Breviceps adspersus Peters, 1882

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Brevicipitidae > Genus: Breviceps > Species: Breviceps adspersus

Breviceps adspersus Peters, 1882, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Zool. 3: 177. Syntypes: according to Bauer, Günther, and Robeck, 1996, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 72: 261, syntynpes are ZMB 6294 (formerly 2 specimens, now one in ZMB), MCZ 11619 (formerly one of the specimens registered under ZMB 6294, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 229), ZMB 6281 (formerly 2 specimens, now one remaining), and AMNH 23537 (formerly one of the specimens under ZMB 6281); remaining Berlin specimen under ZMB 6294 designated lectotype by implication ('Type') by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 194. Type locality: "Damaraland (Westafrika) [ZMB 6294], als aus Transvaal, zwischen 25 und 26° Br.; Gerlachshoop [Transvaal; remaining ZMB 6281]; and Botschabelo [Rep. South Africa, AMNH 23537]"; see discussion in Poynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 26: 518-523.

Breviceps pentheri Werner, 1899, Zool. Anz., 22: 116. Types: Presumably NHMW although not in recent type lists. Type locality: "Capland, wahrscheinlich Grahamstown", Eastern Cape Province, Rep. South Africa. Synonymy by Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 82.

Breviceps mossambicus var. occidentalis Werner, 1903, Abh. Math. Physik. Cl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., 22: 383. Holotype: ZSM, lost according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 183. Type locality: "Deutsch-Südwestafrika" = South West Africa = Namibia. Synonymy by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 193; Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 80.

Breviceps parvus Hewitt, 1925, Ann. Natal Mus., 5: 192. Syntypes: AMG (several specimens, now in PEM) and MCZ 10836 (on exchange from PEM, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 230); PEM A1534 designated lectotype by Conradie, Branch, and Watson, 2015, Zootaxa, 3936: 52, who commented on the types generally. Type locality: "Grahamstown", Eastern Cape Province, Rep. South Africa. Synonymy with Breviceps pentheri pentheri by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 192. Synonymy by Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 82.

Breviceps pretoriensis FitzSimons, 1930, Ann. Transvaal Mus., 14: 45. Holotype: TMP 7537, by original designation. Type locality: "Jericho, Pretoria District", Gauteng Province, Rep. South Africa. Provisional synonymy by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 193. Synonymy by Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 80.

Breviceps parvus caffer Hewitt, 1932, Ann. Natal Mus., 7: 109. Syntypes: AMG, by original designation; now in PEM according to Conradie, Branch, and Watson, 2015, Zootaxa, 3936: 52, who designated PEM A849 lectotype. Type locality: "Gleniffer, near Kei Road", Eastern Cape Province, Rep. South Africa. Synonymy by Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 82.

Breviceps pentheri pentheriParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 192.

Breviceps pentheri cafferParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 192.

Breviceps adspersus adspersusPienaar, 1963, Koedoe, 6: 81. Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 79.

Breviceps adspersus pentheriPoynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 82. Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 117.

Breviceps mossambicus adspersusBroadley, 1971, Puku, 6: 111.

English Names

South African Short-head (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 137).

Transvaal Blaasop (Breviceps adspersus adspersus: Pienaar, 1963, Koedoe, 6: 81).

Transvaal Rain Frog (Breviceps adspersus adspersus: Pienaar, 1963, Koedoe, 6: 81).

Blaasop (Breviceps adspersus: Wager, 1965, Frogs S. Afr.: 117; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 102).

Bushveld Rain Frog (Breviceps adspersus: Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 102; Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 108).

Common Rain Frog (Breviceps adspersus: Passmore and Carruthers, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 19: 4; Passmore and Carruthers, 1979, S. Afr. Frogs: 102; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 213).

Common Rainfrog (Breviceps adspersus: Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15).

Common Short-headed Frog (Breviceps adspersus: Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15).

Peters' Rain Frog (Breviceps adspersus adspersus: Lambiris, 1990 "1989", Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 10: 69).

Transvaal Short-headed Frog (Breviceps adspersus: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 87).

Distribution

West-central Angola south to northern Namibia, Botswana, western Zambia, Zimbabwe, southern Mozambique, and Rep. South Africa east from the eastern part of Northern Cape Province and southwestern Eastern Cape Province, possibly into Lesotho.

Comment

Complex differentiation at edge of range has led to a large synonymy, which needs more investigation; see Poynton and Broadley, 1985, Ann. Natal Mus., 26: 523-525, Lambiris, 1988, Lammergeyer, 39: 65-67, and Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 213-214. Engelbrecht and Mulder, 2000, Afr. Zool., 35: 217-221, discussed the genetic differences between Breviceps adspersus adspersus and Breviceps adspersus pentheter. See accounts by Minter, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 172-173, Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 62, and Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 108-109 (who noted distinctive call differences between the nominal subspecies), provided brief accounts. Bates and Haacke, 2003, Navors. Nas. Mus. Bloemfontein, 19: 141, suggested the possible presence of this species (as Breviceps adspersus pentheri) in Lesotho.

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