Bombina maxima (Boulenger, 1905)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bombinatoridae > Genus: Bombina > Species: Bombina maxima

Bombinator maximus Boulenger, 1905, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 7, 15: 188. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.25.66-68 (formerly 1905.1.30.69-71), according to Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 70. Type locality: "near Tong Chuan Fu in Yunnan (altitude about 6000 feet)", China.

Bombina maximaStejneger, 1905, Science, 22: 502. Schmidt, 1927, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 54: 556.

Bombina (Glandula) maximaTian and Hu, 1985, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 4 (3): 219–224.

Bombina (Grobina) maximaDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 98; Yu, Yang, Zhang, and Rao, 2007, J. Herpetol., 41: 373.

Bombina maxima maximaYu, Yang, Zhang, and Rao, 2007, J. Herpetol., 41: 365.

 

English Names

Yunnan Firebelly Toad (Bombina maxima: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 38).

Large-webbed Bell Toad (Bombina maxima: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 60).

Distribution

Yunnan, China, and likely to Myanmar.

Comment

Accounts provided by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 154–155; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 435–436; Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 110–117; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 38–41; Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 42–46; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China 113; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 60; and Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 99. Ohler, Marquis, Swan, and Grosjean, 2000, Herpetozoa, Wien, 13: 71, noted that records of Bombina maxima from Vietnam are referrable to Bombina microdeladigitora, and provided a brief account and illustration. Bogaerts, 2000, Podarcis, 1: 44–49, also provided a brief account. Herrmann, Kühnel, and Kabisch, 1997, in Böhme et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Bonn.: 161–168, compared this species with Bombina fortinuptialis and Bombina microdeladigitora. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 37–38. Bombina microdeligitora was considered a synonym (and color variant) of Bombina maxima by Stugren, 1986, Stud. Univ. Babes-Bolyai, Biol., 31: 40, but recognition was continued by Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 115. Yu, Yang, Zhang, and Rao, 2007, J. Herpetol., 41: 365–377, reported on phylogenetic relationships and confirmed the synonymy of Bombina fortinuptialis and Bombina microdeladigitora. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 70–75, provided an account, illustration, and dot map, and continued the recognition of Bombina microdeladigitora, but that volume appears to have been written prior to the revision by Yu, Yang, Zhang, and Rao, 2007. See accounts (as Bombina microdeladigitora), map, and figure by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 44–46, and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 60. Ohler, Marquis, Swan, and Grosjean, 2000, Herpetozoa, Wien, 13: 74, provided comments relevant to the Vietnam population (as Bombina microdeladigitora). Herrmann, Kühnel, and Kabisch, 1997, in Böhme et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Bonn.: 161–168, compared Bombina microdeladigitora, Bombina maxima and Bombina fortinuptialis. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 81–104, provided the range in Vietnam (as Bombina microdeladigitora). See also brief account (as Bombina microdeladigitora) by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 39–40. S. Hu in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 107, rejected the record for Guangxi, China (as Bombina microdeladigitora). Bain and Nguyen, 2004, Am. Mus. Novit., 3453: 9, provided the record (as Bombina microdeladigitora) for Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 147, provided a photograph (as Bombina microdeladigitora). See redescription Bombina fortinuptialis by Tian and Wu IN Hu, Tian, and Wu, 1981, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, 5 (17): 111–120, and brief account, map, and figure, by Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 58–59 (as Bombina fortinuptialis). Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 38, provided an account (as Bombina fortinuptialis) for Guangxi. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 22–24, provided brief accounts for Yunnan, China. See photographs, maps, descriptions of geographic range and habitats, and conservation statuses (for nominal Bombina fortinuptialis and Bombina microdeladigitora) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 155. Zheng, Fu, and Li, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 52: 70–83, continued recognition of Bombina microdeladigitora, Bombina lichuanensis, and Bombina fortinuptialis, and provided molecular evidence consistent with this view. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 106–108, provided brief account of nominal Bombina fortinuptialis (p. 106), Bombina microdeladigitora (p. 107), and Bombina maxima (p. 108), including photographs of specimens and habitat. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 126–127 (as Bombina fortinuptialis), 133 (as Bombina maxima), and 134 (as Bombina microdeladigitora), provided accounts, photographs, and maps.

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