Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo bufo

Rana Bufo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 210. Syntypes: Not stated or known to exist, athough including specimens figured or described by Gesner, 1554, Hist. Animal. Liber 1-2 or Gesner, 1586, Hist. Animal. Liber 2, page 77 (his Rubeta or phrynum); Jonstonus, 1657, Hist. Nat. Quadrup.: 131, pl. 75; Bradley, 1721, Philosoph. Account Works Nat.: 21, f. 2; Rajo, 1693, Synops. Method. Animal. Quadrup. Serp. Gen.: 252 (toad); see Andersson, 1900, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26: 20, for discussion of Linnaean type specimens. Type locality: "in Europae nemorosis ruderatis umbrosis, imprimis Ucraniae"; restricted to "Schweden" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 18.

Rana Rubeta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 211. Syntypes: Not designated or indicated. Type locality: "Europa". Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 24): 124; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 447; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 671 (as Bufo vulgaris); Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 55; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 545-574; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303.

Rana ventricosa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 211. Types: Not stated; given as NHRM 152 and 153 (total of 3 specimens) by Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1 (which also provides images of NHRM types). Type locality: "Indiis". Synonymy (as Bufo ventricosus Daudin, 1802) by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 672 (as Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 545-574; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303.

Bufo vulgaris Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 28, 124. Types: By indication the frog(s) illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: Pl. 20, 21. Type locality: "Habitat in umbrosis, sepibus humidis, hortorum ambulacris, subterranea humida maxime quaerens", presumably in Europe as these are ecological statements. Synonymy by Retzius, 1800, Fauna Svec., ed. 3, 1: 282; Bechstein, 1800, in Lacépède's Naturgesch. Amphib., 2: 549, and Millet de la Turtaudière, 1828, Fauna de Maine et Loire: 677 (Rana bufo considered a synonym of Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303; Poche, 1912, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 405.

Bufo ventricosusLaurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 26. Possibly a new name inasmuch as Rana ventricosa Linnaeus is not mentioned (DRF).

Buffo vulgarisLacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 329, 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account on page 568. Rejected as a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Buffo strumosus Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 365, 461. Substitute name for Rana ventricosa Linnaeus, 1758; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account on page 598. Rejected as a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Rana pluvialis Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 292, 457. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account starting on page 534. Types: Not stated, although including many animals described and figured by other authors, noted on page 292 of 16mo edition and page 534 of 4to edition. Type locality: "Europe". Intended as a replacement name for Rana rubeta Linnaeus and other pre-Linnaean names. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55. Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; De Betta, 1853, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 35: 304, rejected as a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Bufo ventricosusBonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 13. Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 83.

Bufo cinereus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 185. Types: By indication frogs figured by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 20, 21, and specimen in the "Museum Blochianum" (= ZMB, from India orientali). Type locality: "Carolinensis" and "India orientali". Synonymy by Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 211; Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 183; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 447; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 672 (as Bufo vulgaris); Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 55; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 545-574; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303.

Bufo rubetaSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 227.

Rana acephala Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 146. Type(s): "Musei Meyeriani", present location unknown. Type locality: Not stated. Synonymy with Bufo ventricosus Laurenti, 1768, by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 83, and Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 178. (Rana acephala Schneider is not Bufo acephalus Klein, 1760).

Bufo Rouselei Latreille In Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 1: 108. Types: Not stated, although presumably originally in the MNHNP. Type locality: "midi de l'Europe et an Allemagne" (= southern Europe and Germany). Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): 124; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; and Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 672 (as Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303.

Bufo RoeseliiDaudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 77, pl. 27; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 150. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana scorodesma Hermann, 1804, Observ. Zool.: 243. Type(s): Based on pl. 17 in Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost., and "Bufo fuscus Gmelin" (= ? Bufo fuscus Laurenti and Bufo fuscus Roesel von Rosenhof mentioned in Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, 1(3): 1048. Type locality: Not designated. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 213.

Batrachus buffo Rafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 102. Substitute name for Rana bufo Linnaeus, 1758.

Bufo minutus Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 174. Types: Not designated or none to exist. Type locality: "Piemont". Presumably identical to Bufo minutus Schinz, 1833. Synonymy with Bufo vulgaris by Glückselig, 1851, Lotos, Prague, 1: 225 (under Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 214.

Engystoma ventricosusFitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 65.

Bufo ferruginosus Risso, 1826, Hist. Nat. Principales Product. Eur. Merid., 3: 94. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not explicitly stated, but clearly from somewhere in the "environs de Nice et des alpes maritimes" by implication of the title of the book. Synonymy with Bufo bufo (as Bufo vulgaris) by Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 672.

Bufo tuberculosus Risso, 1826, Hist. Nat. Principales Product. Eur. Merid., 3: 94. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Dans nos jardins" (= from our gardens), presumably in the vicinity of Nice, France. Synonymy with Bufo bufo (as Bufo vulgaris) by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 672.

Bombinator ventricosusCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 112. by implication (see Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 84).

Bufo palmarum Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 111. Types: Not stated, although presumably originally in MNHNP. Type locality: "Sicile" (= Sicily), Italy. Synonymy with Bufo bufo by Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 672 (as Bufo vulgaris); Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 55; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125 (as Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303.

Bufo minutus Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 235. Types: Animal figured in pl. 96, fig. 4 of original. Type locality: "Umgebungen von Turin" (= vicinity of Torino), Italy. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 214.

Bufo alpinus Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 236. Holotype: Animal figured on pl. 96, fig. 5 of the original publication. Type locality: "Schweizerischen Alpen" (= Swiss Alps). Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88, and Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 672 (as Bufo vulgaris); Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 55; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303.

Bufo carbunculus Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 14): unnumbered. Nomen nudum coined as a junior synonym of Bufo vulgaris.

Rana (Bufo) vulgarisGuérin-Méneville, 1838, Icon. Regne Animal, 3: 17.

Phryne vulgarisFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32.

Bufo commutatus Steenstrup, 1846, Versamml. Deutsch. Naturforsch. Aerzte, Kiel, 24: 138 (p. 4 in reprint version available to DRF). Types: Presumably ZMUC. Type locality: "Kopenhagen", Denmark. Synonymy by Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 389; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 304.

Bufo communis Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 38. Error for Buffo vulgaris ("Crapaud comun") of Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: 579.

Bufo communis Bruch, 1862, Würzb. Naturwiss. Z., 3: 185. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not designated. Synonymy by Lesson, 1841, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 3, 12: 61; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 214.

Pegaeus bufoGistel, 1868, Die Lurche Europas: 161.

Bufo cinereus var. minor Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 178. Types: Not mentioned, although presumably originally in SMF. Type locality: "Gebieten des bunten Sandsteins der Vogesen; im Gebiete unserer Fauna ist sie selten, und mir bis jetzt nur auf der Bieberer Höhe bei Offenbach vorgekommen", Germany. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303 (with Bufo vulgaris).

Bufo cinereus var. medius Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 179. Types: Not mentioned, although presumably originally in SMF. Type locality: "im Frankfurter Walde", Germany. (Considered to be equivalent to Bufo commutatus Steenstrup in the original publication.) Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303 (with Bufo vulgaris).

Bufo cinereus var. hybridus Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 179. Types: Not mentioned although presumably in SMF. Type locality: "in einem Sumpfe bei Frankfurt", Germany. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303 (with Bufo vulgaris).

Bufo vulgaris var. acutirostris Lessona, 1877, Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Ser. 3, 1: 1082. Types: Not stated. Type locality: Not stated. Preoccupied by Bufo acutirostris Spix, 1824. Placed here on the basis of geography (DRF). Unavailable name due to being coined as a infrasubspecic category according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Bufo vulgaris var. obtusirostris Lessona, 1877, Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Ser. 3, 1: 1082. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated. Unavailable name due to being coined as a infrasubspecic category according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Bufo vulgaris cinereusLataste, 1880, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 5: 68.

Bufavus meneghinii Portis, 1885, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat., 20: 1-30. Holotype: MGP (no catalog number), articulated specimen [fossil]. Type locality: Sinigaglia, Italy [Miocene]. Likely synonym of Bufo bufo according to Sanchíz, 1998, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 4: 125.

Bufo spelaeus Rivière, 1886, C. R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci., Paris, 15: 453. Types: MAP, isolated humeri, femora and tibiofiulae. Type locality: "grottes de Menton", southeastern France. [Pleistocene fossil.] Synonymy with Bufo bufo by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 214.

Bufo bufo bufoPoche, 1912, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 406. .

Bufo (Bufo) bufo bufoDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Granulated Toad (Rana ventricosa [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 161).

Common Toad (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 272; Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 81; Jenyns, 1835, Manual Brit. Vert. Animals: 301; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 63; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 72; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 44; Borkin and Veith, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 118; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 321; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 74).

Common European Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 37; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Distribution

Europe excluding Ireland, west of a line from about Rouen (northern France) to the Maritime Alps, France, east to the District of Irkutsk (108° 30′ E) in Russia, south to Sicily (Italy), the Balkans, Ukraine, and western and coastal north-eastern Turkey.

Comment

In the Bufo bufo group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See comments under Bufo bankorensis, Bufo gargarizans, Bufo japonicus, Bufo minshanicus, Bufo spinosus, and Bufo tuberculatus. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 231-238. Borkin and Veith, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 118-119, discussed relevant literature and distribution in Europe (in the sense of including Bufo spinosus). Pisanets, 2001, Vestn. Zool., Kiev, 35: 37-44, discussed reduced reproductive compatibility of populations in the west Caucasus and other parts of Russia and Ukraine. However, Pisanets, 2002, Vestn. Zool., Kiev, 36: 61-68, expanded on this discussion. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 275-285, reported on Swedish populations. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 112-115, provided an account for the Belarus population. De Lange, 1973, Beaufortia, 21: 99-116, discussed the status of Bufo bufo spinosus (now Bufo spinosus) and discussed geographic variation in Europe. Özdemir and Baran, 2002, Turkish J. Zool., 26: 189-195, reported Bufo bufo spinosus from western Anatolia, Turkey (these now presumably referrable to Bufo bufo and/or Bufo verrucosissimus; see comments under those records). Naumov, 2005, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 57: 391, provided records of Bufo bufo for Bulgaria. Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 78-79, provided a brief account for Greece. Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 19-43, suggested on the basis of allozyme data that nominal Bufo bufo spinosus is not a lineage, but with the Anatolian (Turkey), Balkan, Italian, and North African populations of Bufo bufo "spinosus" being distantly related to Bufo bufo bufo and, in some cases, more closely related to other species. Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 131, found nominal Bufo spinosus (from Spain) to be the sister taxon of their exemplars of Bufo bufo and Bufo verrucosissimus. See Bufo spinosus account. See detailed account by Böhme, Paggetti, Razzetti, and Vanni, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 289-296, for Italian population. Martens and Snep, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 164-173, provided a detailed account for the species in the Netherlands. Korky, 2004, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 40: 161-174, reported on larval variation in Poland. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 104-106, reported on the Italian populations (as Bufo bufo). Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 86-89, provided an account for the Turkish populations. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 125-131, provided an account for Turkish populations (including at the time what is now Bufo verrucosissimus). Recuero, Canestrelli, Vörös, Szabó, Poyarkov, Arntzen, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Kidov, Cogǎlniceanu, Caputo, Nascetti, and Martínez-Solano, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 62: 71-86, on the basis of mt and nuDNA concluded that Bufo bufo is the sister taxon of Bufo verrucosissimus. Garcia-Porta, Litvinchuk, Crochet, Romano, Geniez, Lo-Valvo, Lymberakis, and Carranza, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 63: 113-130, subsequently largely confirmed these results but suggested that Bufo spinosus be considered a subspecies of Bufo bufo on the basis of non-inclusiveness of some lines of evidence. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 181-188, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35-57, provided a dot map for Romania. Arntzen, Recuero, Canestrelli, and Martínez-Solano, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 69: 1203–1208, discussed the phylogenetics and species taxonomy of this and near relatives. Arntzen, McAtear, Ziermann, Ohler, van Alphen, and Martínez-Solano, 2013, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam, 82: 147-169, reported on the contact zone of Bufo bufo and Bufo spinosus. Waser, Schweizer, Schmidt, and Hertwig, 2015, Amphibia-Reptilia, 36: 425–436, reported on molecular phylogeography in Switzerland and postglacial colonization. Nöllert, Grosse, Buschendorf, and Geiger, 2016, Mertensiella, 24: 7–32, summarized and discussed the taxonomic history of this species and its recognition within the Bufo bufo group and provided a range map. Geiger, Nöllert, Buschendorf, and Grosse, 2016, Mertensiella, 24: 33–57, discussed the geographic and ecological distribution in Germany. Trujillo, Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Arntzen, and Martínez-Solano, 2017, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam, 86: 1–10, reported o hybridizing populations in northwestern France with Bufo spinosus with no evidence of restriction to gene flow. 

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