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(Female redundant descriptions removed)
Brignolia valparai       Get publication

            Male (PBI_OON 12775). Total length 2.01. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace orange-brown, with dark brown egg-shaped patches behind eyes, ovoid in dorsal view, pars cephalica strongly elevated in lateral view, anteriorly narrowed to 0.49 times its maximum width or less, with angular posterolateral corners, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, anterolateral corners with strongly sclerotized, triangular extension, posterolateral surface without spikes, surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica smooth, sides striated, thorax without depressions, fovea absent, posterior declivity with distinct shoulders, without radiating rows of pits, posterior margin squared; lateral margin straight, rebordered, without denticles; plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; non-marginal pars cephalica setae dark, needle-like, present, scattered; non-marginal pars thoracica setae dark, needle-like; marginal setae dark, needle-like. Clypeus margin strongly rebordered, curved downwards in front view, vertical in lateral view, high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection absent; setae present, dark, needle-like. Chilum absent. Eyes six, well developed, all subequal, ALE oval, PME squared, PLE oval; posterior eye row recurved from above, procurved from front; ALE separated by their radius to diameter, ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME separated by less than PME radius. Sternum longer than wide, pale orange, uniform, fused to carapace, median concavity absent, with radial furrows between coxae I-II, II-III, III-IV, furrow smooth, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, surface smooth, covered with small round pits, microsculpture absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin with continuous transverse groove, posterior margin extending posteriorly beyond anterior edges of coxae IV as single extension, anterior corner with strongly sclerotized triangle in male, lateral margin with infra-coxal grooves and anterior and posterior openings, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of pre-coxal triangles present, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump, without distinct posterior ridge; setae sparse, dark, needle-like, densest laterally, originating from small pits, without hair tufts. Mouthparts: Chelicerae, endites and labium pale orange. Chelicerae slightly divergent, anterior face unmodified; without teeth on both promargin and retromargin; fangs without tooth-like projections, directed medially, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae dark, needle-like, evenly scattered; paturon inner margin with scattered setae, distal region unmodified, posterior surface unmodified, promargin with row of flattened setae, inner margin unmodified, laminate groove present. Labium triangular, fused to sternum, anterior margin indented at middle, same as sternum in sclerotization; with 6 or more setae on anterior margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae. Endites distally not excavated, serrula present in single row, anteromedian tip with stout projection (Brignolia type), posteromedian part unmodified, much more heavily sclerotized than sternum. ABDOMEN: ovoid, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, inter-scutal membrane rows of small sclerotized platelets absent posteriorly; dorsum soft portions white, without color pattern. Book lung covers small, ovoid, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified, protuberant. Posterior spiracles connected by groove. Pedicel tube short, with small, dorsolateral, triangular extensions, scuto-pedicel region with W-shaped scutal ridge, scutum not extending far dorsal of pedicel, plumose hairs dorsal and lateral of pedicel, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent, pedicel tube with ventral notch. Dorsal scutum strongly sclerotized, orange-brown, without color pattern, covering full length of abdomen, no soft tissue visible from above, not fused to epigastric scutum, middle surface punctate, sides punctate, anterior half without projecting denticles. Epigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, not protruding, small lateral sclerites absent. Postepigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, orange-brown, long, semicircular, covering nearly full length of abdominal length, fused to epigastric scutum, anterior margin unmodified, with short posteriorly directed lateral apodemes. Spinneret scutum present, incomplete ring. Dorsum setae present, dark, needle-like. Epigastric area setae uniform, dark, needle-like. Postepigastric area setae present, dark, needle-like. Spinneret scutum with fringe of long setae. Dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent. Interscutal membrane with setae. Colulus absent. LEGS: pale orange, without color pattern; femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I-III, patella plus tibia I shorter than carapace, tibia I unmodified, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex present, tibia IV ventral scopula absent, metatarsi I and II meso-apical comb absent, metatarsi III and IV weak ventral scopula absent. Leg spines absent. Tarsi I to IV superior claws tooth not examined in detail. Tarsi I to IV without inferior claw. Trichobothria not examined. GENITALIA: Epigastric region with sperm pore small, oval, situated at level of anterior spiracles, rebordered; furrow without omega-shaped insertions, without setae. Palp minute, strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical, proximal segments dark red-brown; embolus dark, prolateral excavation absent, with two series of ridges; trochanter normal size, with ventral projection; femur minute, shorter than trochanter, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella about as long as femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; tibia trichobothria not examined; cymbium dark red-brown, narrow in dorsal view, completely fused with bulb, no seam visible, not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose setae absent, without stout setae, without distal patch of setae; bulb dark red-brown, more than 2 times as long as cymbium, slender, elongated.
Brignolia valparai, male abdomen, anterior view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male abdomen, lateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male abdomen, ventral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male carapace, anterior view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male carapace, dorsal view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male carapace, lateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male carapace, posterior view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male sternum, ventral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male bulb, prolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male bulb, retrolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male palp, prolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male palp, retrolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12775)


Brignolia valparai, male abdomen, anterior view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male abdomen, ventral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male carapace, dorsal view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male carapace, posterior view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male embolus, prolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male embolus, retrolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male endites, ventral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male palp, dorsal view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male palp, prolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male palp, retrolateral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)


Brignolia valparai, male palp, ventral view (image by ND, specimen ID: ---12566)




Brignolia valparai coordinates
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PBI USI Country State Division Locality Sex Type Status Elevation(m) GPS Coordinate Habitat Collection_Date Collector Inst. Code
PBI_OON 00012775  INDIA  Tamil Nadu    Anaimalai Hills, Valparai  1 Adult Male    1100  10.30663; 77.00001  forest  20 Nov 1972  C. Besuchet, I. Löbl  MHNG 
PBI_OON 00012566  INDIA  Tamil Nadu    Anaimalai Hills, 18 km au nord de Valparai  2 Adult Male    1250  10.30663; 77.00001  forest  18 Nov 1972  Besuchet, C. and Löbl, I.  MHNG 

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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DEB 0613754. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
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