Ischnocnema Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Brachycephalidae > Genus: Ischnocnema
37 species

Ischnocnema Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 "1861", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 3: 239. Type species: Leiuperus verrucosus Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862, by monotypy.

Basanitia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 13: 851. Type species: Basanitia lactea Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923, by monotypy. Synonymy by Lynch, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 875–876. Provisional synonymy with Ischnocnema by Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2..

Phrynanodus Ahl, 1933, Zool. Anz., 104: 29. Type species: Phrynanodus nanus Ahl, 1933, by monotypy. Synonymy with Eleutherodactylus by Lynch, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 875–876. Provisional synonymy with Ischnocnema by Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2.

English Names

Big-headed Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 81).

Distribution

Central and southern Brazil; adjacent northern Argentina; possibly into adjacent Paraguay.

Comment

Removed from the synonymy of Eleutherodactylus and redelimited on the basis of molecular evidence by Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10092-10097, and Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 1–182, where it had been placed by Caramaschi and Canedo, 2006, Zootaxa, 1116: 43. See comment under Brachycephalidae. Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 1–182, defined species series noted in the comments; these are also summarized by Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 121, who reported on the phylogenetics of the group, as did Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, and Canedo and Haddad, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 610–620, who both confirmed the sister-taxon relationship with Brachycephalus. Taucce, Canedo, Parreiras, Drummond, Nogueira-Costa, and Haddad, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 128: 123–146, provided a molecular phylogeny finding Ischnocnema nanahallux outside the Ischnocnema parva series, and they left it unassigned to any species series, as were Ischnocnema manezinho and Ischnocnema sambaqui. They proposed the Ischnocnema venancioi species series to be comprised of Ischnocnema venancioi, Ischnocnema hoehnei, Ischnocnema parnaso, and Ischnocnema colibri. These authors also identified a rather large number of likely unnamed species. 

Contained taxa (37 sp.):

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