris Spix, 1824. Considered a junior synonym of Bufo vulgaris (sensu lato) by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 39, so (DRF) presumably associated with Bufo gargarizans.

Bufo sinicus Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415. Types: Presumably NHMW, but not mentioned in recent type lists. Type locality: "Shanghai", China. Nomen nudum. Considered a junior synonym of Bufo vulgaris by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 39, so (DRF) presumably associated with Bufo gargarizans.

Bufo vulgaris var. asiatica Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 39. Types: Presumably NHMW but not mentioned in recent type lists. Type locality: "Shanghai", China. Tentative synonymy by Schmidt, 1926, China J. Sci. Arts, Shanghai, 4: 76. Synonymy by Shannon, 1956, Herpetologica, 12: 30; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 119; Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 128.

Bufo vulgaris var. sachalinensis Nikolskii, 1905, Herpetol. Rossica: 389. Syntypes: ZISP 1934-1936 according to Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 126 (given as 1935, 1936.1 and 1936.2 by Vedmederya, Zinenko, and Barabanov, 2009, Russ. J. Herpetol., 16: 204), and MNKNU 26290 according to Vedmederya, Zinenko, and Barabanov, 2009, Russ. J. Herpetol., 16: 204. Type locality: "Sachalin" (= Sakhalin Island), Russia. Synonymy with Bufo asiaticus by Gumilevskij, 1936, Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 4: 167-171. Synonymy by implication of Shannon, 1956, Herpetologica, 12: 30, and specifically by Borkin and Roshchin, 1981, Zool. Zh., 60: 1802-1812, and Matsui, 1986, Copeia, 1986: 561-579. Synonymy not noted by Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 128.

Bufo bufo gargarizansStejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 59. Boring, 1930, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 5: 47; Boring, 1938 "1938–1939", Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 13: 91; Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 203.

Bufo sachalinensisStejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 59. Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 43.

Bufo bufo asiaticusStejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 59. Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 126; Gee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 22; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 456.

Bufo bufo sachalinensisVan Denburgh, 1924, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 13: 243.

Bufo asiaticus gargarizansSix, 1925, China J. Sci. Arts, Shanghai, 3: 290.

Bufo andrewsi Schmidt, 1925, Am. Mus. Novit., 175: 1. Holotype: AMNH 5769, by original designation. Type locality: "Likiang, 8500 feet altitude, Yunnan [Province]", China. Synonymy by Fu, Weadick, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Zheng, Li, and Hu, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 37: 202.

Bufo tibetanus Zarevskij, 1926 "1925", Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. Leningrad, 26: 74. Syntypes: ZISP 1970-71 (Tibet, plateau of Kham), 2633 and 2637-38 (Tibet, Kham, Jeni-tan, riv. Dsa-tshu"; ZISP 2638.2 designated lectotype by Borkin and Matsui, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 44-48. Type localities: "Tibet, plateau of Kham" (= Tatsienlo [= Kangting], Sichuan and Qinghai, China) and "Tibet, Kham, Jeni-tan, riv. Dsa-tshu"; restricted by lectotype designation to "Tibet, Kham, Jeni-tan, riv. Dsa-tshu" =Yuishu, Dza-chu River, 3700 m, a tributary of the upper Yangtze-Kiang River Basin, southern Qinghai, China, by Borkin and Matsui, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 44-48. Synonymy by Zhan and Fu, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 136.

Bufo minshanicus Stejneger, 1926, J. Washington Acad. Sci., 16: 446. Holotype: USNM 68567, by original designation. Type locality: "Choni on Tao River, Kansu [= Gansu] China". Synonymy by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 163.

Bufo bufo miyakonis Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 47. Types: Zool. Inst., Tokyo (= TIU?), no. 2007, by original designation. Type locality: "Miyakojima, Riu-Kiu Islands", Japan. Synonymy by Inger, 1947, Fieldiana, Zool., 32: 321; Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 209-428.

Bufo vulgaris var. chinensis Pavlov, 1933, Publ. Mus. Hoang Ho Pai Ho, Tien-Tsin, 23: 6. Nomen nudum attributed to Bedriaga.

Bufo asiaticusGumilevskij, 1936, Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 4: 167-171. Blair, 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo: 354.

Bufo bufo wrighti Schmidt and Liu, 1940, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 24: 151. Holotype: FMNH 16829, by original designation. Type locality: "Ho Ni Pa, thirty miles southeast of Moupin [= Baoxing County], Hsikang [now Sichuan]", China. Synonymy with Bufo andrewsi by Matsui, 1986, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 5 (1): 48.

Bufo bufo andrewsiLiu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 202.

Bufo bufo minshanicusLiu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 202.

Bufo wrightiInger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107.

Bufo bufo miyakonisKawamura, Nishioka, and Ueda, 1980, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 4: 114.

Bufo japonicus miyakonisKawamura, Nishioka, and Ueda, 1980, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 4: 115. Nishioka, Sumida, Ueda, and Wu, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 53.

Bufo minshanicusYang, 1983, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 2 (2): 1-9. Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77-85; Matsui, 1986, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 5 (1): 48, and Matsui, 1986, Copeia, 1986: 561-579.

Bufo gargarizans miyakonisMatsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 417.

Bufo andrewsiHu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77-85. Resurrection from synonymy of Bufo bufo.

Bufo gargarizans popei Matsui, 1986, Copeia, 1986: 572. Holotype: AMNH 30510, by original designation. Type locality: "San Chiang, Ch'ungan Hsien, Fukien (Fujian), central China, altitude 360-450 m (27° 42′ N, 117° 47′ E)".

Bufo japonicus miyakonisKawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 1-51.

Bufo japonicus gargarizansKawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 53-91.

Bufo gargarizans andrewsiYe, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 18. Ye and Fei, 1994, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, 3: 26-29; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 132.

Bufo gargarizans minshanicusYe, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 163. Ye and Fei, 1994, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, 3: 26-29; Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 153.

Bufo gargarizans miyakonisYe and Fei, 1994, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, 3: 26-29.

Bufo wolongensis Herrmann and Kühnel, 1997, Sauria, Berlin, 19: 32. Holotype: NHMW 35433: 1, by original designation. Type locality: "Wolong, ca. 4 km östlichfg Sauwan bei der Panda-Forschungsstation, Ufer des Pitiao Flusses, 1400 m NN (103° N, 31° E)", Sichuan, China. Synonymy with Bufo gargarizans andrewsi by Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 523.

Bufo kabischi Herrmann and Kühnel, 1997, Sauria, Berlin, 19: 35. Holotype: NHMW 35434.1, by original designation. Type locality: "Wolong, ca. 2 km südlich von Sauwan bei der Panda-Forschungsstation, Nordhang des montanen Waldes, 1800 m NN (103° N, 31° E)", Sichuan, China. Synonymy with Bufo gargarizans andrewsi by Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 523.

Bufo (Bufo) gargarizansDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) gargarizans gargarizansDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) gargarizans andrewsiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) gargarizans miyakonisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) gargarizans popeiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) kabischiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) minshanicusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) wolongensisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Chusan Island Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41)

Asiatic Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 39; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 245).

Zhousan Toad (Bufo gargarizans gargarizans: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 130).

Chinese Toad (Bufo bufo asiaticus: Liu, 1931, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 5: 53).

Miyako Toad (Bufo gargarizans miyakonis: Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 31; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 46).

Asian Toad (Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 50).

Andrew's Toad (Bufo andrewsi [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

West China Toad (Bufo andrewsi [no longer recognized]: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 132).

Gansu Toad (Bufo minshanicus [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Minshan Toad (Bufo minshanicus [no longer recognized]: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 136).

Tibetan Toad (Bufo tibetanus [no longer recognized] Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 136; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 29).

West China Toad (Bufo gargarizans andrewsi:  Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 248). 

Distribution

Amur River basin and Sakhalin I., Russia; Korean Peninsula; eastern and northeastern China south through central and eastern China south to high Guangxi and Yunnan and west through Sichuan and Qinghai, to Xizang; Miyakojima, Ryukyu Is., Japan; introduced onto the islands of Kita Daitojima and Minami Daitojima and into the northern part of Okinawa.

Comment

In the Bufo bufo group; traditionally treated as a subspecies of Bufo bufo, but considered a distinct species by Gumilevskij, 1936, Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 4: 167-171, Borkin and Roshchin, 1981, Zool. Zh., 60: 1802-1812, and by Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77-85. See Matsui, 1980, Annot. Zool. Japon., 53: 56-68; Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 209-428; and Matsui, 1986, Copeia, 1986: 561-579, for discussion. Considered to be in the Bufo gargarizans group by Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77-85. See account of Bufo andrewsi by Inger, Zhao, Shaffer, and Wu, 1990, Fieldiana, Zool., N.S., 58: 8, who noted problems in diagnosing Bufo gargarizans popei from Bufo andrewsi. Reviewed (as Bufo bufo) by Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 212-214. Considered to be a member of the Bufo gargarizans group by Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77-85. Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 184, considered Bufo andrewsi and Bufo minshanicus to be subspecies. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 245-250. Nishioka, Sumida, Ueda, and Wu, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 53-91, suggested that their Bufo japonicus gargarizans and Bufo japonicus miyakonis differ distinctively from other Bufo japonicus, although mildly less so between each other. Likely this is evidence for species distinctiveness between Bufo miyakonis and Bufo japonicus sensu lato in Japan as well as between Bufo miyakonis and Bufo gargarizans, although Bufo miyakonis and Bufo gargarizans are tentatively combined here under Bufo gargarizans. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 134-135, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Fang and Zhao, 1992, in Jiang (ed.), Collect. Pap. Herpetol.: 77-88, reported on geographic variation in China. Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 28-31, provided an account. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 152, provided a brief account and illustration (as Bufo gargarizans gargarizans). Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 44-46, provided an account (as Bufo bufo gargarizans) for Zhejiang populations. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 55, provided an account (as Bufo gargarizans gargarizans) for Guangxi. Yang, Suh, Min, Kang, and Kim, 2000, Korean J. Genet., 22: 209-221, noted high levels of genetic divergence between Korean and Chinese (Shandong Province) populations. Ye and Fei, 1994, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, 3: 26-29, regarded Bufo andrewsi and Bufo minshanicus to be subspecies of Bufo gargarizans. Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 50-51, provided a brief account, map and figure for South Korea. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 146, reported on introduced populations in the Ryukyus of Japan. Fan, Guo, and Liu, 1998, Amph. Rept. Shanxi Prov.: 50-52, provided an account for Shanxi. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 46-48, provided an account, map, and photograph for Bufo gargarizans miyakonis. Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 123-156, provided an extensive account. The status of Bufo andrewsi is controversial, treated variously as a subspecies of Bufo gargarizans (e.g., Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 18), as a distinct species, or as a synonym of Bufo gargarizans (Fu, Weadick, Zeng, Wang, Liu, Zheng, Li, and Hu, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 37: 202-213). Macey, Schulte, Larson, Fang, Wang, Tuniyev, and Papenfuss, 1998, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 9: 80-87, suggested that Bufo andrewsi was not particularly closely related to Bufo gargarizans. Bufo andrewsi was resurrected from the synonymy of Bufo bufo by Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77-85; also recognized as tentatively distinct by Matsui, 1986, Copeia, 1986: 561-579. Borkin and Matsui, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 43-54, noted that Bufo andrewsi resembles Bufo tuberculatus Zarevskij, 1926 "1925". Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 94-96, provided an account. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 154-155, provided a brief account and illustration (as Bufo gargarizans andrewsi). Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 43-44, provided an account (as Bufo bufo andrewsi) for Zhejiang populations. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 57, provided an account (as Bufo gargarizans andrewsi) for Guangxi. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 85, doubted reports (published?) of Bufo andrewsi from Vietnam, presuming them to be based on misidentified Bufo cryptotympanicus. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 69-70. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 46-47, provided a brief account (as Bufo bufo andrewsi) for Yunnan, China. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 522-541, provided an account for China and a spot map. Macey, Schulte, Larson, Fang, Wang, Tuniyev, and Papenfuss, 1998, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 9: 80-87, suggested that Bufo minshanicus was nested phylogenetically within populations of Bufo gargarizans, supporting the possibility suggested by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 163, that Bufo minshanicus is conspecific with Bufo gargarizans. Bufo minshanicus regarded by Yang, 1983, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 2 (2): 1-9, as a distinct species. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 136-137, provided a brief account (as Bufo gargarizans minshanicus), map, and figure. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 152, provided a brief account and illustration (as Bufo gargarizans minshanicus). See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 72-73. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 224-225 (as Bufo gargarizans andrewsi), page 226-227 (as Bufo gargarizans gargarizans), and page 228-229 (as Bufo gargarizans minshanicus), provided a brief account including photographs of specimens and habitat. Zhan and Fu, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 136-148, reported on molecular phylogeography and considered Bufo tibetanus to be undiagnosable from Bufo gargarizans. Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 207-212, reviewed this species (as Bufo tibetanus) Borkin and Matsui, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 44-48, discussed the systematics of this species as Bufo tibetanus. Bufo tibetanus was regarded as a distinct species by Matsui, 1986, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 5 (1): 48. See accounts (as Bufo tibetanus) by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 104-106, Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 190; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 136-137. Bufo tibetanus was considered the sister species of Bufo tuberculatus byLiu, Lathrop, Fu, Yang, and Murphy, 2000, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 14: 433. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 158, provided a brief account and illustration. See also brief account (as Bufo tibetanus) by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 73-74. Fan, Guo, and Liu, 1998, Amph. Rept. Shanxi Prov.: 55-56, provided an account (as Bufo tibetanus) for Shanxi. Li, Lu, Li, Zhao, Hou, and Zhang, 2005, Sichuan J. Zool., 24: 247-248, provided additional localities (as Bufo tibetanus) in Xizang. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 50-51, provided a brief account (as Bufo tibetanus) for Yunnan, China. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 541-546, provided an account (as Bufo tibetanus) for China and a spot map. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 239-240, provided a brief account (as Bufo tibetanus) including photographs of specimens and habitat. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 29-31, provided an account for Xizang, China. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 248–252, 254, provided an accounts (Bufo gargarizans andrewsi: 248–249; Bufo gargarizans gargarizans: 250–251; Bufo gargarizans minshanicus: 252; Bufo tibetanus: 254), photographs, and range maps for China. I have followed the implications of the most recent molecular studies, but suspect that additional work will show that a number of the named taxa within nominal Bufo gargarizans are species under any definition of that term (DRF). Wang, Wang, Yue, Zhang, and Liu, 2013, Mitochondrial DNA, 24: 186–188, reported on the complete mtDNA genome (as Bufo tibetanus). Wen, Yang, and Fu, 2015, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 32: 427–434, reported on genetic intra- and interpopulation variation in western China and recommended that all populations in western China be referred to Bufo gargarizansFei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 749–751, provided accounts by subspecies, photographs, and dot maps. These authors also recognized Bufo tibetans as a distinct species (account, p. 757–758) without comment.  

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