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Anura Fischer von Waldheim, 1813

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura
6432 species

Salientia Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 24. Order containing frogs. See comment.

Ecaudata Scopoli, 1777, Intr. Hist. Nat. Sist. Gen. Lapid. Planat. Animal.: 464. Explicit order containing Rana (all frogs known at that time).

Ranae Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 5. "Division" within Reptilia for frogs.

Anoures Duméril, 1805, Zool. Analyt. Meth. Nat. Class. Anim.: 93. Unavailable family-group name for frogs within Duméril's order Batracii. Dubois, 2004, Alytes, 22: 1-14, regarded this as the original use of Anura, but Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 357, who beyond the fact that this is an explicit family-group name, saw no justification in recognizing non-Latin names in ranks not regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 86, and Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 253, continued to argue for this being the oldest available name for the taxon composed of all salamanders, avoiding Dumeril's own words that this is the "Famille. Anoures".

Ecaudati Duméril, 1805, Zool. Analyt. Meth. Nat. Class. Anim.: 92. Latin synonym of Duméril's Anoures (a family-group taxon). A subsequent use of Scopoli's Ecaudata, but redelimited and ranked at the family level (and therefore unavailable for above-family-group taxonomy).

Ecaudata Oppel, 1811, Ordn. Fam. Gatt. Rept.: 82; Oppel, 1811, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 16: 409. Explicit family (and therefore unavailable) containing all frogs. Presumably a subsequent use and inappropriate reranking of Ecaudata Scopoli, 1777, and or Ecaudati Duméril, 1806.

Anuri Fischer von Waldheim, 1813, Zoognosia Tab. Synopt. Ill., Ed. 3, 1: 58. Unranked taxon (above family-group) for frogs. Identical in content to Fischer von Waldheim's Ecaudati. Presumably a reranking and latinization of Anoures Duméril, 1806, an unavailable family-group name.

Ecaudati Fischer von Waldheim, 1813, Zoognosia Tab. Synopt. Ill., Ed. 3, 1: 58. Unranked taxon (above family-group) for frogs. Identical in content to Fischer von Waldheim's Anuri. A presumed reranking and intended subsequent use of Ecaudati Duméril, 1806.

Ranacea Wilbrand, 1814, Ueber Class. Thiere: 117. Order for frogs.

Anuria Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse Nat.: 78. Suborder for frogs. Presumably a reranking and latinization of Anoures Duméril, 1806.

Batraciens Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 111. Non-Latinized ordinal name for frogs.

Dorsipares Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 111. Non-Latinized subordinal name for frogs other than Pipa.

Aquipares Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 3, 3: 111. Non-Latinized subordinal name for Pipa.

Salientia Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 163, 166. Order containing frogs. A subsequent usage and modification of content from Salientia Laurenti, 1768, to exclude Proteus.

Anoura Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 213. Explicit order for all frogs, attributed to Duméril and considering Salientia Laurenti to be a synonym (although Laurenti's Salientia included Proteus). A reranking and latinization of Anoures Duméril, 1806.

Acerci Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Unavailable name for a taxon to include all frogs, coined as a family.

Pygomolgaei Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 278. Unranked taxon, above family-group, to contain all frogs.

Bdalsipodobatrachi Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 278. Taxon, above the family-group, to contain Hyla, which could be construed to be an unavailable synonym of Hylidae.

Diadactylobatrachi Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 278. Heterogenous taxon, coined above the family-group, for Breviceps, Pseudopipa, Chascax, and Rana).

Phyllopodobatrachi Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 278. Heterogenous taxon, coined above the family-group, containing pipids, bombinatorids, bufonids, and Calamita Ritgen, 1828 (seemingly not Hyla in this context).

Ranae Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 131. Order for frogs.

Phaneroglossae Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 131. Unavailable name given as a family (below order, above division and genus) for frogs (including Xenopus) and transforming salamanders.

Miura Van der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 307. Order containing frogs.

Heteromorpha Fitzinger, 1835, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 1: 107. Order for frogs.

Batrachia Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 25. Order for frogs. An apparent modification in content of Batrachii Latreille, 1800, or Batrachia Rafinesque, 1814, both of which also included salamanders.

Salientia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 266. Order for frogs. Attributed to Laurenti, 1768, but excluding Proteus; therefore synonymous with Salientia Merrem, 1820.

Anura Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 270. Explicit order for frogs. Presumably an emendation of Anoura Gray, 1825, although possibly a reranking and latinization of Anoures Duméril, 1806.

Raniformia Hogg, 1839, Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S.,, 3: 271. Order for frogs. Possibly a subsequent use and emendation of Ranae Wagler, 1830.

Anoures Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53. Non-Latin suborder for frogs. Presumably a reranking of Anoures Duméril, 1806.

Phanéroglosses Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53. Non-Latinized "Groupe" (between suborder and family) for frogs of the families Raniformes, Hylaeformes, and Bufoniformes, and excluding Pipiformes. Not Phaneroglossae Wagler, 1830.

Phrynaglosses Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: plate opposite page 53. Non-Latin "Groupe" (between suborder and family-group) for frogs of the family Pipiformes.

Chersobatae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group) to include Phyllobatae, Alytae, Bufones, and Bombitatores.

Geodytae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 32. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group) containing Hylaedactyli (= synonym of Microhylinae in this context), Pseudae, Gastrophrynae, and Xenopoda.

Hypsibatae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Name coined as a "Section" (above family-group), containing Hylae (= Hylidae plus various ranid, hyperoliid, and brachycephaloid frogs with expanded toe tips).

Hydronectae Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. "Section" (above family-group) including various ranids, former leptodactylids (e.g., Cycloramphus, Physalaemus, Telmatobius), bufonids (Atelopus), Rhinoderma, megophryids, and alytids.

Linguata Gravenhorst, 1845, Das Thierreich: 43. Frogs, excluding Aglossa.

Anouri Mayer, 1849, Verh. Naturhist. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 6: 198. Suborder for frogs. Presumably a latinization of Anoures Duméril, 1806, or of Duméril and Bibron, 1841.

Ranae Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1. Order for frogs. Subsequent use of Ranae Wagler, 1830.

Salientia Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 3. Suborder for frogs.

Anura Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol.: 36. Order for frogs. Presumably a subsequent usage of Anura Hogg, 1839.

Batrachia Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 4. Order for frogs. An apparent subsequent usage of Batrachia Tschudi, 1838.

Aglossa Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 4. Suborder for Pipa and Dactylethra.

Phaneroglossa Stannius, 1856, Handb. Zootomie Wiebelthiere, 2: 4. Suborder for frogs not in Aglossa. Latinization of Phanéroglosses Duméril and Bibron, 1841.

Opisthoglossa Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 339. Unranked taxon, below Anura and above the family-group, to contain all frogs excepting Proteroglossa (Rhinophrynidae), and Aglossa (Pipidae, Dactylethridae, and Myobatrachidae).

Proteroglossa Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 339. Unranked taxon (below Anura and above the family-group), containing solely Rhinophrynidae. Considered by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: x, as an unranked taxon, below suborder and above series, containing solely Rhinophrynus, along with Opisthoglossa to be a part of Phaneroglossa.

Oxydactyla Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 341. Series (above the family-group) within Opisthoglossa. Containing the round-toed frogs: ranids, bufonids, discloglossoids.

Bombinatorina Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 347. Coined as a Section, apparently above the family-group to  contain Bombinatoridae.

Brachycephalina Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 347. Coined as a Section, apparently above the family-group to contain Phryniscidae and Brachycephalidae. See entry under Brachycephalidae.

Bufonina Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 347. Coined as a Section, apparently above the family-group to contain Rhinodermatidae, Engystomatidae, Bufonidae.

Hylaplesina Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 347. Coined as a Section, at the suprafamilial or infraordinal level (unclear in context), to contain Hylaedactylidae, Brachymeridae, Hylaplesidae.

Hylina Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 347. Coined as a Section, either at the suprafamilial or infraordinal level (unclear in context), to contain Polypedatidae, Hylodidae, Hylidae, Phyllomedusidae, Pelodryadidae.

Micrhylina Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 347. Coined as a Section, either at the suprafamilial or infraordinal level (unclear in context), to contain Micrhylidae (but not Engystomatidae). Incorrect original spelling.

Ranina Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 347. Coined as Section, either at the suprafamilial or infraordinal level (unclear in context), to contain Ranidae, Cystignathidae, Discoglossidae, Asterophrydidae, Uperoliidae, and Alytidae).

Aglossa Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 339, 348. Presumably a subsequent use of Aglossa Stannius, used at either the suprafamilial or infraordinal level (unclear in context) to contain Myobatrachidae in addition to the original Dactylethridae and Pipidae.

Platydactyla Günther, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 341; Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 69. A series (above family-group) within Opisthoglossa for "flat toed" frogs, including rhacophorids, platymantines, hylids, Hylodes (in the sense of including Eleutherodactylus), and microhylids.

Rhinophrynina Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: xiv. Treated as a series, clearly above the family rank, but below suborder, for Rhinophryne.

Bombinatorina Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: x. A seeming modification in content of Bombinatorina Günther, 1848, treating Bombinatorina as a series, above the family-group rank, but below suborder, to contain Bombinatoridae, Brachycephalidae, and Phryniscidae.

Bufonina Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: x. Treated as a series, above the family-group rank, but below suborder, for Bufonidae, Rhinodermatidae, Engystomatidae, and Bufonidae. A subsequent use, albeit with a definite rank, of Bufonina Günther, 1858.

Hylina Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: x. A subsequent use, but with a definite rank, series, above the family rank, but below suborder, for Hylidae, Rhacophoridae, Hylodidae, Pelodryadidae, Phyllomedusidae.

Ranina Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: x. Subsequent use of Ranina Günther, 1858.

Micrhylina Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: x. Treated as a series, above the family-group rank, but below suborder for Micrhylidae and Dendrobatidae. A subsequent use, but reformulation of content, of Micrhylina Günther, 1858.

Haplosiphona Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 1. Series within Aglossa for Pipidae and Dactylethridae.

Salientia Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 1. Subsequent usage of Salientia Gray, 1850.

Aglossa Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 1. Unranked taxon (between suborder and series) for Dactylethridae and Pipidae (series Haplosiphona) and Myobatrachdae (series Diplosiphona).

Opisthoglossa Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 1. An unranked taxon (above family, below suborder) for all frogs not in Aglossa or Proteroglossa (Rhinophrynidae). A subsequent use of Opisthoglossa Günther, 1858, with modified content. Considered by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 2, to part of Phaneroglossa, along with Proteroglossa.

Diplosiphona Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 3. Series (above family-group) within Aglossa for Myobatrachidae.

Phrynoglossae Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 61. Name coined as equivalent to Aglossa and attributed to Bibron. Apparently a Latinization of Phrynoglosses Duméril and Bibron, 1841.

Opisthoglossa Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 62. Unranked taxon (above family) to contain Bombinatorina, Ranina, Bufonina, Hylina, Micrhylina [sic], and Hylaplesina. A subsequent use of Opisthoglossa Günther, 1858.

Ranina Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 69. Subsequent use of Ranina Günther, 1858.

Oxydactyla Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 69. Subsequent use of Oxydactyla Günther, 1858.

Bombinatorina Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 69. A subsequent use of Bombinatorina Günther, 1858, not of Günther, 1859 "1858".

Bufonina Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 69. Subsequent use of Bufoninae Günther, 1859.

Hylina Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 69. A subsequent use of Hylina Günther, 1858.

Micrhylina Günther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 3: 69. A subsequent use of Micrhylina Günther, 1858, not of Micrhylina Günther, 1859 "1858".

Cycloglenides Bruch, 1862, Würzb. Naturwiss. Z., 3: 221. Above-family-group taxon to include his Hyloides and Ranoides.

Plagioglenides Bruch, 1862, Würzb. Naturwiss. Z., 3: 221. Above-family-group taxon to include his Bufonides.

Plagioglena Bruch, 1862, Würzb. Naturwiss. Z., 3: 221. Alternative original spelling of Orthoglenides.

Orthoglenides Bruch, 1862, Würzb. Naturwiss. Z., 3: 221. Above-family-group taxon to include his Pelodytides and Pelodytides.

Orthoglena Bruch, 1862, Würzb. Naturwiss. Z., 3: 221. Alternative original spelling of Orthoglenides.

Ranae Duméril, 1863, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg, 9: 302. Order for frogs. Subsequent use of Rana Wagler, 1830.

Arciferi Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16: 181. Unranked taxon (although implied to be a suborder of Anura) including the arciferal frogs (including archeobatrachians). Includes Asterophrydidae in Arciferi.

Raniformes Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16: 181. Unranked taxon (although implied to be a suborder) for ranids, rhacophorids, petropedetids, hyperoliids, and Leptopelis). Likely a subsequent use and reranking of Raniformes Duméril and Bibron (a family-group).

Raniformia Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16: 183. Alternative spelling of Raniformes Cope, 1864.

Bufoniformes Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16: 182. Name only mentioned but not diagnosed nor content noted. It is unclear in context whether the relevant sentence is complete. Not Bufoniformes of Duméril and Bibron, 1841, which is a family-group name.

Bufoniformia Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 100. Series or suborder of frogs containing Rhinophrynidae, Engystomidae, Brachymeridae, Bufonidae, and Dendrobatidae. Presumably a subsequent use with emendation of Bufoniformes Cope, 1864.

Raniformia Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 114. One of four series or suborders of frogs, containing Ranidae (sensu lato). A subsequent use of Raniformia Cope, 1864.

Arcifera Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 97. One of four "series or suborders" of frogs, the other being Raniformia, Aglossa, and Bufoniformia. Contains Discoglossidae, Asterophrydidae, Scaphiopodidae, Hylidae, and Cystignathidae. An apparent subsequent usage and emendation of Arciferi Cope, 1864.

Aglossa Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 98. Apparent subsequent use of Aglossa Stannius, 1856, as a suborder or series (above family-group) for Pipidae and Dactylethridae, as well as reconceived to contain Palaeobatrachidae (fossil).

Raniformia Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 190. Unranked taxon (above family-group) for Brevicipitidae, Engystomidae, Phryiscidae, Dendrobatidae, Colostethidae, and Ranidae. A subsequent use and reformulated content of Raniformia Cope, 1864.

Theriomorpha Owen, 1866, Anat. Vert., 1: 15. Suborder of Batrachia for frogs. Named as a junior synonym of Anura.

Aglossa Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 4. Apparent subsequent use of Aglossa Stannius, 1856.

Bufoniformia Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 189. A subsequent use of Bufoniformia Cope, 1865, albeit with a definite rank, suborder, for "families of the toothless Anura", including Rhinophrynidae, Bufonidae, Engystomidae, Brachymeriae, and Dendrobatidae.

Gastrechmia Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 190. Coined as a "tribe (or sub-order, clearly above the family-group) [for Hemisidae] of equal isolation as Aglossa, Arcifera, and Raniformia".

Batrachia Huxley, 1871, Man. Anat. Vert. Animals: 173. Taxon to contain frogs.

Pelobatidea Huxley, 1871, Man. Anat. Vert. Animals: 189. Taxon to contain Pelobates among others.

Raniformia Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 7. Unranked taxon presumably above the family-group level, between order and family for Ranidae (sensu lato) and Colostethidae. Cope explained that this is a subsequent use of Raniformia [actually Raniformes, a family-group] of Duméril and Bibron, but with the content modified.

Bufoniformia Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 8. A subsequent use of Bufoniformia Cope, 1864, with modification in content. Unranked taxon (presumably above the family-group) between order and family for Rhinophrynidae, Bufonidae, and Batrachophrynidae. Noted to be a subsequent usage of Bufoniformia [actually Bufoniformes—DRF] Duméril and Bibron, but modified in content.

Firmisternia Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 8. Unranked taxon between order and family for Dendrobatidae (excl. Colostethidae), Phryniscidae, Engystomidae, and Brevicipitidae. Excludes Raniformia and Gastrechmia.

Gastrechmia Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 8. Unranked taxon (between order and family) for Hemisidae.

Aglossa Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 9. Unranked taxon between order and family for Pipidae (excluding Dactylethridae, which was originally included by Stannius, 1856).

Arcifera Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 9. Unranked taxon between order and family for Cystignathidae, Hemiphractidae, Hylidae, Scaphiopidae, Pelodytidae, Asterophrydidae, and Discoglossidae. An apparent subsequent usage of Arcifera Cope, 1865, with mild redefinition.

Odontoglossa Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 9. Unranked taxon, coined between order and family, for Dactylethridae (excluding Pipidae), attributed to Günther, 1859, Cat. Considered a junior synonym of Aglossa by Boulenger, 1882.

Aglossa Hoffmann, 1878, in Bronn (ed.), Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, 6(2): 598. Suborder containing Dactylethridae, Palaeobatrachidae, and Pipidae. An apparent subsequent use of Aglossa Cope, 1865.

Arciferi Hoffmann, 1878, in Bronn (ed.), Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, 6(2): 598. Suborder containing Discoglossidae, Asterophrydidae, Pelodytidae, Scaphiopodidae, Hylidae, Hemiphractidae, Cystignathidae, Rhinophrynidae, and Bufonidae. An apparent subsequent usage of Arciferi Cope, 1864.

Raniformia Hoffmann, 1878, in Bronn (ed.), Die Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, 6(2): 608. Suborder containing Brevicipitidae, Engystomidae, Phryniscidae, Colostethidae, Dendrobatidae, Ranidae (sensu lato). A subsequent use of Raniformia Cope, 1866.

Costati Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Subtribe (above the family-group in this context) for Discoglossidae and Alytidae.

Ecostati Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Subtribe (above the family-group in this context) for Asterophrydidae.

Laevogyrinidae Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Suborder for frogs, excluding Aglossa, Asterophrydidae, Discloglossidae, and Alytidae.

Procoelidae Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Alternative name for Laevogyrinidae.

Mediogyrinidae Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Suborder containing the tribe Aglossa (content not listed) and tribe Opisthoglossa (Asterophrydidae, Discoglossidae, and Alytidae). Tribe in this context appears to be above the family-group level.

Opisthocoelidae Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Alternative name for Mediogyrinidae.

Opisthoglossa Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Tribe (above family-group in this context) for Asterophrydidae, Discoglossidae, and Alytidae.

Ecostati Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Subtribe (in this sense above the family-group) to contain Asterophrydidae.

Costati Lataste, 1879, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 3: 339. Subtribe (in this sense above the family-group) to contain Discoglossidae and Alytidae.

Hylaeformes Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 1): 9, 28. Unranked taxon (above family-group) containing Hylidae and Microhylidae—a reranking of Hylaeformes Duméril and Bibron, an explicit family.

Raniformes Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 1): 9. Unranked taxon (above family-group) containing Ranidae, Discoglossidae, and Alytidae—a reranking of Hylaeformes Duméril and Bibron, an explicit family.

Hemiphractiformes Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 1): 9. Unranked taxon (above family-group), attributed to Duméril, containing (presumably) Hemiphractidae.

Hylaplésiformes Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 1): 9. Unranked taxon (above family-group), attributed to Duméril, containing (presumably) Hylaplesidae.

Dactylériformes Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 1): 9. Anranked taxon (above family-group), with an original misspelling, attributed to Duméril, containing (presumably) Dactyletheridae.

Pipaeformes Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 1): 9. Anranked taxon (above family-group), attributed to Duméril, containing (presumably) Pipidae.

Aglossa Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 2. Suborder for Pipidae and Dactylethridae. An apparent subsequent use of Aglossa Stannius, 1856.

Arcifera Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 1. Series within Phaneroglossa (all frogs except for Aglossa), including all arciferal frog groups. Am apparent subsequent usage of Arcifera Cope, 1865.

Ecaudata Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 1. Order for frogs. An apparent subsequent use of Ecaudata Scopoli, 1777.

Phaneroglossa Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 2. Suborder explicitly equivalent in content to Phanéroglosses Duméril and Bibron, but redefined from that of Wagler.

Firmisternia Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 2. A subsequent use of Firmisternia Cope, 1889, but considered a series with Phaneroglossa, redefined to contain Raniformia, Firmisternia, and Gastrechmia Cope, 1877. Containing Ranidae (sensu lato, including arthroleptids, hyperoliids, rhacophorids), Dendrobatidae, Engystomatidae, and Dycophidae.

Acaudata Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 100. Order for frogs.

Oxydactylia Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 104. "Gruppe" (above family-group) for Ranidae (sensu lato), Pelobatidae, Rhinophrynidae, Engystomatidae, and Bufonidae (sensu lato).

Discodactylia Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 109. "Gruppe" (above family-group) for Hylidae, Hylaplesidae, Hylaedactylidae, and Phyllomedusidae.

Arcifera Cope, 1889, Am. Nat., 23: 862. Suborder for Discoglossidae, Bufonidae, Dendrophryniscidae, Asterophrydidae, Pelodytidae, Scaphiopidae, Hylidae, Cystignathidae, Amphignathodontidae, and Hemiphractidae. An apparent subsequent usage of Arcifera Cope, 1865, with mild redefinition.

Firmisternia Cope, 1889, Am. Nat., 23: 862. Suborder for Engystomidae, Phryniscidae, Dendrobatidae, Cophylidae, Dyscophidae, Colostethidae, Ranidae, and Ceratobatrachidae. Effectively a subsequent use of Firmisternia Boulenger, 1882, not Firmisternia Cope, 1875, but reranked as a suborder.

Arcifera Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 246. "Division" (below suborder, above family) containing Bufonidae, Dendrophryniscidae, Pelodytidae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Cystignathidae, Amphignathodontidae, Hemiphractidae, and opisthocoelous families. An apparent subsequent usage of Arcifera Cope, 1865, with mild redelimitation.

Firmisternia Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 246. "Division" (above family, below suborder) for Brevicipitidae, Engystomidae, Phryniscidae, Dendrobatidae, Dyscophidae, Cophylidae, Colostethidae, Ranidae, Ceratobatrachidae. A subsequent use and reranking (division rather than series) of Firmisternia Boulenger, 1882, not Firmisternia Cope, 1875.

Costata Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 49. Suborder containing solely Discoglossidae. An emendation and, explicitly, a subsequent use of Costati Lataste.

Linguata Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 49. Suborder for all frogs, excepting those in Aglossa (Pipidae) and Costata (Discoglossidae). An explicit subsequent use of Linguata Gravenhorst, 1845, but explicitly redefined to include Costata.

Bufonacea Haeckel, 1909, Nat. Schöpfung Geschich., 2: 627, 640. Order for taxon including Bufo and Phryniscus.

Callulacea Haeckel, 1909, Nat. Schöpfung Geschich., 2: 627, 640. Order for taxon including Callula and Hylaplesia.

Ranacea Haeckel, 1909, Nat. Schöpfung Geschich., 2: 627, 640. Order for taxon including Rana and Bombinator.

Hylacea Haeckel, 1909, Nat. Schöpfung Geschich., 2: 627, 640. Order for taxon including Hyla and Hylodes.

Anomocoela Nicholls, 1916, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 128: 86. Tribe (above family, below suborder) for Pelobatidae (sensu lato). Apparently a subsequent usage of Anomocoela Nicheolls, 1916.

Diplasiocoela Nicholls, 1916, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 128: 87. Tribe (above family, below suborder) under Anura for Ranidae and Engystomatidae. Coined as a synonym of Firmisternia.

Opisthocoela Nicholls, 1916, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 128: 86. Tribe (above family-group in this use) under Anura to contain Discoglossidae (sensu lato).

Procoela Nicholls, 1916, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 128: 87. Tribe (above family-group, below suborder) under Anura to contain Bufonidae (sensu lato), Hylidae, and Cystignathidae.

Amphisacralia Bolkay, 1919, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 31: 348. Suborder under Anura to contain Palaeobatrachoidea (Palaeobatrachidae, Pipidae, Xenopodidae, and Hymenochiridae) and Pelobatoidea (Discoglossidae and Pelobatidae).

Monosacralia Bolkay, 1919, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 31: 348. Suborder under Anura to contain Bufonoidea (Bufonidae, Hylidae, and Engystomatidae) and Ranoidea (Cystignathidae and Ranidae).

Palaeobatrachoidea Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 23. Suborder to contain Gens Palaeobatrachomorpha (Palaeobatrachidae) and Gens Pipaemorpha (Pipidae, Xenopodidae, and Hymenochiridae).

Palaeobatrachomorpha Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 23. Gens (above family-group, below suborder) for Palaeobatrachidae.

Anisobatrachoidea Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 24. Suborder for Gens (below suborder, above family) Pelobatomorpha.

Pelobatomorpha Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 24. Gens (below suborder, above family) for Discoglossidae (sensu lato) and Pelobatidae (sensu lato).

Pipaemorpha Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 24. Gens (above family, below suborder) for Pipidae, Xenopodidae, and Hymenochiridae.

Brachycephalomorpha Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 25. Gens (below suborder, above family) for Dyscophidae, Genyophrynidae, and Brachycephalidae.

Bufonimorpha Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 25. Gens (below suborder, above family) for Bufonidae (sensu lato), Hylidae, and Amphignathodontidae.

Cystignathomorpha Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 27. Gens (above the level of family-group) to include Hemiphractidae Cope, Cystignathidae Günther, and Dendrophryniscidae Espada.

Ranomorpha Fejérváry, 1922 "1921", Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, 87: 27. Gens (above the level of family-group) to include Ceratobatrachidae Boulenger, Ranidae Günther, and Dendrobatidae Cope.

Asterophryomorpha Fejérváry, 1923, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 20: 180. A gens, below suborder and above the family-group. Contains Ascaphidae, Discoglossidae, and Asterophrydidae (Pelodytinae, Pelobatinae, and Asterophrynidae [Asterophrys Tschudi, Megalophrys and Lechriodus]).

Gymnobatrachia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Taxon equivalent in content to Anura.

Protosternia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Taxon coined as a synonym of Gymnobatrachia, equivalent to Anura.

Anonyxia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Suborder under Gymnobatrachia for all frogs excepting Protonyxia.

Therosternia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Suborder coined as a synonym of Anonyxia, under Gymnobatrachia for all frogs excepting Protonyxia.

Thoracechima Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Inclusive taxon of ranoids and Arcifera, excluding Engystomatidae, Discophidae, and Hemisidae.

Arcifera Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Inclusive taxon of hyloid frogs.

Firmisterna Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Inclusive taxon of ranoids (in the sense of including Ranidae as then delimited, Brachycephalidae as then delimited, and Dendrobatidae as then delimited), excluding Engystomatidae, Discophidae, and Hemisidae.

Gastrechima Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Inclusive taxon of Engystomatidae, Discophidae, and Hemisidae.

Protonyxia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Suborder under Gymnobatrachia (or Protosternia) for his Pipidae, Xenopidae, and Hymenochiridae.

Ichthyosternia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 12. Suborder under Gymnobatrachia (or Protosternia), coined as a synonym of Protonyxia, for Pipidae, Xenopidae, and Hymenochiridae.

Aglossa Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: xxi. Suborder of Anura for Pipidae.

Phaneroglossa Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: xxi. Suborder under Anura for frogs excluding Aglossa (Pipidae). Subsequent usage of Phaneroglossa Stannius, 1856, and Boulenger, 1882.

Arcifera Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: xxi. "Section" (between suborder and family) for arciferal frogs. An apparent subsequent usage of Arcifera Cope, 1865.

Firmisternia Goodrich, 1930, Stud. Struct. Develop. Vert.: xxi. "Section" (between suborder and family) for ranoids and microhylids. A reranking (section rather than series) of Firmisternia Boulenger, 1882.

BufoniformesHay, 1930, Carnegie Inst. Publ., 390(1): 854. Subsequent use of Bufoniformes Cope, but with explicit content delimited.

RaniformesHay, 1930, Carnegie Inst. Publ., 390(1): 854. Subsequent use of Raniformes Cope, but with explicit content delimited.

Anomocoela Ahl, 1930, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1930: 83. Suborder for Pelobatidae (sensu lato). Apparently a subsequent usage of Anomocoela Nicheolls, 1916.

Opisthocoela Ahl, 1930, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1930: 83. Suborder for Ascaphidae (including Leiopelmatidae), Discoglossidae, and Pipidae. Presumably a subsequent use of Opisthocoela Nicholls, 1916, with expanded content.

Procoela Ahl, 1930, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1930: 84. Suborder under Anura for Palaeobatrachidae (fossil), Bufonidae (sensu lato), Brachycephalidae, and Hylidae. A subsequent use of Procoela Nicholls, 1916, with a modification in content to include Palaeobatrachidae.

Diplasiocoela Ahl, 1930, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1930: 85. Suborder for Ranidae (sensu lato), Polypedatidae, and Microhylidae. Subsequent usage of Diplasiocoela Nicholls, 1916.

Amphicoela Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 485. Suborder under Anura to include Liopelmidae (sensu lato).

Opisthocoela Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 486. Suborder under Anura to contain Discoglosidae and Pipidae. An apparent subsequent use of Opisthocoela Nicholls, 1916, with modified content.

Anomocoela Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 491. Suborder under Anura for Pelobatoids (sooglossids, megophryids, pelobatids, pelodytids). Apparently a subsequent usage of Anomocoela Nicheolls, 1916.

Procoela Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 495. Suborder under Anura for neobatrachian frogs that are not in Diplasiocoela. A subsequent use of Procoela Nicholls, 1916.

Diplasiocoela Noble, 1931, Biol. Amph.: 514. Suborder under Anura for Ranids (sensu lato) and microhylids. Subsequent usage of Diplasiocoela Nicholls, 1916.

Proanoura Piveteau, 1937, Ann. Paleontol., 26: 169. Order or suborder to contain Protobatrachus Piveteau, 1937 (= Triadobatrachus Kuhn, 1962).

Euanoura Piveteau, 1937, Ann. Paleontol., 26: 169. Order or suborder for all frogs.

Opisthocoelia Kuhn, 1939, Fossil. Amphib.: 92. Error for Opisthocoela Noble.

Salientia Romer, 1945, Vert. Paleontol., Ed. 2: 592. Superorder to contain the orders Anura and Proanura (fossil).

Proanura Romer, 1945, Vert. Paleontol., Ed. 2: 592. Order of superorder Salientia to contain the fossil Triadobatrachus Kuhn, 1962. Emendation and subsequent use of Proanoura Piveteau, 1937.

Anura Romer, 1945, Vert. Paleontol., Ed. 2: 592. Order of superorder Salientia to contain living frogs.

Euanura Huene, 1948, Spec. Publ. R. Soc. S. Afr.: 71; Huene, 1956, Palaeontol. Phylog. Nied. Tetrapod.: 71. Suborder to include frogs, excluding Proanura.

Angusticoela Huene, 1948, Spec. Publ. R. Soc. S. Afr.: 71. Unavailable name by reason of being an explicit family-group name and a nomen nudum. Content not noted, nor diagnosis provided, but in context presumably equivalent in content to Amphicoela Noble, 1931.

Anomalocoela Huene, 1948, Spec. Publ. R. Soc. S. Afr.: 71. Coined as a family and therefore unavailable. Presumably equivalent to Anomocoela.

Proanura Huene, 1948, Spec. Publ. R. Soc. S. Afr.: 70; Huene, 1956, Palaeontol. Phylog. Nied. Tetrapod.: 110. Suborder of Anura.

Opisthocoela Huene, 1948, Spec. Publ. R. Soc. S. Afr.: 71.

Amphicoelia Huene, 1956, Palaeontol. Phylog. Nied. Tetrapod.: 113. Coined as a "Familie" and therefore unavailable. Equivalent in content to Amphicoela Noble. Reig, 1958, Physis, Buenos Aires, 21: 111, noted that this is preoccupied by Amphicoelia Owen, a grouping of crocodiles.

Notocentrophori Huene, 1956, Palaeontol. Phylog. Nied. Tetrapod.: 110. Coined as a taxon for frogs and as a synonym of Anura (including Proanura).

Opisthocoelia Huene, 1956, Palaeontol. Phylog. Nied. Tetrapod.: 113. Applied as a family and therefore unavailable. Equivalent in content to Opisthocoela Noble, 1931.

Amphicoela Reig, 1958, Physis, Buenos Aires, 21: 115. Suborder for Leiopelmatidae (sensu lato) and redefinition from Amphicoela Noble, 1931, to include Notobatrachidae (fossil).

Aglossa Reig, 1958, Physis, Buenos Aires, 21: 115. Suborder for Pipidae, Palaeobatrachidae, and Eoxenopoides; Rhinophrynus explicitly excluded and placed in Archaeobatrachia.

Archaeobatrachia Reig, 1958, Physis, Buenos Aires, 21: 115. Suborder for Discoglossidae, Rhinophrynidae, Pelobatidae (sensu lato), and Pelodytidae. Specifically excludes Amphicoela, Aglossa, and Neobatrachia.

Neobatrachia Reig, 1958, Physis, Buenos Aires, 21: 115. Suborder for hyloids and ranoids.

Anuromorpha Kuhn, 1959, Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Monatsh., 1959: 338. Subclass of Amphibia to include orders Salientia and Proanura.

Ascaphoidea Laurent In Fuhn, 1960, Fauna Rep. Pop. Romine, Amph.: 163. Explicit suborder, content not given.

Bufonoidea Laurent In Fuhn, 1960, Fauna Rep. Pop. Romine, Amph.: 163. Explicit suborder, content not provided.

Pelobatoidea Laurent In Fuhn, 1960, Fauna Rep. Pop. Romine, Amph.: 163. Explicit suborder, content not provided.

Pipoidea Laurent In Fuhn, 1960, Fauna Rep. Pop. Romine, Amph.: 163. Explicit suborder, content not provided.

Ranoidea Laurent In Fuhn, 1960, Fauna Rep. Pop. Romine, Amph.: 163. Explicit suborder, content not provided.

Discoglossoidea Laurent In Fuhn, 1960, Fauna Rep. Pop. Romine, Amph.: 163. Explicit suborder, content not given.

Acosmanura Starrett, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 253. Suborder for frogs, excluding Xenoanura, Scoptanura, and Lemmanura.

Lemmanura Starrett, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 253. Suborder for Discoglossidae (sensu lato) plus Leiopelmatidae (sensu lato).

Scoptanura Starrett, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 253. Explicit suborder for Microhylidae.

Xenoanura Starrett, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 253. Explicit suborder for Rhinophrynidae, Pipidae, and Paleobatrachidae. This name was construed as an unavailable family-group name by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept., 1(Amph.): 271, but the evidence for this assertion was not presented. 

Archaeobatrachia Duellman, 1975, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 42: 4. Redefinition of Archaeobatrachia Reig, 1958, to include the contents of Reig's Amphicoela and Aglossa, in other words all groups not contained in Duellman's Neobatrachia.

Discoglossoidei Sokol, 1977, J. Zool., London, 182: 505. Suborder containing Leiopelmatidae and Discoglossidae.

Ranoidei Sokol, 1977, J. Zool., London, 182: 505. Suborder for all living frogs excluding Discoglossoidei.

Archaeobatrachia Laurent, 1980 "1979", Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 104: 417. Redefinition of Archeobatrachia Reig, 1958, to exclude Mesobatrachia (Pelobatoidea and Pipoidea), thereby restricting the name solely to Leiopelmatidae (sensu lato) and Discoglossidae (sensu lato).

Mesobatrachia Laurent, 1980 "1979", Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 104: 418. Suborder for Pipoidea (Pipidae, Palaeobatrachidae, and Rhinophrynidae) and Pelobatoidea (Pelobatidae, sensu lato, and Pelodytidae).

Archeosalientia Roček, 1981 "1980", Acta Univ. Carol., Prague, Biol., 1980: 150. Order within Amphibia for Pelobatidae (excluding Scaphiopodidae and, seemingly, Megophryidae) and excluding Neosalientia, which is suborder Proanura + suborder Anura.

Neosalientia Roček, 1981 "1980", Acta Univ. Carol., Prague, Biol., 1980: 150. Order composed of suborder Anura + suborder Proanura and excluding order Archeosalientia (Pelobatidae).

Pipoidei Dubois, 1983, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 52: 271. Suborder for Pipoidea and Pelobatoidea, equivalent to Mesobatrachia of Laurent, 1980.

Ranoidei Dubois, 1983, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 52: 271. Suborder for all crown-group frogs, excluding Pipoidei and Discoglossoidei.

Anura Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 99. Group of frogs cladographically defined as the last common ancestor of living frogs and all of the descendants of that species.

Leiopelmatanura Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 100. Cladographically defined as the most recent ancestor of Leiopelma + Bombinanura (all frogs excluding Ascaphidae).

Bombianura Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 101. Cladographically defined as the most recent common ancestor of living Bombinatoridae and Discoglossanura, and all of its descendants.

Discoglossanura Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 101. Cladographically defined as the most recent common ancestor of living Discoglosidae + Mesobatrachia + Neobatrachia, and all of its descendants.

Mesobatrachia Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 102. Subsequent usage of Mesobatrachia Laurent, 1980"1979" but redefined cladographically defined as the most recent common ancestor of living Pelobatoidea and Pipoidea and all of its descendants.

Pipanura Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 102. Cladographically defined as the most recent common ancestor of living Mesobatrachia + Neobatrachia, and all of its descendants.

Pipimorpha Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 104. Unranked taxon cladographically defined as the most recent common ancestor of living Pipidae + Rhinophrynidae and all its descendants. Ranked below Pipoidea and above Pipidae and Palaeobatrachidae.

Neobatrachia Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 105. A subsequent usage of Neobatrachia Reig, 1958, but redefined cladographically as the most recent common ancestor of Myobatrachidae, Leptodactylidae (sensu lato), Bufonidae, Hylidae (sense of including Hemiphractidae, Cryptobatrachidae, and Amphignathodontidae), Centrolenidae, Pseudidae, Soolgossidae, Heleophrynidae, Brachycephalids, Rhinodermatidae, Allophrynidae, and Ranoidea.

Lalagobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 180. Unranked taxon to contain all frogs excepting Leiopelmatidae (as including Ascaphidae).

Sokolanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 180. Unranked taxon to contain all frogs excluding Leiopelmatidae and Xenoanura.

Phthanobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 190. Unranked taxon to contain all Neobatrachia, excluding Heleophrynidae.

Hyloides Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 191. Unranked taxon to contain all Neobatrachia, excluding Heleophrynidae and Ranoides.

Notogaeanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 192. Unranked taxon to contain all Hyloides, excluding Sooglossidae.

Australobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 192. Unranked taxon to contain Batrachophrynidae, Limnodynastidae, and Myobatrachia.

Nobleobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 196. Unranked taxon to contain Hemiphractidae and Meridianura.

Meridianura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 196. Unranked taxon to contain Brachycephalidae and Cladophrynia.

Cladophrynia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 201. Unranked taxon to contain Cryptobatrachidae and Tinctanura.

Tinctanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 202. Unranked taxon to contain Amphignathodontidae (sense of being composed of Gastrotheca and Flectonotus) and Athesphatanura.

Athesphatanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 202. Unranked taxon to contain Hylidae and Leptodactyliformes.

Leptodactyliformes Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 205. Unranked taxon to contain Diphyabatrachia and Chthonobatrachia.

Diphyabatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 205. Unranked taxon to contain Leptodactylidae and Centrolenidae.

Chthonobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 208. Unranked taxon to contain Ceratophryidae and Hesticobatrachia.

Hesticobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 209. Unranked taxon to contain Cycloramphidae and Agastorophrynia.

Agastorophynia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 210. Unranked taxon to contain Dendrobatidae, Thoropidae, and Bufonidae.

Ranoides Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 223. Unranked taxon to contain all Neobatrachia, excluding Heleophrynidae and Hyloides.

Allodapanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 224. Unranked taxon to contain Microhylidae and Afrobatrachia.

Afrobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 231. Unranked taxon to contain Xenosyneunitanura and Laurentobatrachia.

Xenosyneunitanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 231. Unranked taxon to contain Hemisotidae and Brevicipitidae.

Laurentobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 232. Unranked taxon to contain Hyperoliidae and Arthroleptidae.

Natatanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 234. Unranked taxon to contain Ptychadenidae and Victoranura.

Victoranura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 235. Unranked taxon to contain Ceratobatrachidae and Telmatobatrachia.

Telmatobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 236. Unranked taxon to contain Micrixalidae and Ametrobatrachia.

Ametrobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 237. Unranked taxon to contain Africanura and Saukrobatrachia.

Africanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 237. Unranked taxon to contain Phrynobatrachidae, Petropedetidae, and Pyxicephalidae.

Saukrobatrachia Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 241. Unranked taxon to contain Dicroglossidae and Aglaioanura.

Aglaioanura Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 243. Unranked taxon to contain Mantellidae, Rhacophoridae, Nyctibatrachidae, and Ranidae.

Cruciabatrachia Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 151. Taxon to contain Leptodactylidae and Chthonobatrachia.

Calamitophrynia Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 154. Taxon to contain Leiuperidae and Agastorophrynia.

Nobleobatia Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 155. Taxon to contain Hylodidae and Dendrobatoidea.

Terrarana Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 21. Unranked taxon above the family group to contain brachycephaloid frogs. 

Allocentroliniae Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 19. Unranked taxon to include Allophrynidae and Centrolenidae.

Orthobatrachia Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009, Zootaxa, 2211: 1. Unranked taxon for group composed of Terrarana (= Brachycephaloidea) and Hemiphractidae.

Allocentroleniae Castroviejo-Fisher, Guayasamin, Gonzalez-Voyer, and Vilà, 2014, J. Biogeograph., 41: 66. Unranked taxon to contain Allophrynidae and Centrolenidae. 

Incertae Sedis

Rana marmorata Fermin, 1765, Hist. Nat. Hollande Equinox.: 14. Type(s): Not designated nor known to exist. Type locality: "Hollande Equinoxiale" (= Surinam). Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works by Opinion 660 (Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 187–190).

Bufo pustulosus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 26. Types: Frog illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 74, fig. 1. Type locality: "Indiis". Considered a synonym of Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799, by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 94; Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 181 (although treating Bufo melanostictus as junior). Nevertheless, the figure in Seba does not resemble Bufo melanostictus (DRF). * Buffo pustulosus Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account on page 597. * Batrachus pustulatusRafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 102 (possibly equivalent, attributed to Rafinesque and Daudin—DRF).

Rana virginica Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 31. Types: By indication including frog illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 75, fig. 4. Type locality: "America"; Virginia, implied by the formation of the species name. Considered a junior synonym of Rana pipiens (sensu lato) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 41; Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 517. (The illustration shows a frog with a middorsal light stripe and dorsal spotting not consistent with Boulenger's synonymy—DRF.)

Rana squamigera Walbaum, 1784, Schr. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 5: 222. Holotype: "Edlerischen" collection; location now unknown. Type locality: Unknown, but guessed by Walbaum to be "Amerika". Discussed by Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 168, who noted that this was a frog with a piece of lizard or snake skin adherent to it and implied synonymy with his Calamita boans.

Rana lemniscata Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 308, 458. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account on page 549. Types: Including animal figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 75, fig. 4. Also a collective replacement name for Rana virginica Laurenti, 1768 as well as Rana typhonia Linnaeus. Type locality: "Amérique". Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Rana reticulata Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing accounts on page 537. Holotype: animal (treefrog) figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 72, fig. 4. Type locality: "les Indes". Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Rana reticularis Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 8. Type(s): Frog figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 72, fig. 4. Type locality: "La Caroline". Junior homonym of Rana reticularis Lacepède, 1788 (= Hyla venulosa).

Rana lemnia Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 2. Types: Based in part on frog figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 75, fig. 4 (Rana typhonia), Rana typhonia of Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 211, animal mentioned by Gronovius, 1763, Zoophyl. Gronov.: 15, n. 63, and on Rana virginica Laurenti, 1768. Type locality: Not designated.

Rana ingens Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 8. Type(s): Not designated, although presumably originally in MNHNP. Type locality: "Amérique".

Rana punctata Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 137. Type(s): "Mr. Schneider speaks of a drawing of this species", not found in Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.. Type locality: Not stated. Common name given as Punctated Frog.

Rana pustulosa Péron, 1807, Voy. Decouvertes aux Terres Aust., 1: 406. Holotype: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Paramatta . . . Nouvelle-Hollande". Nomen nudum.

Hyla mugiens Link, 1807, Beschreib. Nat. Samml. Univ. Rostock, 2: 55. Collective replacement name, by way of reference to the account of "La Mugissante" by Bechstein, 1800, in Lacépède's Naturgesch. Amphib., 2: 383, for Rana ocellata Linnaeus (Leptodactylidae), Rana pentadactyla Laurenti (Leptodactylidae) and various other pre-Linnaean names referring to what are now Lithobates pipiens and Lithobates catesbeianus (Ranidae).

Rana pollicifera Péron, 1807, Voy. Decouvertes aux Terres Aust., 1: 406. Holotype: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Paramatta . . . Nouvelle-Hollande".

Rana picta Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 432. Types: Not stated. Type locality: Not stated. Likely the same as Rana picta Gravenhorst, 1829, but careful evaluation of descriptions is warranted.

Arethusa Bonaparte, 1838, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 22): unnumbered (second page of Rana esculenta account). Type species: Not designated. Specifically in Ranina of Bonaparte, but not identifiable beyond that.

Engystoma cinnamomea Kelaart, 1854, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 2, 13: 30. Holotype: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Colombo, Western Province", Sri Lanka.

Pyxicephalus fuscomaculatus Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 52. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum attributed to Dekkan, presumably on the basis of a label name, although this may by a confusion with a place name (DRF).

Hyla scripta Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger, presumably on the basis of a label name.

Hyla bucephala Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum attributed to Schlegel, presumably on the basis of a label name.

Microhyla bengalensis Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Bengala". Nomen nudum.

Physalus fuscorufus Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 54. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Quito", Ecuador. Nomen nudum.

Engystoma guineense Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 54. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Georgia", USA. Nomen nudum attributed to Schlegel, apparently on the basis of jar label name.

Hyla adspersa Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum.

Physodes Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 52. Type species: Physodes albiventris Jan, 1857, by monotypy. Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger and Tschudi, presumably label names.

Eupodion Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type species: Eupodion triste Jan, 1857, by monotypy. Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger and Tschudi, presumably on the basis of label names.

Physodes albiventris Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 52. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger and Tschudi, presumably label names.

Eupodion triste Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger and Tschudi, presumably on the basis of label names.

Engystoma inconspicuum Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 54. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Georgia", USA. Nomen nudum.

Rana oxyrhynca Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 52. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: Not stated. Nomen nudum attributed to Schlegel, presumably label names.

Hyla decussata Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Brasile". Nomen nudum attributed to Fitzinger and Tschudi, presumably on the basis of label names.

Phrynocerus testudiniceps Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 157. Holotype: ANSP. Type locality: "Panama". See additional comparative comment by Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 344. Tentative synonymy with Caudiverbera caudiverbera (now Calyptocephalella gayi) by Gorham, 1966, Das Tierreich, 85: 35, and Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 45. * Calyptocephalus testudinicepsCope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 112. The species was described under Phrynocerus, an incorrect subsequent spelling of Phrynoceros Tschudi which is now a synonym of Ceratophrys.

Rana spinidactyla Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 17: 197. Type(s): Presumably formerly ANSP, now lost. Type locality: "Natal" (= KwaZulu-Natal Province), Rep. South Africa. A Nomen dubium according to Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 7. Considered a synonym of Ptychadena mascareniensis by Günther, 1866, Zool. Rec., 2: 159, and Loveridge, 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117: 342. According to Poynton, 1964, Ann. Natal Mus., 17: 93, it is impossible to match this name to any known frog from Natal.

Phyllobates peruensis Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 53. Types: presumably originally in NHMW, although not there now (Franz Tiedemann, personal commun.). Type locality: "Peru". Not mentioned in recent NHMW type lists. Considered by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 194, to be "Perhaps a Hylodes [= Eleutherodactylus, in the current sense]".

Pyxicephalus cordofanus Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 8. Syntypes: Not stated although specimens from expedition were deposited at NHMW; NHMW 2673 considered a syntype by Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 27, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 31. Type locality: "Cordofan", Egypt. * Rana cordofanaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 31. ENGLISH NAME(S): *Cordofan Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 107). DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the imprecise type locality (Egypt). COMMENT: Nomen dubium. Not assigned to subgenus by Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 305–352.

Pyxicephalus leyboldi Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 15. Syntypes: 3 specimens; presumably MNCN. Type locality: "al N. de Chile. Le hallé junto á Coquimbo, cerca de la costa, en sitio seco y debajo de las piedras. * Ceratophrys leyboldiiBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 227. (see Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile:72, spelled also leiboldii). Synonymy without discussion with Bufo spinulosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84. See discussion by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 269–270.

Ancudia Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 48. Type species: Ancudia concolor Philippi, 1902, by monotypy. Genus et species dubia according to Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 544. Genus and species dubia according to Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 544. Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 268, considered this a nomen dubium, possibly in Batrachyla (Ceratophryidae) or Eupsophus (Cycloramphidae). A tentative synonymy with Bufo spinulosus (now in Rhinella, Bufonidae) was made by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Borborocoetus andinus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 82. Syntypes: MNHNC according to the original publication. Type locality: "las cordilleras de la provincia de Cautin", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 397. * Borborocoetes andinusPhilippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 157.

Ancudia concolor Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 49. Holotype: MNHNCaccording to the original publication. Type locality: "Chiloé", Chile. Genus and species dubia according to Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 544. Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 268, considered this a nomen dubium, possibly in Batrachyla (Ceratophryidae) or Eupsophus (Cycloramphidae). A tentative synonymy with Bufo spinulosus (now in Rhinella, Bufonidae) was made by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84.

Ceratophrys araucanus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 68. Holotype: MNHNC, according to the original publication. Type locality: "cordilleras de la Araucania al Este del volcan Llaima" Chile. Tentative synonymy with Rhinella spinulosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84. Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 269–270, discussed the confusion evident in the original description and regarded this as a nomen dubium.

English Names

Frogs (Common usage).

Distribution

Cosmopolitan except for extreme northern latitudes, Antarctica, and most oceanic islands.

Comment

The use of the name Salientia is nomenclaturally ambiguous. Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 24, included part of his Proteus (Proteus raninus = Pseudis paradoxa) in his frog group (Order Salientia) but also included another part of Proteus (Proteus anguinus) in his heterogenous Gradientia, implying an unusual original concept (or simply just an error) for both groups. With the designation of the type species of Proteus as Proteus anguinus by Stejneger, 1936, Copeia, 1936: 135, the group membership of "Proteus" was resolved, but the issue of Laurenti's original concept was not. Kluge and Farris, 1969, Syst. Zool., 18: 1–32; Inger, 1967, Evolution, 21: 369–384; Starrett, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 252–271, and Lynch, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 133-183, discussed anuran phylogeny. Although these papers are now dated, they continue to be relevant to understanding the morphological evidence of anuran phylogeny. Starrett's arrangement, based on larval morphology, was contested by Sokol, 1975, Copeia, 1975: 1–23. See also Laurent, 1980 "1979", Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 104: 397–422, who discussed phylogeny and provided a classification. Savage, 1973, in Vial (ed.), Evol. Biol. Anurans: 351–445, provided a biogeography and an extended classification based on Starrett's arrangement. Hillis, 1991, in Green and Sessions (eds.), Amph. Cytogenet. Evol.: 7–31, discussed evidence of relationships, as did Ford and Cannatella, 1993, Herpetol. Monogr., 7: 94–117. See Báez and Trueb, 1997, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas, 4: 1–41, for discussion of pipoid relationships (Paleobatrachidae, Pipidae, and Rhinophrynidae). Emerson, Richards, Drewes, and Kjer, 2000, Herpetologica, 56: 209–230, discussed the evidence for phylogenetic structure within their Ranoidea. Kaplan, 2001, Alytes, 19: 196–204, discussed some of the evidence for ranoid monophyly. Scheltinga, Jamieson, Bickford, Garda, Bao, and McDonald, 2002, Acta Zool., Stockholm, 83: 263–275, discussed the evidentiary aspects of phylogeny reconstruction based on sperm morphology. Liu, Wang, and Zhou, 2004, Zool. Res., Kunming, 25: 185–190, discussed phylogenetic position of Anura. Maglia, Pugener, and Trueb, 2001, Am. Zool., 41: 538–551, discussed anuran phylogeny. Haas, 2003, Cladistics, 19: 23–89, discussed phylogeny on the basis of larval morphology. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, provided a review of the literature of anuran systematics to 2005 as well as an inferred phylogeny and taxonomic revision of frogs to the level of genus. Roelants, Gower, Wilkinson, Loader, Biju, Guillaume, Moriau, and Bossuyt, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 887–892, on the basis of less inclusive sampling, a moderately different molecular dataset, and a different analytical method found strongly congruent results from which they interpreted biogeography; differences between this publication and Frost et al. (2006) are discussed throughout this catalog where appropriate. Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 1–268, discussed the phylogenetics of Dendrobatoidea and nearby taxa (Athesphatanura). Gissi, San Mauro, Pesole, and Zardoya, 2006, Gene, 366: 228–237, on the basis of limited taxonomic sampling discussed aspects of frog phylogeny. Sigurdsen, 2008, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 154: 738–751, discussed the origin of frogs within Temnospondyli. Wiens, Sukumaran, Pyron, and Brown, 2009, Evolution, 63: 1217–1231, discussed phylogenetics and biogeography of Ranoides (their Ranidae, sensu lato) on the basis of denser sampling than by Frost et al. (2006), but using different analytical assumptions but similar molecular datasets, came to very similar results below the level of family, but quite different results above the level of family. Throughout the catalogue their results are reported. Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009, Zootaxa, 2211: 1–35, provided additional molecular evidence for the relationships of the anuran families, focused on the relationships among the direct-developing Neotropical groups and suggesting the paraphyly of Ceratophryidae and polyphyly of Cycloramphidae as they existed at the time. Carroll, 2009, The Rise of Amph., reviewed the paleontology of anurans. San Mauro, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 554–561, provided a multilocus analysis of the age and relationships of major amphibian groups. Vitt and Caldwell, 2013, Herpetology, 4th Ed., provided a general summary of the group, its life history, and taxonomy. Provete, Franco-Belussi, Santos, Zieri, Moresco, Martins, Almeida, and Oliveira, 2012, Zool. Scripta, 41: 547–556, reported on the distribution of visceral pigmentation within the Meridianura, providing potential synapomorphies for various South American groups within this taxon. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa, provided a summary of the knowledge of tadpoles of sub-Saharan Africa. Taboada, Grant, Lynch, and Faivovich, 2013, Herpetologica, 69: 342–357, provided morphological synapomorphies for the Brachycephaloidea (= Terrarana) but could not find them for the contained Brachycephalidae, Craugastoridae, and Eleutherodactylidae. Kurabayashi and Sumida, 2013, BMC Genomics, 14 (633): 1–17, reported on afrobatrachian phylogenomics and confirmed the monophyly of Neobatrachia, Hyloides, Ranoides, Natatanura, Xenosyneutanura, and Afrobatrachia of Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297. Frétey, Dewynter, and Blanc, 2011: 1–232, provided brief characterizations of habitat and identification information for the species of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. 

Contained taxa (6432 sp.):

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