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OONOPIDAE SPECIES DESCRIPTION
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(Female redundant descriptions removed)
Malagiella vohiparara       Get publication



            Male (PBI_OON 3078). Total length 1.30. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace orange-brown, without any pattern, broadly oval in dorsal view, pars cephalica strongly elevated in lateral view, anteriorly narrowed to between 0.5 and 0.75 times its maximum width, with rounded posterolateral corners, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, anterolateral corners without extension or projections, posterolateral surface without spikes, surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica finely reticulate, sides finely reticulate, thorax without depressions, fovea absent, without radiating rows of pits; lateral margin undulate, smooth, without denticles; plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; non-marginal pars cephalica setae dark, needle-like, present in u-shaped row; non-marginal pars thoracica setae absent; marginal setae absent. Clypeus margin unmodified, straight in front view, vertical in lateral view, high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection absent; setae present, dark, needle-like. Eyes six, well developed, ALE largest, all eyes oval; posterior eye row procurved from both above and front; ALE touching, ALE-PLE touching, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME touching. Sternum longer than wide, pale orange, uniform, not fused to carapace, median concavity absent, with radial furrows between coxae I-II, II-III, III-IV, furrow wrinkled, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, surface smooth, without pits, microsculpture absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin with continuous transverse groove, posterior margin extending posteriorly beyond anterior edges of coxae IV as single extension, anterior corner with strongly sclerotized triangle in male, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of pre-coxal triangles present, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump, male with anterolateral conical projection; setae abundant, dark, needle-like, densest medially, originating from surface, without hair tufts. Mouthparts: Chelicerae, endites and labium pale orange. Chelicerae straight; fangs without tooth-like projections, directed medially, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae dark, needle-like. Labium triangular, same as sternum in sclerotization; with setae. Endites distally excavated, serrula present in single row, anteromedian tip with one strong, tooth-like projection, posteromedian part unmodified, much more heavily sclerotized than sternum. ABDOMEN: cylindrical, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, inter-scutal membrane rows of small sclerotized platelets absent posteriorly; dorsum soft portions pale orange, without color pattern. Book lung covers large, round, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified. Pedicel tube short, scutum extending far dorsal of pedicel, plumose hairs absent, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent. Dorsal scutum strongly sclerotized, orange-brown, without color pattern, covering more than 3/4 of abdomen, more than 1/2 to most of abdomen width, fused to epigastric scutum, middle surface smooth, sides smooth, anterior half without projecting denticles. Epigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, not protruding, small lateral sclerites absent. Postepigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, pale orange, short, almost rectangular, covering about 3/4 of abdominal length, not fused to epigastric scutum, anterior margin unmodified, without posteriorly directed lateral apodemes. Spinneret scutum present, incomplete ring. Colulus represented only by setae. LEGS: pale orange, without color pattern; femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I-III, patella plus tibia I near as long as carapace, tibia I unmodified. Leg spination (only surfaces bearing spines listed, all spines longer than segment width): femora: I p0-0-1; tibiae: I v4-2-2; II v4-2-1; IV v0-0-2; metatarsi: I, II v2-2-0. GENITALIA: Epigastric region with sperm pore large, oval, situated between anterior and posterior spiracles, unmodified; furrow without omega-shaped insertions, without setae. Palp normal size, not strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical, proximal segments pale orange; embolus dark; trochanter normal size, unmodified; femur normal size, two or more times as long as trochanter, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella medially; patella longer than femur, much larger than femur, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; cymbium pale orange, ovoid in dorsal view, completely fused with bulb, no seam visible, not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose setae absent, without stout setae, without distal patch of setae; bulb pale orange, more than 2 times as long as cymbium, slender, tapering apically.
Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpabda03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpabdd03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpabdl03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpabdv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male habitus, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmphaba03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male habitus, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmphabd03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male habitus, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmphabl03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male habitus, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmphabv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmppala03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpprsd03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpprsl03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpprsv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male sternum, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpstev03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpabdT03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpprsa03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpprsT03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male leg I, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmple1p03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male leg I, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmple1r03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male leg IV, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmple4p03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male leg IV, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmple4r03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male bulb, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmpbulr03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmppalr03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmppalp03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmppalT03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmppald03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipmppalv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsprsa03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male eye group, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmseyea03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsprsl03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsprsd03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male carapace, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmscarl03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male carapace, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmscard03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsprsv03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male sternum, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsstel03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male endites, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsendv03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male endites, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsenda03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male chelicerae, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmschea03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male chelicerae, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmschel03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male chelicerae, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmschev03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male chelicerae, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmscheT03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male cheliceral retromargin, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsretT03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male fang, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsfana03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male tarsal organ, palp, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmstopd03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male trichobothrium, palpal tibia, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsttpd03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsabda03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male pedicel, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmspeda03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male dorsal abdominal sclerites, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsdasa03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsabdd03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsabdl03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male dorsal abdominal sclerites, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsdasl03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male gonopore (male genital area), lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsgonl03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male abdomen, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsabdv03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male ALS, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsALST03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male PLS, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsPLST03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male PMS, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsPMST03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male spinnerets, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsspiT03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male gonopore (male genital area), ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsgonv03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmspalp03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmspalr03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmspald03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male palp, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmspalv03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male bulb, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsbulp03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male bulb, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsbulr03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male bulb, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsbuld03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male embolus, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsembp03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male embolus, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsembr03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male embolus, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsemba03378DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, male embolus, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03378)

malagvohipmsembd03378DU.tif


            Female (PBI_OON 3078). Total length 1.75. As in male except as noted. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace anteriorly narrowed to 0.49 times its maximum width or less. Clypeus sloping forward in lateral view. Sternum without radial furrows between coxae I-II, II-III, III-IV, longest and thickest setae along lateral and posterior margin; setae evenly scattered. Mouthparts: promargin without teeth; setae densest medially. Labium not fused to sternum, anterior margin indented at middle; with 1 or 2 setae on anterior margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae. Endites distally not excavated, anteromedian tip unmodified. ABDOMEN: ovoid. Book lung covers ovoid. Pedicel scutum not extending far dorsal of pedicel. Dorsal scutum covering 1/2 to 3/4 of abdomen, not fused to epigastric scutum. Epigastric scutum weakly sclerotized, without lateral joints. Postepigastric scutum weakly sclerotized, widely hexagonal, only around epigastric furrow. Spinneret scutum present, complete ring. Dorsum setae present, dark, needle-like. Epigastric area setae uniform, dark, needle-like. Postepigastric area setae present, dark, needle-like. Spinneret scutum with fringe of needle-like setae. Dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets present. Interscutal membrane with setae. LEGS: Leg spination (only surfaces bearing spines listed, all spines longer than segment width): femora: I p0-0-1; tibiae: I v4-2-2; II v4-2-1; IV v0-0-2; metatarsi: I, II v2-2-0.
Malagiella vohiparara, female abdomen, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpabda03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female abdomen, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpabdl03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female abdomen, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpabdd03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female abdomen, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpabdv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female habitus, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfphaba03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female habitus, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfphabd03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female habitus, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfphabl03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female habitus, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfphabv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpprsa03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpprsd03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpprsl03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpprsv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female abdomen, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpabdT03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpprsT03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female leg I, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfple1p03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female leg I, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfple1r03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female leg IV, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfple4p03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female leg IV, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfple4r03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female palp, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfppalp03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female palp, retrolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfppalr03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female epigynum, epigynal area, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpepiv03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female epigynum, epigynal area, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfpepid03078DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female epigynum, epigynal area, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03382)

malagvohipfpepiv03382DU.jpg

Malagiella vohiparara, female prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsprsl03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female eye group, lateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfseyel03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female eye group, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfseyed03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female prosoma (sternum+peripheral area), ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsprsv03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female sternum, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsstev03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female endites, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsendv03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female claws, leg I, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfscl1v03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female claws, leg II, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfscl2a03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female claws, leg III, prolateral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfscl3p03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female claws, leg IV, anterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfscl4a03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female spinnerets, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsspiT03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female spinnerets, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsspiv03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female epigynum, epigynal area, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsepiv03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female epigynum, epigynal area, posterior view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsepiT03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female epigynum, epigynal area, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsepid03078DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female epigynum, epigynal area, dorsal view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03087)

malagvohipfsepid03087DU.tif

Malagiella vohiparara, female coxa IV, ventral view (image by DU, specimen ID: ---03078)

malagvohipfsco4v03078DU.tif

 

DISTRIBUTION

MADAGASCAR
Malagiella vohiparara coordinates
Click the following link for a map from Discover Life which displays the records below. You can click anywhere on that map to zoom in, and clicking on any point will display the full data for that locality Malagiella vohiparara, Discover Life Map
 

MATERIAL EXAMINED
Order by:    
PBI USI Country State Division Locality Sex Type Status Elevation(m) GPS Coordinate Habitat Collection_Date Collector Inst. Code
PBI_OON 00003381  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, 2.3 km N Vohiparara  1 Adult Male  Paratype  1100  -21.21350; 47.38300  rainforest  18 Apr 1998  C. Griswold et al.  CAS 
PBI_OON 00035162  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, Vohiparara, 3.6 km W Ranomafana  1 Adult Female  Paratype  1150  -21.23738; 47.39737  secondary rain forest  13 Jan 2009  D. Andriamalala  CAS 
PBI_OON 00003380  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, Talatakely  2 Adult Male  Paratype    -21.21350; 47.38300  rainforest  13 Apr 1998  C. Griswold et al.  CAS 
PBI_OON 00003379  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, 2.3 km N Vohiparara  1 Adult Female  Paratype  1100  -21.21350; 47.38300  rainforest  11 Apr 1998  C. Griswold, D. Ubick  CAS 
PBI_OON 00035163  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, Vohiparara, 3.6 km W Ranomafana  2 Mixed  Paratype  1150  -21.23738; 47.39737  secondary wet forest, sifted litter (leaf mold rotten wood)  13 Jan 2009  D. Andriamalala  GWU 
PBI_OON 00003078  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, 2.3 km N Vohiparara  6 Mixed  Holotype  1100  -21.21330; 47.38300  rainforest  28 Apr 1998  C. Griswold, D. Ubick  CAS 
PBI_OON 00003382  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, 2.3 km N Vohiparara  2 Adult Female  Paratype  1100  -21.21350; 47.38300  rainforest  18 Apr 1998  C. Griswold, D. Ubick  CAS 
PBI_OON 00035162  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, Vohiparara, 3.6 km W Ranomafana  1 Adult Female  Paratype  1150  -21.23738; 47.39737  secondary wet forest, sifted litter (leaf mold rotten wood)  13 Jan 2009  D. Andriamalala  GWU 
PBI_OON 00003378  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, 2.3 km N Vohiparara  5 Adult Male  Paratype  1100  -21.21350; 47.38300  rainforest  10 Apr 1998  C. Griswold et al.  CAS 
PBI_OON 00035163  MADAGASCAR  Fianarantsoa    P. N. Ranomafana, Vohiparara, 3.6 km W Ranomafana  2 Mixed  Paratype  1150  -21.23738; 47.39737  secondary rain forest  13 Jan 2009  D. Andriamalala  CAS 


 
 
 
 
The American Museum of Natural History, New York, in collaboration with
The California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco   The University of California, Berkeley
The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago   George Washington University, Washington DC
 
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