Mark E. Siddall
Curator of Annelida and Protozoa
American Museum of Natural History
siddall at amnh.org

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Phillips, A.J. and Siddall, M.E. 2009. Poly-paraphyly of Hirudinidae: Many lineages of medicinal leeches. BMC Evolutionary Biology, In Press.

Siddall, M.E., Fontanella, F.M., Watson, S.C., Kvist, S. and Ersˇus, C. 2009. Barcoding Bamboozled by Bacteria: Convergence to Metazoan Mitochondrial Primer Targets by Marine Microbes. Systematic Biology. online

Fontanella, F.M. and Siddall, M.E. 2009. Isolation and characterization of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ringneck snake Diadophis punctatus (Colubridae: Dipsadinae). Conservation Genetics, online

Fontanella, F.M. and Siddall, M.E. 2009. Evaluating Hypotheses on the Origin and Diversification of the Ringneck Snake, Diadophis punctatus, (Colubridae: Dipsadinae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society In Press

Laufer, A., Siddall, M. E., and Graf, J. 2008. Characterization of the Digestive-Tract Microbiota of Hirudo orientalis, a European Medicinal Leech. Appl. Environmental Microbiology 74: 6151-6154

Rousset, V., Plaisance, L., Ersˇus, C., Siddall, M. E., and Rouse, G.W. 2008. Evolution of habitat preference in Clitellata (Annelida). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 95: 447-464

Oceguera, A. F. and Siddall, M. E. 2008. Placobdella lamothein. sp. (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae), sanguijuela nueva parásita de tortugas de agua dulce del Estado de México, México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 79: 135S- 139S

Fontanella, F. M., C. R. Feldman, M. E. Siddall & F. T. Burbrink. 2008. Phylogeography of Diadophis punctatus: Extensive lineage diversity and repeated patterns of historical demography in a trans-continental snake. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 46(3): 1049-1070.

Borda E, Oceguera-Figueroa A, Siddall ME. 2008. On the classification, evolution and biogeography of terrestrial haemadipsoid leeches (Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida: Hirudiniformes). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 46:142-54

Siddall, M. E., Trontelj, P., Utevsky, S.Y., Nkamany, M., and Macdonald III, K. S. 2007. Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, B, 274(1617): 1481-1487.

Aguado, M.T., Nygren, A. and Siddall, M.E. 2007. Phylogeny of Syllidae (Polychaeta) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Cladistics 23:552-564

Hughes, J.L., and Siddall, M.E. 2007. A new species of leech from the New York Metropolitan Area. American Museum Novitates, 3578.

Siddall, M. E., Worthen, P. L. , Johnson, M., and Graf, J. 2007. Novel role for Aeromonas jandaei as digestive-tract symbiont of North American medicinal leeches. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 73: 655-658.

Rousset, V., Pleijel, F., Rouse, G.W., Erséus, C, and Siddall, M.E. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics. 23: 41-63.

Siddall, M.E. and Bowerman, J. 2006. A new species of leech, Placobdella burresonae N. Sp. (Annelida: Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae) from Rana pretiosa (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Oregon. Journal of Parasitology. 92: 855

Siddall, M. E. and Aguado, M. T. 2006. Molecular phylogenetic evidence of a haplosporidian parasite infecting the polychaete Syllis nipponica (Imajima, 1966). Parasitology Research. 99:309-12

Siddall, M. E., Bely, A. E., and Borda, E. 2006. Hirudinida. Chapter 9: Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida, Rouse, G and Pliejel, F (eds.) Enfield, NH. Pp. 393-429. PDF

Oceguera-Figueroa, A., León-Règagnon, V., and Siddall, M.E. 2005. Phylogeny and revision of Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida) from Mexico based on nuclear and mithochondrial gene sequences. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 76: 191-198.

DeSalle, R. Egan, MG, Siddall, M. 2005. The unholy trinity: taxonomy, species delimitation and DNA barcoding. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London - Biological Sciences, 360: 1905 - 1916

Phillips, A. J. and Siddall, M. E. 2005. Phylogeny of the New World medicinal leech family Macrobdellidae (Oligochaeta: Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida). Zoologica Scripta 34: 559-564. PDF

Perkins, S. L., Budinoff, R. B., and Siddall, M. E. 2005. New gammaproteobacteria associated with bloodfeeding leeches and a broad phylogenetic analysis of leech endosymbionts. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 71: 5219-5224. PDF

Siddall, M. E, Budinoff, R. B., and Borda, E. 2005. Phylogenetic evaluation of systematics and biogeography of the leech family Glossphoniidae. Invertebrate Systematics, 19: 105-112. PDF

Siddall M E. and Budinoff R. B. 2005. DNA-barcoding evidence for widespread introductions of a leech from the South American Helobdella triserialis complex. Conservation Genetics. 6: 467-472. PDF

Siddall, M.E. 2005. Bracing for another decade of deception: The Promise of Secondary BPA. Cladistics. 21: 90 - 99

Borda, E and Siddall, M. E. 2004. Review of the evolution of life history strategies and phylogeny of the Hirudinida (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Lauterbornia 52: 5-25.

Rousset V, Rouse GW, Siddall ME, Tillier A and Pleijel F. 2004. The phylogenetic position of Siboglinidae (Polychaeta, Annelida), inferred from 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and morphological data. Cladistics, Cladistics 20 (2004)518 -533 PDF

Siddall, M.E. 2004. Fallacies of False Attribution as the Defense of BPA by Brooks Dowling, van Veller, and Hoberg. Cladistics 20: 376-377. PDF

Budinoff RB Siddall AM and Siddall ME 2004. Twelve variable microsatellite loci for the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora. Mol Ecol Notes 4: 491-493 PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Borda, E. 2004. Leech collections from Chile Including two new species of Helobdella. American Museum Novitates, 3457 PDF

Westergren, S. and Siddall, M. E. 2004. Two new Species of Salifid Leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Erpobdelliformes: Salifidae) from South Africa and Madagascar. American Museum Novitates, 3456 PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Gaffney, E. 2004. Observations on the Leech Placobdella ornata Feeding from Bony Tissues of Turtles. Journal of Parasitology. 90: 1186-1188. PDF

Reece, K. S., Siddall, M. E., Stokes, N. A. and Burreson, E. M. 2004. Molecular Phylogeny of the Phylum Haplosporida Based on Two Independent Gene Sequences. Journal of Parasitology, 90: 1111-1122. PDF

Pol, D., Norell, M. A., and Siddall, M. E. 2004. Measures of stratigraphic fit to phylogeny and their sensitivity to tree size, tree shape, and scale. Cladistics, 20: 64-75. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2004. Hirudinida. In: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia Vol. 2., Protostomes. Schlager Group, Chicago.

Siddall, M. E., Borda, E., and Rouse G. W. 2004. Towards a Tree of Life for the Annelida. Chapter 15 In, Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 237-251.

Borda, E. and Siddall, M. E. 2004. Arhynchobdellida (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Hirudinida): Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 30: 213-225. PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Perkins S. L. 2003. Brooks Parsimony Analysis: A valiant failure. Cladistics 19: 19: 19, 554-564. PDF

Siddall, M. E., Perkins S. L., and Desser, S. S. 2003. Leech mycetome endosymbionts are a new lineage of alphaproteobacteria related to the Rhizobiaceae. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 30: 178-186 PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2003. Leech Evolution. McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw Hill, New York

Siddall, M. E. and Jensen, K. 2003. Incorrect evaluation of the information content of multistate characters. Cladistics, 19: 269-272.

Oosthuizen, J. H. and Siddall, M. E. 2003. The Freshwater leeches (Hirudinea) of Southern Africa With a key to all species. Book 5 In: Guide to Freshwater Invertebrates in Southern Africa. Water Research Commission.

Sarkar I. N., Planet P. J., Bael T. E., Stanley S. E., Siddall M., DeSalle R. and D. H. Figurski 2002. Characteristic attributes in cancer microarrays, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 35: 111-122. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2002. Resolution and Independence. Journal of Parasitology, 88: 1055-1058.

Siddall, M. E. and Borda, E. 2002. Phylogeny of the leech genus Helobdella (Glossiphoniidae) based on mitochondrial gene sequences and morphological data and a special consideration of the triserialis complex. Zool. Scripta 32: 23-33. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2002. Phylogeny and revision of the leech family Erpobdellidae (Hirudinida: Oligochaeta). Invertebrate Taxonomy, 16: 1-6 PDF

Planet P. J., DeSalle R., Siddall M, Bael T, Sarkar I N, and Stanley S E. 2001. Systematic Analysis of DNA Microarray Data: Ordering and Interpreting Patterns of Gene Expression. Genome Research 11: 1149-1155. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Measures of Support. In: Techniques in Molecular Evolution and Systematics, (Desalle , R and Giribet, G., eds). Methods and Tools in Biosciences and Medicine Series, Birkhauser Boston.

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Parsimony Analysis. In: Techniques in Molecular Evolution and Systematics, (Desalle , R and Giribet, G., eds). Methods and Tools in Biosciences and Medicine Series, Birkhauser Boston.

Siddall, M.E., Apakupakul, K, Burreson, E. M., Coates, K. A., Erséus, C, Gelder, S. R., Källersjö, M, and Trapido-Rosenthal, H. 2001. Validating Livanow's Hypothesis: Molecular Data Agree that Leeches, Branchiobdellidans and Acanthobdella peledina form a Monophyletic Group of Oligochaetes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 21: 346-351. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Philosophy and phylogenetic inference: A comparison of likelihood and parsimony methods in the context of Karl Popper's writings on corroboration. Cladistics, 17, 395-399 PDF

Pol, D., and Siddall, M. E. 2001. Biases in maximum likelihood and parsimony: a simulation approach to a ten-taxon case. Cladistics. 17:266-281

Siddall, M. E. 2001. On the cladistic use of riboprinting. Cladistics, 17:290-297. PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Desser, S. S. 2001. Developmental stages of Haemogregarina delagei in the leech Oxytonostoma typica. Can. J. Zool. 79: 1897-1900. PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Desser, S. S. 2001. Transmission of Haemogregarina balli from painted turtles to snapping turtles through the leech Placobdella ornata. J. Parasitol. 87: 1217-1218.

Gelder, S. R. and Siddall, M. E. 2001. Phylogenetic assessment of the Branchiobdellidae (Annelida: Clitellata) using 18S rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I characters. Zool. Scripta, 30:215-222. PDF

Kent, M. L., Andree, K. P., Bartholomew, J. P., El-Matbouli, M, Desser, S. S., Devlin, R. H., Hedrick, R. P., W.Hoffmann, R., Khattra, J. W., Hallett, S. L., Lester, R. J. G., Palenzeula, O., Siddall, M. E., and Xiao, C. 2001. Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 48: 395-413. PDF

Barta, John. R., Donald S. Martin, Ramon A. Carreno, Mark E. Siddall, H. Profous-Juchelka, M. Hozza, M. A. Powles, and C. Sundermann. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the other tissue coccidia: Lankesterella and Caryospora. Journal of Parasitology. 87: 121-127.

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Hirudinea from the Apolobamba in the Bolivian Andes, including new species of Helobdella (Clitellata: Hirudinea). American Museum Novitates, 3341: 14 pp. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Computer intensive randomization in systematics. Cladistics, 17, S35-S52 PDF

Siddall, M. E., K. S. Reece, T. A. Nerad and E. M. Burreson. 2001. Molecular phylogenetic determination of the phylogenetic position of the genus Colpodella (= Spiromonas). American Museum Novitates, 3314. 10 pp. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Leeches of Laguna Volcán including a new species of Helobdella. American Museum Novitates. 3313: 11 pp PDF

Payne, R. B., J. L. Woods, M. Siddall and C. S. Parr. 2000. Randomization analyses: mimicry, geographic variation and cultural evolution of song in brood-parasitic straw-tailed whydahs, Vidua fischeri. Ethology 106: 261-282. PDF

Siddall, M. E. and A. G. Kluge. 1999. Notes on likelihood. Cladistics. 15: 439-440. PDF

Light, J. E.; Siddall, M. E., 1999: Phylogeny of the leech family Glossiphoniidae based on mitochondrial gene sequences and morphological data. J. Parasitol. 85, 815-823.

Apakupakul, K.; Siddall, M. E.; Burreson, E. M., 1999: Higher level relationships of leeches (Annelida: Clitellata: Euhirudinea) based on morphology and gene sequences. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 12, 350-359 . PDF

Wenzel, J. W. and Siddall, M. E. 1999. Noise. Cladistics. 15: 51-64.PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Whiting, M. F. 1999. Long-branch abstractions. Cladistics,15: 9-24. PDF

Siddall, M.E. 1999. Women in Biological Sciences. Science, 283, 1115

Siddall, M. E., Fitzhugh, K, and Coates, K. 1998. Problems determining the phylogenetic position of echiurans and pogonophorans with limited data. Cladistics. 14: 401-410.

Siddall, M. E. 1998. Success of parsimony in the four-taxon case: Long-branch repulsion by likelihood in the Farris Zone. Cladistics, 14: 209-220. PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Burreson, E. M. 1998. Phylogeny of leeches (Hirudinea) based on mitochondrial cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 9: 156-162.

Siddall, M. E. 1998. Stratigraphic fit to phylogenies: A proposed solution. Cladistics, 14: 201-208. PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Kluge, A. G. 1997. Probabilism and Phylogenetic Inference. Cladistics, 13: 313-336. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 1997. The AIDS pandemic is new, but is HIV not new? Cladistics 13:267-273. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 1997. Prior Agreement: Arbitration or Arbitrary. Syst. Biol. 46:766-770.

Siddall, M. E. 1997. Stratigraphic Indices in the Balance: A Reply to Hitchin and Benton. Syst. Biol., 46:569-573.

Siddall, M. E., K. S. Reece, J. E. Graves and E. M. Burreson. 1997. 'Total evidence' refutes the inclusion of Perkinsus species in the phylum Apicomplexa. Parasitology, 115: 165-176.

Reece, K.S., Siddall, M. E., Graves, J. E., and Burreson, E. M. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of Perkinsus based on Actin Gene sequences. Journal of Parasitology 83: 417-423.

Swofford, D. L., and Siddall, M. E. 1997. Uneconomical Diagnosis of Cladograms: Comments on Wheeler and Nixon's Method for Sankoff Optimization. Cladistics, 13:153-159.PDF

Siddall, M. E. and Burreson, E. M. 1996. Leeches (Oligochaeta?: Euhirudinea), their phylogeny and the evolution of life-history strategies. Hydrobiologia 334: 277-285.

= = Flores, B. S., Siddall, M. E., Stokes, N. A. and Burreson, E. M. 1996. Phylogeny of the Haplosporidia (Eukaryota: Alveolata) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence. Journal of Parasitology. 82: 616-623

Siddall, M. E. 1995. Phylogenetic Covariance Probability: Confidence and Historical Associations. Systematic Biology 45: 48-66. PDF

Siddall, M. E. 1995. Stratigraphic consistency and the shape of things. Systematic Biology 45: 111-115.

Siddall, M. E., Martin, D.S., Bridge, D., Cone, D.M., Desser, S.S. 1995. The demise of a phylum of protists: Myxozoa and other parasitic Cnidaria. Journal of Parasitology 81: 961-967.

Siddall, M. E. 1995. Another monophyly index: Revisiting the jackknife. Cladistics 11:33-56.

Stokes, N.A., Siddall, M. E., and Burreson, E. M. 1995. Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of Minchinia teredinis (Haplosporidia: Haplosporidiidae) and a specific DNA probe and PCR primers for its detection. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 65: 300-308.

Stokes, N. A., Siddall, M. E. and Burreson, E. M. 1995. Detection of Haplosporidium nelsoni (Haplospoidia: Haplosporidiidae) in oysters by PCR amplification. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 23: 145-152.

Siddall, M. E., Stokes, N. A. and Burreson, E. M. 1995. Molecular phylogenetic evidence that the phylum Haplosporidia has an alveolate ancestry. Mol. Biol. Evol.12: 573-581.

Siddall, M. E., and Burreson, E. M. 1995. Phylogeny of the Euhirudinea: Independent evolution of blood feeding by leeches? Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73: 1048-1064

Siddall, M. E. 1995. Phylogeny of adeleid blood parasites and systematic revision of the haemogregarine complex. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 42: 116-125.

Siddall, M. E., Measures L. N. and Desser, S. S. 1995. Seasonal changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) in relation to infection with the piroplasm Haemohormidium terranovae. Journal of Fish Biology, 47: 1-6.

Siddall, M. E., Desser, S. S., and Measures, L. N. 1994. Light and electron microscopic examination of so-called piroplasms of fishes from Atlantic Canada and systematic revision of the Haemohormiidae (incertae sedis). Journal of Parasitology, 80: 1018-1025.

Siddall, M. E., and Burreson, E.M. 1994. The development of a hemogregarine of Lycodes raridens from Alaska in its definitive leech host. Journal of Parasitology. 80: 569-575.

Siddall, M. E., Measures, L.N. and Desser, S.S. 1994. Infection with the piroplasm Haemohormidium terranovae in relation to haematocrit and mortality of American Plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51: 959-964.

Brown, G., Siddall, M. E., Brooks, R.W., and Desser, S.S. 1994. Parasites and reproductive output in Chelydra serpentina. Copeia, 1994: 228-231.

Siddall, M. E., and Desser, S.S. 1993. Cytopathological changes induced by Haemogregarina (sensu lato) myoxocephali in its fish host and leech vector. Journal of Parasitology, 79: 297-301.

Siddall, M. E., and Desser, S.S. 1993. Ultrastructure of merogonic development of Haemogregarina (sensu lato) myoxocephali (Apicomplexa: Adeleina) in the marine leech Malmiana scorpii and localization of infective stages in the salivary cells. European Journal of Protistology, 29: 191-201.

Siddall, M. E., Brooks, D.R. and Desser, S.S. 1993. Phylogeny and the reversibility of parasitism. Evolution, 47: 308-313.

Desser, S.S., Hong, H., Siddall, M. E. and Barta, J.R. 1993. An ultrastructural study of Brugerolleia algonquinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Diplomonadida: Diplomonadina), a flagellate parasite from the blood of frogs from Ontario, Canada. European Journal of Protistology, 29: 72-80.

Munro, R., Siddall, M. E., Desser, S.S. and Sawyer, R.T. 1992. The leech as a tool for studying comparative haematology. Comparative Haematology International, 2: 75-78.

Siddall, M. E. and Desser, S.S. 1992. Ultrastructure of gametogenesis and sporogony of Haemogregarina (sensu lato) myoxocephali (Apicomplexa: Adeleina) in the marine leech Malmiana scorpii. Journal of Protozoology, 39: 545-554.

Siddall, M. E. and Barta, J.R. 1992. Phylogeny of Plasmodium species: Estimation and inference. Journal of Parasitology, 78: 567-568.

Siddall, M. E. and Desser, S.S. 1992. Alternative leech vectors of frog and turtle trypanosomes. Journal of Parasitology, 78: 562-563.

Siddall, M. E., Hong, H. and Desser, S.S. 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the Diplomonadida (Wenyon, 1926) Brugerolle, 1975: Evidence for heterochrony in protozoa and against Giardia lamblia as a "missing link". Journal of Protozoology, 39: 361-367.

Siddall, M. E. and Desser, S.S. 1992. Prevalence and intensity of Haemogregarina balli (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) in three turtle species from Ontario, with observations on intraerythrocytic development. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70: 123-128.

Siddall, M. 1992 Hohlzylinders. Parasitol. Today 8, 90-91.

Munro, R., Siddall, M. E., Desser, S.S. and Sawyer, R.T. 1991. Bleeding in human volunteers from the bite of the American medicinal leech Macrobdella decora compared with its European counterpart Hirudo medicinalis. Comparative Haematology International, 1: 214-216.

Siddall, M. E. and Desser, S.S. 1991. Merogonic development of Haemogregarina balli (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) in the leech Placobdella ornata (Glossiphoniidae), its transmission to a chelonian intermediate host and phylogenetic implications. Journal of Parasitology, 77: 426-436.

Siddall, M. E. and Desser, S.S. 1990. Gametogenesis and sporogonic development of Haemogregarina balli (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) in the leech Placobdella ornata. Journal of Protozoology, 37: 511-520.

Desser, S.S., Siddall, M. E. and Barta, J.R. 1990. Ultrastructural observations on developmental stages of Lankesterella minima (Apicomplexa) in experimentally infected Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. Journal of Parasitology, 76: 97-103.


Other Publications

Method: Straight from the Lab - Seed, Science is Culture magazine - Feb/Mar 2006

Blood Lust - The New Yorker magazine - September 2005

Siddall, M. E. 2004. Hirudinida. In: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia Vol. 2., Protostomes. Schlager Group, Chicago.

Siddall, M. E. 2003. Leech Evolution. McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology. McGraw Hill, New York

Siddall, M. E. 2003. Morne Blanc - 2003 Travel Issue of Natural History

Siddall, M. E. 2002. Resolution and Independence. Journal of Parasitology, 88: 1055-1058.

Siddall, M. E. 1998. The Follies of Ancestor Worship. Nature (debates). November 18, 1998

Siddall, M. E. 2004. Book Review... The Invertebrates. Systematic Biology. 53: 664-666.

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Book Review... Genetics and reductionism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 76:213.

Siddall, M. E. 2001. Book Review... The flagellates: Unity, diversity and evolution. Journal of Parasitology, 87: 534.

Siddall, M. E. 1994. Book Review... Cladistics: The Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. Quarterly Review of Biology