The World Spider Catalog, Version 3.0
by Norman I. Platnick

© Copyright 2000, 2001, 2002 American Museum of Natural History. All Rights Reserved.
Title Page Introduction Families Counts Bibliography

FAM. ARANEIDAE Simon, 1895

Last updated July 24, 2002

Transferred to other families:
Andasta Simon, 1893 -- see Theridiosomatidae.
Atimiosa Simon, 1894 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Azilia Keyserling, 1882 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Billima Simon, 1908 -- see Theridion under Theridiidae.
Chorizopella Lawrence, 1947 -- see Theridiidae.
Chrysometa Simon, 1894 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Clitaetra Simon, 1888 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Cyathidea Simon, 1907 -- see Wendilgarda under Theridiosomatidae.
Cyatholipus Simon, 1894 -- see Cyatholipidae.
Deliochus Simon, 1894 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Diphya Nicolet, 1849 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Dolichognatha O. P.-Cambridge, 1869 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Epeirotypus O. P.-Cambridge, 1894 -- see Theridiosomatidae.
Gnolus Simon, 1879 -- see Mimetidae.
Helvidia Thorell, 1890 -- see Theridiidae.
Herennia Thorell, 1870 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Homalometa Simon, 1897 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Landana Simon, 1883 -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
Malkara Davies, 1980 -- see Malkaridae.
Meta C. L. Koch, 1836 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Metargyra F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Metella Fage, 1931 -- see Pimoa under Pimoidae.
Metimorpha Strand, 1906 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Mimicosa Petrunkevitch, 1925 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Neoprolochus Reimoser, 1927 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Nephila Leach, 1815 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Nephilengys L. Koch, 1871 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Nicholasia Bryant & Archer, 1940 -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
Ogulnius O. P.-Cambridge, 1882 -- see Theridiosomatidae.
Orsinome Thorell, 1890 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Paraebius Thorell, 1894 -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
Parameta Simon, 1895 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Parazilia Lessert, 1938 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Perilla Thorell, 1895 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Phonognatha Simon, 1894 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Phricotelus Simon, 1895 -- see Mysmenidae.
Prolochus Thorell, 1895 -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
Pseudometa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 -- see Chrysometa under Tetragnathidae.
Sancus Tullgren, 1910 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Selkirkiella Berland, 1924 -- see Anelosimus under Theridiidae.
Singafrotypa Benoit, 1962 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Singotypa Simon, 1894 -- see Phonognatha under Tetragnathidae.
Tecmessa O. P.-Cambridge, 1882 -- see Chthonos under Theridiosomatidae.
Theridiosoma O. P.-Cambridge, 1879 -- see Theridiosomatidae.
Timonoe Thorell, 1898 -- see Tetragnathidae.
Totua Keyserling, 1891 -- see Linyphiidae.
Trichursa Simon, 1908 -- see Dipoenura under Theridiidae.
Wendilgarda Keyserling, 1886 -- see Theridiosomatidae.

In synonymy:
Afraranea Archer, 1951 = Neoscona Simon, 1864 (Grasshoff, 1986: 4).
Allepeira Banks, 1932 = Mecynogea Simon, 1903 (Levi, 1968a: 322).
Amamrotypus Archer, 1951 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Levi, 1973: 478).
Anawixia Chamberlin, 1916 = Wagneriana F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (Levi, 1991b: 370).
Aranea Linnaeus, 1758 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
Archemorus Simon, 1893 = Arkys Walckenaer, 1837 (Heimer, 1984a: 156).
Atea C. L. Koch, 1837 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Levi, 1991a: 171).
Austrargiope Kishida, 1936 = Argiope Audouin, 1826 (Yaginuma, 1959c: 21).
Brachygea Caporiacco, 1947 = Argiope Audouin, 1826 (Levi, 1983: 258).
Bunocrania Thorell, 1878 = Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 (Levi, 1996b: 140).
Cambridgepeira Archer, 1951 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Levi, 1973: 478).
Cathaistela Archer, 1958 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Yaginuma, 1959c: 28).
Chaetargiope Kishida, 1936 = Argiope Audouin, 1826 (Yaginuma, 1959c: 21).
Chinestela Chamberlin, 1924 = Neoscona Simon, 1864 (Archer, 1958: 17).
Coganargiope Kishida, 1936 = Argiope Audouin, 1826 (Yaginuma, 1959c: 21).
Conaranea Archer, 1951 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Levi, 1973: 478).
Conepeira Archer, 1951 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Levi, 1973: 478).
Cubanella Franganillo, 1926 = Neoscona Simon, 1864 (Berman & Levi, 1971: 469, after Bryant, 1940: 511).
Cyphepeira Archer, 1951 = Nuctenea Simon, 1864 (Levi, 1974b: 300).
Dicrostichus Simon, 1895 = Ordgarius Keyserling, 1886 (Davies, 1988b: 316).
Diotherisoma Caporiacco, 1947 = Bertrana Keyserling, 1884 (Levi, in Coddington, 1986: 6).
Drexelia McCook, 1892 = Larinia Simon, 1874 (Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 243, after Levi, 1975b: 102).
Heterargiope Kishida, 1936 = Argiope Audouin, 1826 (Yaginuma, 1959c: 21).
Ildibaha Keyserling, 1892 = Micrathena Sundevall, 1833 (Levi, 1985: 440).
Lariniacantha Archer, 1951 = Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1976: 388).
Larinopa Grasshoff, 1970 = Lipocrea Thorell, 1878 (Levy, 1986: 5).
Lobetina Simon, 1895 = Prasonica Simon, 1895 (Grasshoff, 1971b: 295).
Macpos Mello-Leitão, 1940 = Kaira O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1977b: 214).
Neosconella F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 = Araneus Clerck, 1757 (Levi, 1973: 478).
Paraverrucosa Mello-Leitão, 1939 = Wagneriana F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (Levi, 1991b: 370, contra Archer, 1951a: 20).
Parazygia Caporiacco, 1955 = Cyclosa Menge, 1866 (Levi, 1977a: 73).
Parepeira Mello-Leitão, 1933 = Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1976: 388).
Paurotylus Tullgren, 1910 = Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 (Emerit, 1982c: 458).
Pickardiana Mello-Leitão, 1943 = Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1988: 472).
Pronarachne Mello-Leitão, 1937 = Kaira O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1977b: 214).
Salassina Simon, 1895 = Witica O. P.-Cambridge, 1895 (Levi, 1986b: 37).
Simonarachne Archer, 1951 = Eriovixia Archer, 1951 (Grasshoff, 1986: 118, contra Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 36).
Subaraneus Caporiacco, 1948 = Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1976: 388).
Subedricus Caporiacco, 1954 = Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1976: 388).
Suzumia Nakatsudi, 1943 = Cyrtophora Simon, 1864 (Yaginuma, 1958b: 10).
Thaumastobella Mello-Leitão, 1945 = Micrathena Sundevall, 1833 (Scharff, 1991: 155).
Trichocharis Simon, 1895 = Caerostris Thorell, 1868 (Grasshoff, 1984: 727).
Zigana Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Pronous Keyserling, 1880 (Levi, 1995b: 168).

Homonyms replaced:
Anepsia L. Koch, 1871 -- see Anepsion.
Novakia Court and Forster, 1988 -- see Novakiella.
Thoracites Thorell, 1898 -- see Thorellina.

Gen. Acacesia Simon, 1895

In synonymy:
A. alticeps Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = A. cornigera Petrunkevitch, 1925 (Glueck, 1994: 73).
A. folifera (Marx, 1890) = A. hamata (Hentz, 1847) (Bryant, 1945a: 364).
A. hallucinor (Petrunkevitch, 1911, T from Araneus) = A. hamata (Hentz, 1847) (Bryant, 1945a: 364).
A. nigrolineata (Caporiacco, 1955) = A. hamata (Hentz, 1847) (Glueck, 1994: 70).
A. pentagona Caporiacco, 1954 = A. cornigera Petrunkevitch, 1925 (Glueck, 1994: 73).
A. spinulosa Mello-Leitão, 1948 = A. cornigera Petrunkevitch, 1925 (Glueck, 1994: 73).

Nomen dubium:
A. peruviana Chamberlin, 1916: 244, pl. 18, f. 6 (f, Peru) -- Glueck, 1994: 73.

mf benigna Glueck, 1994....................Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
A. b. Glueck, 1994: 77, f. 23-27 (Dmf).

mf cornigera Petrunkevitch, 1925....................Mexico to Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana
A. c. Petrunkevitch, 1925a: 117, f. 32-41 (Dmf).
A. alticeps Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 54, pl. 16, f. 140 (Dj).
A. spinulosa Mello-Leitão, 1948: 158, f. 6 (Df).
A. pentagona Caporiacco, 1954: 87, f. 15, 15a-b (Df).
A. c. Glueck, 1994: 73, f. 2-3, 9-16 (mf, S).

mf graciosa Lise & Braul, 1996....................Brazil
A. g. Lise & Braul, 1996: 180, f. 1-17 (Dmf).

mf hamata (Hentz, 1847) *....................USA to Argentina
Epeira hamata Hentz, 1847: 474, pl. 31, f. 10 (Dm).
Epeira foliata Hentz, 1847: 475, pl. 31, f. 14 (Df).
Epeira foliata Emerton, 1884: 318, pl. 37, f. 6-10 (f, Dm).
Epeira folifera Marx, 1890: 545, 593 (D).
Epeira foliata McCook, 1894: 154, pl. 4, f. 7-8 (mf).
A. foliata Simon, 1895a: 795.
A. foliata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 502, pl. 48, f. 1-2 (mf).
Araneus hallucinor Petrunkevitch, 1911: 296 (replacement name for Epeira hamata Hentz, thought preoccupied in Araneus by Araneus hamatus Clerck, now in Singa).
A. foliata Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 331, f. 213-214 (mf).
A. lanceolata Badcock, 1932: 20, f. 14 (Df).
A. foliata Comstock, 1940: 523, f. 546 (f).
A. h. Bryant, 1945a: 364 (S).
A. h. Kaston, 1948: 235, f. 705, 725-726 (m).
A. folifera Camargo, 1953: 306, f. 7, 35-38, 42-44 (m).
Araneus nigrolineatus Caporiacco, 1955: 357, f. 36a-b (Df).
A. h. Levi, 1976: 375, f. 74-87 (mf).
A. nigrolineata Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).
A. h. Breene et al., 1993: 104, f. 157A-C (mf).
A. h. Glueck, 1994: 69, f. 1, 4-8 (mf, S).
A. h. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 374, f. 15 (m).

mf villalobosi Glueck, 1994....................Brazil
A. v. Glueck, 1994: 79, f. 28-33 (Dmf).

mf yacuiensis Glueck, 1994....................Brazil, Argentina
A. y. Glueck, 1994: 75, f. 17-22 (Dmf).

Gen. Acantharachne Tullgren, 1910

N.B.: the replacement name Acantharanea Strand, 1929 is unnecessary, as Acantharachne Tullgren, 1910 is not preoccupied by the differently-spelled Acantharachna in the echinoderms.

f cornuta Tullgren, 1910 *....................East Africa
A. c. Tullgren, 1910: 171, f. 1, pl. 4, f. 124 (Df).
Acantharanea c. Strand, 1929: 17.

f giltayi Lessert, 1938....................Congo, Madagascar
A. g. Lessert, 1938: 451, f. 38-40 (Df).
A. g. Emerit, 2000: 155, f. 17-18 (f).

f lesserti Giltay, 1930....................Congo
A. l. Giltay, 1930: 128, f. 1 (Df).

f madecassa Emerit, 2000....................Madagascar
A. m. Emerit, 2000: 153, f. 12-13 (Df).

f milloti Emerit, 2000....................Madagascar
A. m. Emerit, 2000: 154, f. 14-16 (Df).

f psyche Strand, 1913....................Central Africa
A. p. Strand, 1913a: 389 (Df).

f regalis Hirst, 1925....................Cameroon, Congo
A. r. Hirst, 1925a: 1271, f. 1 (Df).

f seydeli Giltay, 1935....................Congo
A. s. Giltay, 1935b: 10, f. 6 (Df).

Gen. Acanthepeira Marx, 1883

In synonymy:
A. cerasiae (Walckenaer, 1842, T from Araneus) = A. stellata (Walckenaer, 1805) (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 105, sub Marxia).
A. iris (Walckenaer, 1842, T from Araneus) = A. stellata (Walckenaer, 1805) (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 105, sub Marxia).

Nomina dubia:
A. grisea (McCook, 1894: 195, pl. 13, f. 10, f, USA, originally in Marxia) -- Levi, 1976: 363.
A. moestella Roewer, 1942a: 777 (replacement name for Epeira moesta Keyserling, 1892: 108, pl. 5, f. 80, f, USA, preoccupied by Blackwall, 1865) -- Levi, 1976: 363 (but see McCook, 1894: 196, pl. 12, f. 11).

mf cherokee Levi, 1976....................USA
A. c. Levi, 1976: 366, f. 24, 29-35, 42-43 (Dmf).
A. c. Breene et al., 1993: 103, f. 153A-B (mf).

m labidura (Mello-Leitão, 1943)....................Brazil
Marxia l. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 184, f. 22 (Dm).
A. l. Brignoli, 1983c: 255.

mf marion Levi, 1976....................USA, Mexico
A. m. Levi, 1976: 368, f. 25, 36-41, 44 (Dmf).

mf stellata (Walckenaer, 1805) *....................Canada to Mexico
Epeira s. Walckenaer, 1805: 65 (Df).
Epeira nobilis Walckenaer, 1842: 119 (Df).
Epeira cerasiae Walckenaer, 1842: 119 (Df).
Epeira iris Walckenaer, 1842: 120 (Df).
Plectana s. Walckenaer, 1842: 171.
Epeira s. Hentz, 1850: 22, pl. 3, f. 12 (f).
Epeira s. Keyserling, 1864: 140, pl. 6, f. 24-25 (f).
Acrosoma stellatum Butler, 1873b: 427.
A. s. Marx, 1883: 22.
Epeira s. Emerton, 1884: 319, pl. 34, f. 17, pl. 37, f. 3-5 (f, Dm).
Cyrtarachne mexicana O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: pl. 14, f. 13 (f, nomen nudum).
Cyrtarachne dugesi O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: 113 (Df).
Marxia nobilis McCook, 1894: 194, pl. 13, f. 7-9 (mf).
Marxia s. McCook, 1894: 193, pl. 12, f. 4-5 (mf).
Araneus s. Simon, 1895a: 801.
Epeira s. Emerton, 1902: 179, f. 419-420 (f).
Marxia s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 481, pl. 45, f. 21-22 (mf).
Araneus cerasiae Petrunkevitch, 1911: 285.
Araneus iris Petrunkevitch, 1911: 298.
A. s. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 105 (S).
A. s. Kaston, 1948: 234, f. 714-716, 734 (mf).
A. venusta Bryant, 1949c: 175, f. 4-5 (m, misidentified).
A. s. Levi, 1976: 364, f. 12-23 (mf, designated as type species).
A. s. Levi, 1978b: 10, f. 12-14 (m).
A. s. Breene et al., 1993: 103, f. 152A-C (mf).

mf venusta (Banks, 1896)....................USA, Cuba
Plectana v. Banks, 1896e: 69 (Df).
Araneus venustus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 323 (assigned to subgenus Marxia).
A. v. Bryant, 1949c: 175, f. 1-3 (f, not m, f. 4-5, =A. stellata).
A. v. Levi, 1976: 369, f. 26-28, 45, 51-56 (f, Dm).

Gen. Acroaspis Karsch, 1878

f olorina Karsch, 1878 *....................Victoria
A. o. Karsch, 1878c: 807 (Df).

f tuberculifera Thorell, 1881....................Queensland
A. t. Thorell, 1881: 52 (Df).

Gen. Acrosomoides Simon, 1887

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 by Benoit, 1962a: 45.

f acrosomoides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)....................Madagascar
Gasteracantha a. O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 289, pl. 27, f. 19 (Df).
A. a. Emerit, 1974: 61, f. 20-21, 22A-C, 26C (Tf from Gasteracantha).
A. a. Emerit, 1982b: 154, f. 1.

mf linnaei (Walckenaer, 1842) *....................West, Central, East Africa
Plectana l. Walckenaer, 1842: 163 (Df).
Plectana inversa Walckenaer, 1842: 164 (Df).
Atelacantha heterodoxa Karsch, 1879a: 330 (Df).
Gasteracantha chaperi Simon, 1887a: 266 (Df).
Gasteracantha l. Dahl, 1914: 268.
A. l. Benoit, 1962a: 45, f. 30-31 (Tf from Gasteracantha).
A. l. Emerit, 1982c: 461, f. 3-4 (Dm).

f tetraedrus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Cameroon, Congo
Plectana tetraedra Walckenaer, 1842: 166 (Df).
Gasteracantha tetraedra Dahl, 1914: 269, f. 9 (f).
A. tetraedra Benoit, 1962a: 48, f. 33-34 (Tf from Gasteracantha).

Gen. Actinacantha Simon, 1864

N.B.: described as a subgenus of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833; elevated to genus by Emerit, 1974: 29.

f globulata (Walckenaer, 1842) *....................Sumatra, Java
Plectana g. Walckenaer, 1842: 151 (Df).
Gasteracantha g. Hasselt, 1882: 12.
A. g. Simon, 1864: 286.

Gen. Actinosoma Holmberg, 1883

Transferred to other genera:
A. heteracanthum Mello-Leitão, 1943 -- see Wagneriana.
A. riscoi Archer, 1971 -- see Rubrepeira.

mf pentacanthum (Walckenaer, 1842) *....................Colombia to Argentina
Plectana pentacantha Walckenaer, 1842: 170 (Df).
Acrosoma stelligerum Thorell, 1859: 301 (Df).
Acrosoma p. Butler, 1873b: 428.
Acrosoma pulcherrima Holmberg, 1876: 21 (Df).
A. p. Holmberg, 1883b: 237.
Cyrtarachne quinquespinosa Keyserling, 1892: 55, pl. 3, f. 44 (Dmf).
Araneus pentacanthus Simon, 1895a: 819, f. 869.
A. p. Levi, 1995b: 158, f. 1-12 (mf).

Gen. Aculepeira Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942

A. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 75, type Araneus aculeatus (Emerton, 1877).

Transferred to other genera:
A. callaria Levi, 1991 -- see Amazonepeira.
A. tedgenica (Bakhvalov, 1978) -- see Neoscona.

In synonymy:
A. aculeata (Emerton, 1877, removed from S of A. carbonarioides) = A. packardi (Thorell, 1875).
A. armida canescens (Simon, 1908) = A. armida (Audouin, 1826) (Levy, 1998a: 329).
A. charitonovi (Ermolajew, 1928) = A. carbonarioides (Keyserling, 1892) (Marusik, Tarabaev & Litovchenko, 1991: 15).
A. cutucensis (Kraus, 1955, T from Araneus) = A. travassosi (Soares & Camargo, 1948) (Levi, 1991a: 298).
A. helvola (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889, T from Metazygia) = A. aculifera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1993a: 236).
A. hyperborea (Kulczyn'ski, 1908) = A. carbonarioides (Keyserling, 1892) (Marusik, Tarabaev & Litovchenko, 1991: 15).
A. karabagi (Karol, 1965, T from Araneus) = A. talishia (Zawadsky, 1902) (Levi, 1977b: 236, sub A. noseki).
A. kariae (Roewer, 1942, attributed to Strand, 1920, T from Araneus) = A. talishia (Zawadsky, 1902) (Levi, 1977b: 236, sub A. noseki).
A. lencoranicus (Bakhvalov, 1983, T from Araneus) = A. talishia (Zawadsky, 1902) (Marusik, 1985b: 137).
A. melloi (Brignoli, 1983, T from Araneus) = A. albovittata (Mello-Leitão, 1941) (Levi, 1991a: 303).
A. noseki (Strand, 1907) = A. talishia (Zawadsky, 1902) (Marusik, 1985b: 137).
A. sargi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889, T from Araneus) = A. aculifera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 304).
A. septentrionalis (Kulczyn'ski, 1908, T from Araneus) = A. packardi (ThoreII, 1875) (Levi, 1977b: 228).
A. vachoni (Karol, 1964, T from Araneus) = A. ceropegia (Walckenaer, 1802) (Levi, 1977b: 234).
A. vegae (Holm, 1970, T from Araneus) = A. carbonarioides (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1977b: 230).
A. verae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = A. packardi (ThoreII, 1875) (Levi, 1977b: 228).
A. victoria (Thorell, 1870, T from Araneus) = A. armida (Audouin, 1826) (Drensky, 1943: 244, sub Araneus).

mf aculifera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................USA to Guatemala
Epeira a. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 29, pl. 7, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira helvola O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 24, pl. 5, f. 1-2 (Dmf).
Epeira sargi O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 28, pl. 6, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira sargi Keyserling, 1892: 123, pl. 6, f. 91 (f).
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1892: 207, pl. 10, f. 153 (f).
Epeira helvola Keyserling, 1893: 221, pl. 11, f. 164 (mf).
Aranea sargi F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 511, pl. 49, f. 2 (f).
Aranea a. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 512, pl. 49, f. 5 (f).
Aranea helvola F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 513, pl. 49, f. 10 (mf).
Araneus aculiferus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 277.
Araneus helvolus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 296.
Araneus sargi Petrunkevitch, 1911: 314.
Metazygia helvola Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 304, f. 566-577 (Tf from Araneus, S).
A. a. Levi, 1993a: 236, f. 28 (Sm).

f albovittata (Mello-Leitão, 1941)....................Paraguay, Argentina
Neosconella a. Mello-Leitão, 1941f: 214, f. 20 (Df, preoccupied in Araneus by Westring, 1851).
Araneus melloi Brignoli, 1983c: 263 (replacement name).
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 303, f. 560-563 (Tf from Araneus, S).

f apa Levi, 1991....................Paraguay
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 302, f. 557-559 (Df).

mf armida (Audouin, 1826)....................Palearctic
Epeira a. Audouin, 1826: 337, pl. 2, f. 8 (Df).
Epeira hirsuta Hahn, 1831a: 13, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 52 (Dm).
Miranda exornata C. L. Koch, 1844: 156, f. 952 (Df).
Miranda hirsuta C. L. Koch, 1847: 75, f. 1550 (f).
Epeira victoria Thorell, 1870a: 25 (Df).
Epeira a. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 331, pl. 12, f. 17 (f).
Araneus a. canescens Simon, 1908a: 432 (Df).
Araneus a. Simon, 1929: 691, 761, f. 1067-1068 (mf).
Aranea a. Drensky, 1943: 244, f. 19 (f, S).
Araneus victoria Azheganova, 1968: 80, f. 154, 172 (mf).
Araneus armidus Brignoli, 1968d: 90, f. 1-3 (mf).
Araneus victoria Miller, 1971: 209, pl. XXXIX, f. 15-16 (f).
Araneus victoria Loksa, 1972: 95, f. 87E-F (mf).
A. a. Levi, 1977b: 236, f. 208-217 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus victoria Zhang, 1987: 73, f. 56.1-2 (f).
Araneus victoria Mcheidze, 1997: 270, f. 599-600 (mf).
A. a. Levy, 1998a: 329, f. 68-79 (mf, S).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 131J, 145G (mf).

f armida orientalis (Kulczyn'ski, 1901)....................Russia, China
Epeira victoria o. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 330, pl. 12, f. 16 (Df).
Araneus victoria o. Zhang, 1987: 74, f. 57.1-2 (f).
A. a. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 131K, 145H (f).

mf armida pumila (Simon, 1929)....................France
Araneus a. pumilus Simon, 1929: 691, 762 (Dmf).

f azul Levi, 1991....................Panama
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 306, f. 589-591 (Df).

f busu Levi, 1991....................Hispaniola
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 308, f. 596-599 (Df).

mf carbonaria (L. Koch, 1869)....................Palearctic
Epeira c. L. Koch, 1869: 58 (Dm).
Epeira c. Simon, 1874a: 92 (Df).
Epeira c. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 332, pl. 12, f. 18-19 (mf).
Araneus carbonarius Lessert, 1910b: 326, f. 177-178 (mf).
Araneus carbonarius Simon, 1929: 690, 761, f. 1066 (mf).
Aranea c. Drensky, 1943: 244, f. 19 (f).
A. c. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 75 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. c. Levi, 1977b: 234, f. 198-207 (mf).
Araneus victoria Hu & Li, 1987a: 327, f. 9.1-4, 10.1-2 (mf, misidentified).
A. c. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 70, f. 160 (mf).
A. c. Thaler, 1991b: 50, f. 19, 22 (m).
A. c. Hu, 2001: 435, f. 280.1-7 (mf).

f carbonaria fulva (Franganillo, 1913)....................Spain
Epeira c. f. Franganillo, 1913: 128 (Df).

mf carbonaria sinensis (Schenkel, 1953)....................China
Araneus carbonarius s. Schenkel, 1953b: 49, f. 23a-c (Dmf).
A. c. s. Brignoli, 1983c: 255.
A. c. s. Hu & Wu, 1989: 81, f. 60.1-9 (mf).
A. c. s. Yin et al., 1997: 103, f. 30a-i (mf).
A. c. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 131L-N, 132F-G, 145I (mf).
A. c. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 181, f. 106A-F (mf).

mf carbonarioides (Keyserling, 1892)....................USA, Canada, Alaska, Russia
Epeira carbonaria Emerton, 1884: 315, pl. 33, f. 18, pl. 36, f. 18-19 (mf, misidentified).
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1892: 206, pl. 10, f. 152 (Df).
Epeira c. McCook, 1894: 158, pl. 5, f. 9 (f, Dm).
Epeira carbonaria Emerton, 1894: 405, pl. 1, f. 4b, d (mf, misidentified).
Araneus hyperboreus Kulczyn'ski, 1908b: 45, pl. 2, f. 58 (Df).
Aranea charitonovi Ermolajev, 1928a: 209, f. 1-3 (Dmf).
Araneus vegae Holm, 1970: 198, f. 25-27, 29-31 (Dmf).
A. charitonovi Levi, 1977b: 230 (Tf from Araneus).
A. hyperborea Levi, 1977b: 230 (Tf from Araneus).
A. c. Levi, 1977b: 230, f. 162-173, 182-186 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
A. carbonoides Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 58 (m).
A. c. Marusik, Tarabaev & Litovchenko, 1991: 15 (S).
A. carbonoides Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 374, f. 12 (m).

mf ceropegia (Walckenaer, 1802)....................Palearctic
A. c. Walckenaer, 1802: 199 (Df).
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1805: 33.
Epeira sclopetaria Hahn, 1833a: 4, f. 131 (mf, misidentified).
Miranda c. C. L. Koch, 1838: 51, f. 370 (f, Dm).
Epeira c. Blackwall, 1864a: 347, pl. 25, f. 250 (mf).
Miranda c. Menge, 1866: 72, pl. 11, f. 17 (mf).
Epeira c. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 132, pl. 5, f. 19 (mf).
Epeira c. Bösenberg, 1901: 32, pl. 2, f. 16 (mf).
Epeira c. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 332, pl. 12, f. 20 (m).
Araneus ceropegius Lessert, 1910b: 324.
Araneus c. Simon, 1929: 688, 761, f. 1064, 1065 (mf).
A. c. Wiehle, 1931: 100, f. 151-155 (mf).
Aranea c. Drensky, 1943: 244, f. 19 (mf).
Araneus ceropegius Locket & Millidge, 1953: 138, f. 91A-C (mf).
Aranea c. Zamaraev, 1964: 356, f. 51-52 (f).
Araneus vachoni Karol, 1964: 188, f. 1-2 (Df).
Araneus ceropegius Tyschchenko, 1971: 196, f. 585 (f).
Araneus ceropegius Loksa, 1972: 94, f. 86, 87A-D (mf).
Araneus ceropegius Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 39-42 (mf).
Araneus ceropegius Palmgren, 1974a: 30, f. 12l-o (mf).
A. c. Punda, 1975b: 30, f. 34-36 (mf).
A. c. Levi, 1977b: 234, f. 175, 187-197 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
A. c. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 70, f. 159 (mf).
A. c. Thaler, 1991b: 50, f. 18, 21 (m).
A. c. Roberts, 1995: 324, f. (mf).
Araneus ceropegius Mcheidze, 1997: 269, f. 597-598 (f).
A. c. Roberts, 1998: 337, f. (mf).

f escazu Levi, 1991....................Costa Rica
A. e. Levi, 1991a: 306, f. 585-588 (Df).

f gravabilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Honduras to Panama
Epeira g. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 33, pl. 5, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 122, pl. 6, f. 90 (f).
Araneus g. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 295.
A. g. Levi, 1991a: 304, f. 578-584 (Tf from Araneus).

mf luosangensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
Araneus ceropegius Hu & Li, 1987b: 262, f. 9.1-5 (mf, misidentified).
A. l. Yin et al., 1990: 10, f. 17-26 (Dmf).
A. l. Yin et al., 1997: 104, f. 31a-j (mf).
A. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 131O-Q, 132H-I, 145J (mf).
A. l. Hu, 2001: 436, f. 281.1-8 (mf).

f machu Levi, 1991....................Peru
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 302, f. 553-556 (Df).

mf matsudae Tanikawa, 1994....................Japan
A. m. Tanikawa, 1994c: 180, f. 1-5 (Dmf).

mf packardi (Thorell, 1875) *....................North America, Russia, China, Kazakhstan
Epeira packardii Thorell, 1875d: 490 (Dm).
Epeira aculeata Emerton, 1877: 528 (Df; preoccupied by Latreille, 1806).
Epeira carbonaria Keyserling, 1892: 204, pl. 9, f. 151 (mf, misidentified).
Epeira carbonaria McCook, 1894: 157, pl. 6, f. 1-2 (mf, misidentified).
Epeira aculeata Emerton, 1894: 405, pl. 1, f. 4 (f, Dm).
Araneus septentrionalis Kulczyn'ski, 1908b: 47, pl. 2, f. 57 (Df).
Araneus aculeatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 277.
Araneus septentrionalis Schenkel, 1930b: 24, f. 9 (Dm).
A. p. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 75 (removed mf from S of A. carbonaria).
A. verae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 75, f. 215-216 (Dm).
A. verae Levi & Field, 1954: 448, f. 26, 28 (mf).
A. p. Holm, 1970: 201, f. 28 (m).
A. p. Levi, 1977b: 228, f. 148-161, 174, 176-181 (mf, S).
A. p. Yin et al., 1990: 12, f. 27-34 (mf).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 106, f. 32a-i (mf).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 132A-C, J-K. 145K (mf).
A. p. Hu, 2001: 438, f. 282.1-8 (mf).

mf taibaishanensis Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China
Aculeperia t. Zhu & Wang, 1995: 165, f. 1-5 (Dmf).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 107, f. 33a-e (mf).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 132D-E, L-M, 145L (mf).

mf talishia (Zawadsky, 1902)....................Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan
Epeira t. Zawadsky, 1902: 4 (D).
Araneus similis Nosek, 1905b: 131 (Dmf, preocupied).
Aranea noseki Strand, 1907m: 396 (replacement name for A. similis).
Aranea kariae Roewer, 1942a: 788 (lapsus for A. noseki).
Araneus karabagi Karol, 1965: 111, f. 1-2 (Df).
A. noseki Levi, 1977b: 236, f. 218-225 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
Araneus lencoranicus Bakhvalov, 1983: 93, f. 6 (Df).
A. t. Marusik, 1985b: 137 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
A. t. Thaler, 1991b: 50, f. 20, 23 (m).

mf travassosi (Soares & Camargo, 1948)....................Mexico to Argentina
Neosconella t. Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 377, f. 33-34 (Df).
Neosconella cutucensis Kraus, 1955b: 23, f. 67-69 (Dm).
Araneus cutucensis Brignoli, 1983c: 262.
Araneus t. Brignoli, 1983c: 263.
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 298, f. 543-547 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

f visite Levi, 1991....................Hispaniola
Parawixia darlingtoni Bryant, 1945a: 382, f. 21 (f only, not male holotype).
A. v. Levi, 1991a: 307, f. 592-595 (Df).

mf vittata (Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1948)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Metepeira v. Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1948: 17, f. 26-27 (Df).
A. v. Levi, 1991a: 300, f. 548-552 (Tf from Metepeira, Dm).

Gen. Acusilas Simon, 1895

Transferred to other genera:
A. rufoniger Franganillo, 1930 -- see Alcimosphenus.
A. rufoniger maculatus Franganillo, 1930 -- see Alcimosphenus.

f africanus Simon, 1895....................West Africa
A. a. Simon, 1895a: 785, f. 849 (Df).
A. a. Murphy & Murphy, 1983b: 119, f. 7-8 (f).

mf coccineus Simon, 1895 *....................China to Moluccas
A. c. Simon, 1895a: 785 (Df).
A. c. Uyemura, 1939b: 142, f. a-f (f).
A. c. Yaginuma, 1960: 59, f. 58 (f).
A. c. Namkung, 1964: 37, f. 23 (f).
A. c. Yaginuma, 1971: 59, f. 58 (f).
A. c. Murphy & Murphy, 1983b: 117, f. 3-6 (f).
A. c. Hu, 1984: 88, f. 78.1-2 (f).
A. c. Yaginuma, 1986a: 116, f. 61.2 (mf).
A. c. Chikuni, 1989b: 75, f. 40 (mf).
A. c. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 112, f. 106.1-3 (f).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 109, f. 35a-d (mf).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 133A-D, 145M (mf).

f dahoneus Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
A. d. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 584, f. 363a-e (Df).

f gentingensis Murphy & Murphy, 1983....................Malaysia
A. g. Murphy & Murphy, 1983b: 122, f. 18-20 (Df).

m lepidus (Thorell, 1898)....................Myanmar
Argiope lepida Thorell, 1898: 337 (Dm).
A. l. Levi, 1983: 260 (Tm from Argiope).

mf malaccensis Murphy & Murphy, 1983....................Malaysia, Sumatra
A. m. Murphy & Murphy, 1983b: 119, f. 9-17 (Dmf).

Gen. Aerea Urquhart, 1891

f alticephala Urquhart, 1891 *....................Tasmania
A. a. Urquhart, 1891b: 245, f. 4 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

m magnifica Urquhart, 1893....................Tasmania
A. m. Urquhart, 1893b: 119 (Dm).

Gen. Aethriscus Pocock, 1902

f olivaceus Pocock, 1902 *....................Congo
A. o. Pocock, 1902b: 329 (Df).

f pani Lessert, 1930....................Congo
A. p. Lessert, 1930: 663, f. 33-34 (Df).

Gen. Aethrodiscus Strand, 1913

f transversalis Strand, 1913 *....................Central Africa
A. t. Strand, 1913a: 387 (Df).

Gen. Aetrocantha Karsch, 1879

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 by Benoit, 1962a: 43; not a senior synonym of Paurotylus Tullgren, 1910 (Emerit, 1982c: 458, contra Benoit, 1964a: 47).

In synonymy:
A. galeata (Simon, 1887, T from Isoxya) = A. falkensteini Karsch, 1879 (Benoit, 1964a: 47).

mf falkensteini Karsch, 1879 *....................West, Central Africa
A. falkensteinii Karsch, 1879a: 332 (Df).
Isoxia f. Simon, 1887a: 268.
Isoxia galeata Simon, 1887a: 269, pl. 6, f. 3 (Df).
Gasteracantha galeata Simon, 1895a: 843, f. 891 (f).
Gasteracantha galeata Simon, 1907d: 301 (Dm).
Gasteracantha f. Dahl, 1914: 255.
Isoxya galeata Benoit, 1962a: 23, f. 16 (Tmf from Gasteracantha).
A. f. Benoit, 1962a: 43, f. 28-29 (Tf from Gasteracantha).
A. f. Benoit, 1964a: 47 (Sm).
A. f. Emerit, 1982c: 459, f. 1-3, pl. 1, f. 1B, pl. 2 (m).

Gen. Afracantha Dahl, 1914

N.B.: described as a subgenus of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833; elevated to genus by Emerit, 1974: 29.

In synonymy:
A. batesi (Pocock, 1899, T from Gasteracantha) = A. camerunensis (Thorell, 1898) (Benoit, 1962a: 25).

f camerunensis (Thorell, 1899) *....................West, Central, East Africa, Venezuela
Gasteracantha brevispina c. Thorell, 1898: 65 (Df).
Gasteracantha batesi Pocock, 1899e: 858, pl. 56, f. 10 (Df).
Gasteracantha batesi Dahl, 1914: 252, f. 7 (f).
Isoxya c. Benoit, 1962a: 25, f. 18 (removed f from S of Gasteracantha batesi per Roewer, S).
A. c. Emerit, 1974: 29 (Tf from Isoxya).
Gasteracantha c. Levi, 1996b: 143, f. 313-321 (f).

Gen. Agalenatea Archer, 1951

A. Archer, 1951c: 1, type Araneus redii Scopoli, 1763; considered valid by Grasshoff, 1976: 149.

Transferred to other genera:
A. angulopicta (Schenkel, 1953) -- see Alenatea.
A. arcopicta (Schenkel, 1953) -- see Alenatea.
A. davidi (Schenkel, 1963) -- see Alenatea.
A. fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Alenatea.

mf redii (Scopoli, 1763) *....................Palearctic
Aranea r. Scopoli, 1763: 394 (D).
Aranea aldrovandi Scopoli, 1763: 394 (D).
Aranea cratera Walckenaer, 1802: 197 (Df).
Aranea cratera Panzer, 1804: 244, pl. 49, f. 5 (f).
Epeira cratera Walckenaer, 1805: 59.
Epeira solers Walckenaer, 1805: 60 (D).
Epeira agalena Hahn, 1834: 29, f. 115 (Dmf).
Epeira cratera Walckenaer, 1842: 35 (Dm).
Epeira solers Walckenaer, 1842: 41 (Df).
Atea sclopetaria C. L. Koch, 1844: 134, f. 934-935 (mf, misidentified).
Anetes caeletron Menge, 1850: 71 (D).
Epeira sollers Westring, 1861: 41 (Dm).
Epeira solers Blackwall, 1864a: 336, pl. 24, f. 243 (mf).
Epeira solers Menge, 1866: 63, pl. 9, f. 11 (mf).
Epeira biocellata Canestrini, 1868: 201 (Dm).
Epeira sollers Thorell, 1870a: 18.
Epeira r. Simon, 1874a: 90 (mf).
Epeira r. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 131, pl. 5, f. 17 (mf).
Epeira r. Becker, 1896: 29, pl. 6, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira r. Bösenberg, 1901: 38, pl. 2, f. 24 (mf).
Epeira agalena O. P.-Cambridge, 1909a: 108, pl. A, f. 18-22 (mf).
Araneus r. Lessert, 1910b: 323.
Araneus r. Simon, 1929: 688, 761, f. 1050, 1064 (mf).
Aranea r. Wiehle, 1931: 97, f. 146-150 (mf).
Aranea r. Drensky, 1943: 243, f. 21 (mf).
A. r. Archer, 1951c: 1, f. 1 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus r. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 139, f. 93A-C (mf).
Aranea r. Zamaraev, 1964: 357, f. 58-60 (mf).
Araneus r. Azheganova, 1968: 79, f. 162, 169 (mf).
Araneus r. Tyschchenko, 1971: 196, f. 579, 587 (f).
Araneus r. Miller, 1971: 210, pl. XXXIX, f. 5-6 (mf).
Araneus r. Loksa, 1972: 80, f. 70A-D (mf).
Araneus r. Bakhvalov, 1974: 111, f. 76-80 (mf).
A. r. Punda, 1975b: 31, f. 37-38 (f).
A. r. Roberts, 1985: 214, f. 96a (mf).
Araneus r. Hu & Wu, 1989: 93, f. 69.1-3 (f).
A. r. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 70, f. 161 (mf).
A. r. Roberts, 1995: 325, f. (mf).
Araneus r. Mcheidze, 1997: 273, f. 613-616 (mf).
A. r. Yin et al., 1997: 115, f. 40a-c (f).
A. r. Levy, 1998a: 333, f. 88-95 (mf).
A. r. Roberts, 1998: 338, f. (mf).
A. r. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, f. 133E-F, 145N (f).

Gen. Agathostichus Simon, 1897

f leucabulbus Gertsch, 1955....................USA, Mexico
Agatostichus leucabulba Gertsch, 1955: 250, f. 34, 38, 40 (Df).

f leucacanthus Simon, 1897 *....................Brazil
Agatostichus leucacantha Simon, 1895a: 885, f. 947 (nomen nudum).
A. leucacantha Simon, 1897b: 473 (Df).

Gen. Alcimosphenus Simon, 1895

N.B.: transferred here from the Tetragnathidae by Archer, 1951a: 12.

f bifurcatus Petrunkevitch, 1910....................Jamaica, Puerto Rico
A. b. Petrunkevitch, 1910: 211, pl. 21, f. 8 (Dj).
A. b. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 264, f. 117-118 (j).
A. b. Archer, 1958: 12, f. 29-30 (Df).

f borinquenae Archer, 1965....................Puerto Rico
A. b. Archer, 1965b: 131, f. 4-5 (Df).

f licinus Simon, 1895 *....................West Indies
A. l. Simon, 1895a: 931 (Df).
A. l. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1901b: 332, pl. 7, f. 7 (f).
A. l. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 263, f. 115-116 (f).
A. l. Archer, 1958: 13, f. 27-28 (f).

mf rubripleurus Mello-Leitão, 1947....................Brazil
A. r. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 239, f. 6-7 (Df).
A. r. Archer, 1958: 14, f. 22-23, 25 (Dm).

f rufoniger (Franganillo, 1930)....................Cuba
Acusilas rufonigra Franganillo, 1930: 24 (Df).
A. r. Franganillo, 1936c: 87, f. 42 (Tf from Acusilas).

?? rufoniger maculatus (Franganillo, 1930)....................Cuba
Acusilas rufonigra maculata Franganillo, 1930: 24 (D; N.B.: omitted by Roewer and Brignoli).

Gen. Alenatea Song & Zhu, 1999

A. Song & Zhu, in Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 230, type Agalenatea fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906).

In synonymy:
A. angulopicta (Schenkel, 1953) = A. fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) (Ma & Tu, 1987: 52, sub Neoscona).
A. arcopicta (Schenkel, 1953) = A. fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) (Ma & Tu, 1987: 51, sub Neoscona).
A. davidi (Schenkel, 1963) = A. fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) (Ma & Tu, 1987: 52, sub Neoscona).

mf fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) *....................China, Taiwan, Japan
Aranea f. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 224, pl. 4, f. 29, pl. 12, f. 298 (Dmf).
Aranea f. Strand, 1918: 95, pl. 2, f. 25-26 (f).
Araneus fuscoloratus Nakatsudi, 1942a: 306, f. 12-14 (f).
Araneus arcopictus Schenkel, 1953b: 50, f. 25a-b (Df).
Araneus angulopictus Schenkel, 1953b: 53, f. 26a-b (Df).
Neoscona f. Yaginuma, 1955a: 19, pl. I, f. 6, 14 (Tmf from Araneus).
Catheistela f. Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 36 (Tmf from Neoscona).
Agalenatea angulopicta Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 37 (Tf from Araneus).
Agalenatea arcopicta Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 37 (Tf from Araneus).
Araneus fuscocoloratus Yaginuma, 1960: 52, f. 48 (f).
Araneus davidi Schenkel, 1963: 172, f. 100a-b (Df).
Araneus fuscocoloratus Lee, 1966: 39, f. 10h-i (f).
Araneus fuscocoloratus Yaginuma, 1971: 52, f. 48 (f).
Araneus angulopictus Hu, 1984: 89, f. 80.1-2 (f).
Neoscona f. Hu, 1984: 93, f. 86.1-2 (mf).
Araneus arcopictus Zhu et al., 1985: 69, f. 56a-e (f, Dm).
Neoscona fuscolorata Yaginuma, 1986a: 105, f. 55.9 (f).
Araneus fuscocoloratus Grasshoff, 1986: 118 (Tmf from Neoscona).
Araneus fuscocoloratus Yaginuma, 1986c: 187, f. 1B, D (mf).
Neoscona angulopictus Zhang, 1987: 83, f. 67.1-2 (apparent Tf, unsubstantiated).
Neoscona f. Zhang, 1987: 85, f. 69.1-5 (mf).
Neoscona f. Ma & Tu, 1987: 51, f. 1 (mf, S).
Araneus fuscocoloratus Chikuni, 1989b: 70, f. 27 (mf).
Agalenatea arcopicta Yin et al., 1997: 112, f. 37a-c (f).
Agalenatea davidi Yin et al., 1997: 113, f. 38a-b (Tf from Araneus).
Agalenatea f. Yin et al., 1997: 113, f. 39a-g (Tmf from Araneus).
A. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 235, f. 6B, 133H-K, 146A-B (Tmf from Agalenatea).
A. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 183, f. 107A-G (mf).

f touxie Song & Zhu, 1999....................China
Agalenatea angulopicta Yin et al., 1997: 111, f. 36a-d (f, misidentified).
A. t. Song & Zhu, in Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 235 (Df).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 185, f. 108A-C (f).

f wangi Zhu & Song, 1999....................China
A. w. Zhu & Song, in Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 235, f. 133L-N (Df).

Gen. Allocyclosa Levi, 1999

A. Levi, 1999: 304, type Cyclosa bifurca (McCook, 1887).

In synonymy:
A. furcata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1898, T from Cyclosa) = A. bifurca (McCook, 1887) (Levi, 1999: 304).

mf bifurca (McCook, 1887) *....................USA to Panama, Cuba, Hispaniola
Cyrtophora b. McCook, 1887: 342 (Dmf).
Cyclosa fissicauda O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 49, pl. 8, f. 7 (Dj).
Cyclosa b. McCook, 1894: 1: 128, 2: 189, 372, 376, 3: 227, pl. 17, f. 9-10 (mf).
Cyclosa fissicauda Keyserling, 1893: 274, pl. 14, f. 203 (f).
Larina fissicauda Simon, 1895a: 790.
Cyclosa furcata O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 247, pl. 31, f. 3 (Df).
Cyclosa furcata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 494, pl. 47, f. 6 (f).
Cyclosa fissicauda F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 495, pl. 47, f. 8 (f).
Cyclosa b. Levi, 1977a: 86, f. 78-89 (mf).
A. b. Levi, 1999: 304, f. 3-22 (Tmf from Cyclosa, S).

Gen. Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Araneus Clerck, 1757 and considered a senior synonym of Parepeira Mello-Leitão, 1933 (contra Archer, 1951a: 42, who considered that name a junior synonym of Cercidia by transfer of type species), Subaraneus Caporiacco, 1948a: 661, type Araneus veniliae (Keyserling, 1865), Lariniacantha Archer, 1951a: 15, type Araneus grayi (Blackwall, 1863) and Subedricus Caporiacco, 1954: 84, type Araneus nigropustulatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1893) by Levi, 1976: 388, and of Pickardiana Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 192, type Edricus truncatus (Keyserling, 1865) by Levi, 1988: 472 (by transfer of type species, contra Archer, 1951a: 20, who considered that name a junior synonym of Verrucosa).

Transferred to other genera:
A. calix (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Metazygia.
A. duodecimguttata (Keyserling, 1879) -- see Spilasma.
A. erythromela (Holmberg, 1876) -- see Mecynogea.
A. mammifera (Tullgren, 1902) -- see Molinaranea.
A. maura (Hentz, 1847) -- see Metazygia.
A. montecarlo Levi, 1988 -- see Larinia.
A. riscoi (Archer, 1971) -- see Rubrepeira.
A. rubronigra (Mello-Leitão, 1939) -- see Rubrepeira.

In synonymy:
A. aestimabilis (Keyserling, 1892, T from Araneus) = A. championi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1988: 454).
A. albonotata (Mello-Leitão, 1945, T from Epeiroides) = A. truncata (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 472).
A. albostriata (Keyserling, 1865) = A. leucogramma (White, 1841) (Levi, 1988: 391).
A. albostriata columbiana (Strand, 1915) = A. leucogramma (White, 1841) (Levi, 1988: 391).
A. albotaeniata (Mello-Leitão, 1942, T from Wixia) = A. rubellula (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1988: 395).
A. borellii (Simon, 1897, T from Araneus) = A. veniliae (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 402).
A. carteri (Badcock, 1932, T from Araneus) = A. alticeps (Keyserling, 1879) (Levi, 1988: 415).
A. citrinella (Roewer, 1942, T from Metepeira) = A. citrina (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1988: 418).
A. coniformis (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = A. conica O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1988: 462).
A. deliciosa (Keyserling, 1893, T from Araneus) = A. carminea (Taczanowski, 1878) (Levi, 1988: 406).
A. designata (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936, T from Araneus) = A. bicornuta (Taczanowski, 1878) (Levi, 1988: 387).
A. ensifera (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Edricus) = A. truncata (Keyserling, 1865) (Caporiacco, 1954: 85, sub Subedricus nigropustulatus).
A. fissifasciata (Mello-Leitão, 1945, T from Wixia) = A. bicornuta (Taczanowski, 1878) (Levi, 1988: 387).
A. inexplicabilis (Badcock, 1932, T from Araneus) = A. rubellula (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1988: 395).
A. multipunctata (Simon, 1895, T from Araneus, a nomen nudum that was erroneously listed by Roewer as valid) = A. tabula (Simon, 1895) (Levi, 1988: 404).
A. mutata (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936, T from Araneus) = A. truncata (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 472).
A. nigropunctata (Mello-Leitão, 1941, T from Wixia) = A. rubellula (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1988: 395).
A. nigropunctatula (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = A. calotypa (Chamberlin, 1916) (Levi, 1988: 461).
A. nigropustulata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1893) = A. truncata (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 472).
A. ocellifera (Mello-Leitão, 1945) = A. quadrilorata (Simon, 1897) (Levi, 1988: 467).
A. octomaculata (Mello-Leitão, 1945) = A. quadrilorata (Simon, 1897) (Levi, 1988: 467).
A. pantherina (Taczanowski, 1873, T from Araneus) = A. veniliae (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 402).
A. rhodomelas (Taczanowski, 1878, T from Araneus) = A. acuta (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 450).
A. spinigera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889, T from Wixia) = A. bicornuta (Taczanowski, 1878) (Levi, 1988: 387).
A. taczanowskii (Simon, 1897, T from Araneus) = A. delicata (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1988: 458).
A. trisignata (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = A. trilineata (Taczanowski, 1878) (Levi, 1988: 445).
A. unguiformis (Keyserling, 1893, T from Metazygia) = A. veniliae (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 402).
A. wiedenmeyeri (Schenkel, 1953, T from Metepeira) = A. veniliae (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1988: 402).

mf acuta (Keyserling, 1865)....................Panama to Argentina
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1865: 816, pl. 18, f. 13-14 (Df).
Epeira rhodomelas Taczanowski, 1878b: 147, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1893: 228, pl. 11, f. 169 (f).
Araneus acutus Simon, 1897e: 2.
Araneus rhodomelas Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
Wixia a. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 261 (Tf from Araneus).
A. a. Levi, 1988: 450, f. 421-426 (Tf from Wixia, Dm, S).

mf albocincta (Mello-Leitão, 1945)....................Venezuela to Argentina
Epeirella a. Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 236 (Dj from Argentina; N.B.: Brignoli's 1983c: 268 reference to E. albocincta Mello-Leitão, 1948: 169, m from Guyana, appears to be a lapsus for this taxon).
A. a. Levi, 1988: 466, f. 525-529 (Tj from Epeirella, Dmf).

mf almada Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. a. Levi, 1988: 482, f. 635-639 (Dmf).

mf alticeps (Keyserling, 1879)....................Brazil, Paraguay
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1879: 311, pl. 4, f. 13 (Df).
Epeira undulata Bertkau, 1880a: 89, pl. 2, f. 32 (Df).
Epeira göldii Karsch, 1886b: 92, pl. 3, f. 9 (Dmf).
Araneus a. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 278.
Araneus carteri Badcock, 1932: 25, f. 17 (Dmf).
Verrucosa a. Roewer, 1942a: 879.
A. a. Levi, 1976: 358 (Tmf from Verrucosa).
A. a. Levi, 1988: 415, f. 182-187 (mf, S).

f alto Levi, 1988....................Paraguay
A. a. Levi, 1988: 434, f. 320-323 (Df).

mf alvarengai Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. a. Levi, 1988: 407, f. 128-133 (Dmf).

f amambay Levi, 1988....................Paraguay
A. a. Levi, 1988: 429, f. 274-277 (Df).

mf anchicaya Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. a. Levi, 1988: 474, f. 587-592 (Dmf).

f angra Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. a. Levi, 1988: 468, f. 537-540 (Df).

mf antonio Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Guyana
A. a. Levi, 1988: 446, f. 392-397 (Dmf).

f atomaria (Simon, 1895)....................Brazil
Salassina a. Simon, 1895a: 781 (Df).
Edricus atomarius Petrunkevitch, 1911: 337.
A. a. Levi, 1988: 458, f. 479-482 (Tf from Edricus).

mf banos Levi, 1988....................Ecuador
A. b. Levi, 1988: 428, f. 261-266 (Dmf).

f biasii Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. b. Levi, 1988: 422, f. 231-233 (Df).

mf bicornuta (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Costa Rica to Argentina
Epeira b. Taczanowski, 1878b: 168, pl. 2, f. 18 (Dmf).
Epeira spinigera O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 43, pl. 5, f. 9-10 (Df).
Epeira spinigera Keyserling, 1892: 131, pl. 7, f. 97 (f).
Epeira spinigera McCook, 1894: 191, pl. 14, f. 3-4 (f).
Araneus bicornutus Simon, 1895a: 818.
Aranea spinigera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 515, pl. 49, f. 16 (f).
Araneus spiniger Petrunkevitch, 1911: 317.
Araneus designatus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 51, pl. 14, f. 126-127 (Df).
Wixia fissifasciata Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 244, f. 27 (Df).
Wixia spinigera Caporiacco, 1948a: 654 (Tf from Araneus).
A. b. Levi, 1988: 387, f. 9, 11-18 (Tmf from Araneus, S).

mf bischoffi Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. b. Levi, 1988: 424, f. 234-238 (Dmf).

m boa Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. b. Levi, 1988: 447, f. 408-409 (Dm).

m boraceia Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. b. Levi, 1988: 436, f. 328-329 (Dm).

m cachimbo Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 400, f. 90-91 (Dm).

mf cali Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. c. Levi, 1988: 477, f. 611-616 (Dmf).

mf calotypa (Chamberlin, 1916)....................Peru
Araneus c. Chamberlin, 1916: 256, pl. 19, f. 4 (Dmf).
Epeira nigropunctata Taczanowski, 1878b: 167, pl. 2, f. 17 (Dmf; preoccupied by L. Koch, 1871).
Araneus nigropunctatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
Aranea nigropunctatula Roewer, 1942a: 848 (replacement name for Epeira nigropunctata).
A. c. Levi, 1988: 461, f. 501-505 (Tmf from Araneus, S).

f canela Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 421, f. 216-218 (Df).

mf canoa Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 439, f. 348-353 (Dmf).

mf carminea (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Epeira c. Taczanowski, 1878b: 163, pl. 2, f. 14 (Df).
Epeira deliciosa Keyserling, 1893: 234, pl. 11, f. 274 (Dmf).
Araneus deliciosus Simon, 1897e: 2.
Araneus carmineus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 284.
Parepeira c. Mello-Leitão, 1942a: 429, f. 1 (Tf from Araneus).
A. c. Levi, 1988: 406, f. 122-127 (f, Sm).

m caxias Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 439, f. 346-347 (Dm).

f chaco Levi, 1988....................Paraguay
A. c. Levi, 1988: 408, f. 140-142 (Df).

mf championi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Colombia
Epeira c. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 42, pl. 5, f. 12-13 (Dmf).
Epeira aestimabilis Keyserling, 1892: 181, pl. 9, f. 133 (Df).
Aranea c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 517, pl. 50, f. 1-2 (mf).
Araneus aestimabilis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 277.
Araneus c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 285.
A. c. Levi, 1988: 454, f. 446-451 (Tmf from Araneus, S).

f chapada Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 402, f. 97-100 (Df).

mf chickeringi Levi, 1988....................Panama to Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 480, f. 628-634 (Dmf).

f cisneros Levi, 1988....................Colombia, Ecuador
A. c. Levi, 1988: 476, f. 599-602 (Df).

f citrina (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil
Epeira citrina Keyserling, 1892: 88, pl. 4, f. 66 (Df).
Araneus citrinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 285.
Aranea citrinella Roewer, 1942a: 839 (superfluous replacement name for Epeira citrina Keyserling, preoccupied in Araneus by Fourcroy, 1785).
Metepeira c. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 187 (Tf from Araneus).
A. c. Levi, 1988: 418, f. 204-206 (Tf from Metepeira, S).

mf conica O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 *....................Panama
A. conica O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 53, pl. 4, f. 3 (Df).
A. conica Keyserling, 1893: 281, pl. 14, f. 207 (f).
Aranea conica F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 519.
Araneus conicus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 286.
Aranea coniformis Roewer, 1942a: 839 (superfluous replacement name for A. conica, preoccupied in Araneus by Pallas, 1772).
A. c. Levi, 1988: 462, f. 506-511 (Tf from Araneus, Dm, S).

m constant Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 402, f. 101-102 (Dm).

mf coroico Levi, 1988....................Bolivia
A. c. Levi, 1988: 392, f. 39-43 (Dmf).

f costai Levi, 1988....................Argentina
A. c. Levi, 1988: 464, f. 515-518 (Df).

f cuiaba Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1988: 399, f. 86-89 (Df).

f cuyabeno Levi, 1988....................Ecuador
A. c. Levi, 1988: 428, f. 267-270 (Df).

mf darlingtoni Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. d. Levi, 1988: 468, f. 541-546 (Dmf).

f deborae Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Surinam, French Guiana
A. d. Levi, 1988: 442, f. 364-366 (Df).

mf delicata (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Peru, Bolivia
Epeira d. Keyserling, 1892: 183, pl. 9, f. 135 (Dmf).
Araneus taczanowskii Simon, 1897b: 473 (Df).
Araneus delicatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 288.
A. d. Levi, 1988: 458, f. 472-478 (Tmf from Araneus, S).

mf dominica Levi, 1988....................Lesser Antilles
A. d. Levi, 1988: 410, f. 147-153 (Dmf).

f eberhardi Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. e. Levi, 1988: 470, f. 555-558 (Df).

f elegantula (Archer, 1965)....................Martinique
Lariniacantha e. Archer, 1965b: 132, f. 8-9 (Df).
A. e. Brignoli, 1983c: 256.
A. e. Levi, 1988: 410, f. 143-146 (f).

f ericae Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Argentina
A. e. Levi, 1988: 460, f. 486-490 (Df).

f erythrothorax (Taczanowski, 1873)....................French Guiana
Singa e. Taczanowski, 1873: 126 (Dmf).
Araneus e. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 291.
A. e. Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tmf from Singa).
A. e. Levi, 1988: 444, f. 376-378 (f; m of Taczanowski = A. leucogramma).

mf gallardoi Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
A. g. Levi, 1988: 432, f. 300-305 (Dmf).

f gracia Levi, 1988....................Argentina
A. g. Levi, 1988: 464, f. 512-514 (Df).

mf graphica (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico to Panama
Epeira g. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 22, pl. 7, f. 16 (Dm).
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 121, pl. 6, f. 89 (m).
Aranea g. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 518, pl. 51, f. 2 (m).
Araneus graphicus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 294.
Metazygia g. Caporiacco, 1948a: 661 (Tm from Araneus, Df).
A. g. Levi, 1988: 453, f. 435-439 (Tmf from Metazygia).

mf grayi (Blackwall, 1863)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
Epeira grayii Blackwall, 1863a: 34 (Dmf).
Epeira veles Keyserling, 1879: 310, pl. 4, f. 12 (Df).
Araneus g. Simon, 1897e: 1.
Wixia g. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 251 (Tmf from Araneus).
Lariniacantha g. Archer, 1951a: 15, f. 38-40 (Tmf from Wixia).
A. g. Levi, 1976: 388.
A. g. Levi, 1988: 394, f. 10, 44-49 (mf).

mf guimaraes Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Guyana
A. g. Levi, 1988: 390, f. 19-24 (Dmf).

m gurupi Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. g. Levi, 1988: 429, f. 278-279 (Dm).

f haligera (Archer, 1971)....................Peru, Venezuela
Lariniacantha h. Archer, 1971: 159, f. 5 (Df).
A. h. Brignoli, 1983c: 256.
A. h. Levi, 1988: 426, f. 257-260 (f).

f hartliebi Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. h. Levi, 1988: 430, f. 294-297 (Df).

mf hoffmanni Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Paraguay
A. h. Levi, 1988: 400, f. 92-96 (Dmf).

f holmbergi Levi, 1988....................Argentina
A. h. Levi, 1988: 408, f. 134-137 (Df).

mf iguazu Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Argentina
A. i. Levi, 1988: 436, f. 330-335 (Dmf).

f iquitos Levi, 1988....................Peru, Ecuador, Brazil
A. i. Levi, 1988: 416, f. 194-197 (Df).

f itapua Levi, 1988....................Paraguay
A. i. Levi, 1988: 433, f. 310-312 (Df).

mf itauba Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Argentina
A. i. Levi, 1988: 445, f. 386-391 (Dmf).

m jacaranda Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. j. Levi, 1988: 432, f. 298-299 (Dm).

f kartabo Levi, 1988....................Guyana
A. k. Levi, 1988: 399, f. 80-83 (Df).

mf keyserlingi Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. k. Levi, 1988: 398, f. 69-74 (Dmf).

f kochalkai Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. k. Levi, 1988: 416, f. 191-193 (Df).

m lanei Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Argentina
A. l. Levi, 1988: 412, f. 170-171 (Dm).

mf latro (Fabricius, 1775)....................Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina
Aranea l. Fabricius, 1775: 412 (D).
Aranea l. Olivier, 1789: 233 (D).
Epeira l. Walckenaer, 1842: 113 (Df).
Miranda l. C. L. Koch, 1844: 158, f. 933 (Dm).
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1878a: 574, pl. 14, f. 3 (f).
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1892: 197, pl. 9, f. 146 (f).
Araneus l. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 299.
Drexellia l. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 177 (Tmf from Araneus).
Lariniacantha l. Archer, 1951a: 15 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. l. Levi, 1988: 414, f. 175-181 (mf).

mf leucogramma (White, 1841)....................Panama to Argentina
Epeira (Singa) l. White, 1841: 474 (Df).
Epeira albostriata Keyserling, 1865: 815, pl. 19, f. 27-28 (Df).
Epeira albostriata Keyserling, 1893: 258, pl. 13, f. 193 (f, Dm).
Aranea albostriata Tullgren, 1905: 34, pl. 5, f. 11 (f).
Araneus leucogrammus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 301.
Aranea albostriata columbiana Strand, 1916b: 110 (Df).
Parepeira albostriata Mello-Leitão, 1933b: 41.
Parepeira albostriata Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 321 (S).
Cercidia albostriata Archer, 1951a: 42 (Tmf from Parepeira=Alpaida).
A. l. Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tf from Singa).
Lariniacantha albostriata Levi, 1975b: 113 (Tmf from Cercidia).
A. l. Levi, 1988: 391, f. 1-6, 32-38 (f, Sm).

f lomba Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. l. Levi, 1988: 421, f. 219-222 (Df).

mf lubinae Levi, 1988....................Venezuela
A. l. Levi, 1988: 442, f. 367-373 (Dmf).

f machala Levi, 1988....................Ecuador
A. m. Levi, 1988: 470, f. 559-563 (Df).

f madeira Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. m. Levi, 1988: 468, f. 547-550 (Df).

mf manicata Levi, 1988....................Brazil
Araneus manicatus Simon, 1895a: 822 (nomen nudum).
A. m. Levi, 1988: 420, f. 210-215 (Dmf).

f marmorata (Taczanowski, 1873)....................Ecuador, Peru, French Guiana
Singa m. Taczanowski, 1873: 125 (Df).
Araneus m. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 301.
A. m. Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tf from Singa).
A. m. Levi, 1988: 429, f. 280-288 (f).

mf marta Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. m. Levi, 1988: 478, f. 623-627 (Dmf).

f mato Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. m. Levi, 1988: 422, f. 228-230 (Df).

mf moata (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936)....................Panama, Colombia
Araneus moatus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 47, pl. 14, f. 125 (Df).
A. m. Levi, 1988: 448, f. 415-420 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

f moka Levi, 1988....................Bolivia
A. m. Levi, 1988: 426, f. 253-256 (Df).

mf monzon Levi, 1988....................Peru
A. m. Levi, 1988: 398, f. 75-79 (Dmf).

f morro Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. m. Levi, 1988: 412, f. 166-169 (Df).

f muco Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. m. Levi, 1988: 466, f. 519-522 (Df).

m murtinho Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. m. Levi, 1988: 399, f. 84-85 (Dm).

f nadleri Levi, 1988....................Venezuela
A. n. Levi, 1988: 474, f. 583-586 (Df).

f nancho Levi, 1988....................Peru
A. n. Levi, 1988: 456, f. 468-471 (Df).

f narino Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. n. Levi, 1988: 428, f. 271-273 (Df).

m natal Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. n. Levi, 1988: 422, f. 226-227 (Dm).

mf negro Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. n. Levi, 1988: 448, f. 410-414 (Dmf).

f nigrofrenata (Simon, 1895)....................Brazil
Araneus nigrofrenatus Simon, 1895a: 816 (Df).
A. n. Levi, 1988: 421, f. 223-225 (Tf from Araneus).

mf niveosigillata (Mello-Leitão, 1941)....................Colombia, Ecuador
Singa n. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 260, f. 1 (Df).
A. n. Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tf from Singa).
A. niveosagillata Levi, 1988: 446, f. 398-403 (f, Dm).

mf nonoai Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. n. Levi, 1988: 478, f. 617-622 (Dmf).

f octolobata Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. o. Levi, 1988: 460, f. 483-485 (Df).

m oliverioi (Soares & Camargo, 1948)....................Brazil
Cyclosa o. Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 369, f. 22 (Dm).
A. o. Levi, 1999: 310 (Tm from Cyclosa; N.B.: both palpi lost).

f orgaos Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. o. Levi, 1988: 424, f. 239-242 (Df).

mf pedro Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. p. Levi, 1988: 425, f. 246-252 (Dmf).

f picchu Levi, 1988....................Peru
A. p. Levi, 1988: 433, f. 313-316 (Df).

mf quadrilorata (Simon, 1897)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
Araneus quadriloratus Simon, 1897e: 5 (Df).
Cercidia octomaculata Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 236, f. 10 (Df).
Parepeira ocellifera Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 241, f. 19 (Dm).
A. octomaculata Levi, 1975b: 113 (Tf from Cercidia).
A. ocellifera Brignoli, 1983c: 256.
A. q. Levi, 1988: 467, f. 530-536 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

mf queremal Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. q. Levi, 1988: 470, f. 564-569 (Dmf).

mf rioja Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Argentina
A. r. Levi, 1988: 406, f. 116-121 (Dmf).

f roemeri (Strand, 1908)....................Brazil
Aranea r. Strand, 1908c: 3 (Df).
A. r. Levi, 1988: 469, f. 551-554 (Tf from Araneus).

mf rosa Levi, 1988....................Brazil, Argentina
A. r. Levi, 1988: 461, f. 495-500 (Dmf).

f rossi Levi, 1988....................Peru
A. r. Levi, 1988: 447, f. 404-407 (Df).

mf rostratula (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Argentina
Epeira r. Keyserling, 1892: 82, pl. 4, f. 62 (Dm).
Araneus rostratulus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 313.
Wixia r. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 196 (Tm from Araneus).
A. r. Levi, 1988: 394, f. 50-56 (Tm from Wixia, Df).

mf rubellula (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Epeira r. Keyserling, 1892: 81, pl. 4, f. 61 (Df).
Araneus rubellulus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 313.
Araneus inexplicabilis Badcock, 1932: 23, f. 16 (Df).
Wixia nigropunctata Mello-Leitão, 1941f: 214, f. 21-22 (Df).
Wixia albotaeniata Mello-Leitão, 1942b: 403, f. 25-26 (Df).
Wixia r. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 196 (Tf from Araneus).
A. r. Levi, 1988: 395, f. 57-62 (Tf from Wixia, Dm, S).

f sandrei (Simon, 1895)....................Brazil
Araneus s. Simon, 1895a: 816 (Df).
A. s. Levi, 1988: 420, f. 207-209 (Tf from Araneus).

m santosi Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. s. Levi, 1988: 408, f. 138-139 (Dm).

m schneblei Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. s. Levi, 1988: 477, f. 603-604 (Dm).

mf scriba (Mello-Leitão, 1940)....................Brazil
Drexelia s. Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 203 (Df).
A. s. Levi, 1988: 416, f. 188-190 (Tf from Drexelia=Larinia).
A. s. Buckup & Meyer, 1993: 353, f. 1-3 (Dm).

mf septemmammata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico to Argentina
Epeira septem-mammata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 42, pl. 7, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira s. Keyserling, 1892: 89, pl. 4, f. 67 (f).
Aranea s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 514, pl. 49, f. 15 (f).
Araneus septemmammatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 315.
A. s. Levi, 1988: 452, f. 427-434 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

f sevilla Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. s. Levi, 1988: 434, f. 317-319 (Df).

mf silencio Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. s. Levi, 1988: 477, f. 605-610 (Dmf).

mf simla Levi, 1988....................Trinidad
A. s. Levi, 1988: 430, f. 289-293 (Dmf).

f sobradinho Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. s. Levi, 1988: 433, f. 306-309 (Df).

f sulphurea (Taczanowski, 1873)....................French Guiana
Nephila s. Taczanowski, 1873: 148 (Df).
A. s. Levi, 1988: 482, f. 640-643 (removed f from S of Nephila clavipes cornuta).

f sumare Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. s. Levi, 1988: 425, f. 243-245 (Df).

mf tabula (Simon, 1895)....................Guyana to Bolivia
Araneus t. Simon, 1895a: 815, f. 867 (Df).
Araneus multipunctatus Simon, 1895a: 815 (nomen nudum).
Wixia t. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 261 (Tf from Araneus).
A. t. Levi, 1988: 404, f. 110-115 (Tf from Wixia, Dm, S).

mf tayos Levi, 1988....................Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Guyana
A. t. Levi, 1988: 456, f. 458-467 (Dmf).

f thaxteri Levi, 1988....................Trinidad
A. t. Levi, 1988: 436, f. 324-327 (Df).

mf tijuca Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. t. Levi, 1988: 438, f. 336-341 (Dmf).

mf trilineata (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Peru
Epeira trilineata Taczanowski, 1878b: 162, pl. 2, f. 13 (Dmf; preoccupied by Linnaeus, 1767 sub Aranea).
Araneus trilineatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 320.
Aranea trisignata Roewer, 1942a: 854 (replacement name for Epeira trilineata).
A. t. Levi, 1988: 445, f. 381-385 (Tmf from Araneus, S).

mf trispinosa (Keyserling, 1892)....................Panama to Argentina
Epeira grayi Keyserling, 1865: 809, pl. 18, f. 9-10 (f, misidentified).
Epeira t. Keyserling, 1892: 78, pl. 4, f. 59 (Dmf).
Epeira grayi Keyserling, 1892: 79, pl. 4, f. 60 (f, misidentified).
Araneus trispinosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 320.
Wixia t. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 196 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. t. Levi, 1988: 396, f. 63-68 (Tmf from Wixia).

mf truncata (Keyserling, 1865)....................Mexico to Argentina
Epeira t. Keyserling, 1865: 807, pl. 19, f. 21-22 (Df).
Epeira elegantissima Taczanowski, 1878b: 170, pl. 2, f. 19 (Df).
Epeira cylindrica Taczanowski, 1878b: 171, pl. 2, f. 20-21 (Dmf).
Epeira nigropustulata O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: 111, pl. 15, f. 5 (Dj)
Araneus truncatus Simon, 1895a: 811.
Aranea nigropustulata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 516, pl. 49, f. 22 (j).
Araneus nigropustulatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
Edricus truncatus Mello-Leitão, 1933b: 36.
Araneus mutatus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 46, pl. 14, f. 128-129 (Df).
Pickardiana t. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 192 (Tmf from Edricus).
Epeiroides albonotatus Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 237 (Df).
Edricus ensifer Caporiacco, 1947a: 25 (Dm).
Edricus ensifer Caporiacco, 1948a: 658, f. 66 (m).
Subaraneus nigropustulatus Caporiacco, 1948a: 662 (Tj from Araneus, Df).
Edricus t. Schenkel, 1953a: 23, f. 21a-c (m).
Subedricus nigropustulatus Caporiacco, 1954: 85 (Tf from Subaraneus, Sm).
A. nigropustulata Levi, 1976: 388.
A. t. Levi, 1988: 472, f. 570-578 (mf, S).

f truncata obscura (Caporiacco, 1948)....................Guyana
Subaraneus nigropustulatus obscurus Caporiacco, 1948a: 662 (Df).
Subedricus nigropustulatus obscurus Caporiacco, 1954: 85 (Tf from Subaraneus).
A. nigropustulata o. Brignoli, 1983c: 256.

f truncata sexmaculata (Caporiacco, 1948)....................Guyana
Subaraneus nigropustulatus sexmaculatus Caporiacco, 1948a: 662 (Df).
Subedricus nigropustulatus sexmaculatus Caporiacco, 1954: 85 (Tf from Subaraneus).
A. nigropustulata s. Brignoli, 1983c: 256.

m tullgreni (Caporiacco, 1955)....................Venezuela
Parawixia t. Caporiacco, 1955: 348, f. 31a-c (Dm).
A. t. Levi, 1992b: 8 (Tm from Parawixia).
A. t. Levi, 1993a: 234, f. 26-27 (m).

mf tuonabo (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936)....................Panama
Araneus t. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 50, pl. 14, f. 130 (Df).
A. t. Levi, 1988: 474, f. 593-598 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

mf urucuca Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. u. Levi, 1988: 454, f. 440-445 (Dmf).

mf utcuyacu Levi, 1988....................Peru
A. u. Levi, 1988: 390, f. 25-31 (Dmf).

m utiariti Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. u. Levi, 1988: 466, f. 523-524 (Dm).

mf vanzolinii Levi, 1988....................Peru, Brazil, Argentina
A. v. Levi, 1988: 411, f. 160-165 (Dmf).

mf variabilis (Keyserling, 1864)....................Colombia
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1864: 126, pl. 6, f. 1-4 (Df).
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1893: 249, pl. 12, f. 185 (f, Dm).
Araneus v. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
Neoscona v. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 257 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. v. Levi, 1988: 418, f. 198-203 (Tmf from Neoscona).

mf veniliae (Keyserling, 1865)....................Panama to Argentina
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1865: 817, pl. 19, f. 23-24 (Dmf).
Epeira pantherina Taczanowski, 1873: 132 (Dmf).
Epeira unguiformis Keyserling, 1893: 237, pl. 11, f. 177 (Df).
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1893: 256, pl. 13, f. 191 (mf).
Araneus borellii Simon, 1897e: 6 (Df).
Aranea v. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 516, pl. 49, f. 23-24 (mf).
Aranea borelli Tullgren, 1905: 32, pl. 4, f. 10 (f, Dm).
Araneus pantherinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 308.
Araneus unguiformis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
Araneus v. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 323.
Neoscona borelli Mello-Leitão, 1933b: 40.
Metazygia unguiformis Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 187 (Tf from Araneus).
Subaraneus v. Caporiacco, 1948a: 661 (Tmf from Araneus).
Lariniacantha v. Archer, 1951a: 15 (Tmf from Subaraneus).
Metepeira wiedenmeyeri Schenkel, 1953a: 22, f. 20 (Dm).
A. v. Levi, 1976: 388.
A. v. Levi, 1988: 402, f. 103-109 (mf, S).

m vera Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. v. Levi, 1988: 444, f. 379-380 (Dm).

mf versicolor (Keyserling, 1877)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
Cercidia v. Keyserling, 1877b: 86, pl. 3, f. 2 (Df).
Cercidia v. Keyserling, 1892: 38, pl. 2, f. 33 (f, Dm).
Araneus v. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324.
A. v. Levi, 1988: 411, f. 154-159 (Tmf from Cercidia).

f wenzeli (Simon, 1897)....................St. Vincent
Araneus w. Simon, 1897d: 874 (Df).
A. w. Levi, 1988: 438, f. 342-345 (Tf from Araneus).

f weyrauchi Levi, 1988....................Peru
A. w. Levi, 1988: 440, f. 360-363 (Df).

mf xavantina Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. x. Levi, 1988: 455, f. 452-457 (Dmf).

f yotoco Levi, 1988....................Colombia
A. y. Levi, 1988: 473, f. 579-582 (Df).

f yucuma Levi, 1988....................Brazil
A. y. Levi, 1988: 460, f. 491-494 (Df).

m yungas Levi, 1988....................Bolivia
A. y. Levi, 1988: 444, f. 374-375 (Dm).

mf yuto Levi, 1988....................Paraguay, Argentina
A. y. Levi, 1988: 440, f. 354-359 (Dmf).

Gen. Amazonepeira Levi, 1989

A. Levi, 1989: 97, type A. herrera Levi, 1989.

mf beno Levi, 1994....................Ecuador, Brazil, Surinam
A. b. Levi, 1994: 238, f. 48-52 (Dmf).

mf callaria (Levi, 1991)....................Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
Aculepeira c. Levi, 1991a: 303, f. 564-565 (Dm).
A. c. Levi, 1994: 236, f. 28-40 (Tm from Aculepeira, Df; N.B.: m from Ecuador of Levi, 1991 belongs to A. masaka).

mf herrera Levi, 1989 *....................Peru, Brazil
A. h. Levi, 1989: 98, f. 56-60 (Dmf).
A. h. Levi, 1994: 235, f. 15-23 (mf).

f manaus Levi, 1994....................Brazil
A. m. Levi, 1994: 236, f. 24-27 (Df).

mf masaka Levi, 1994....................Ecuador, Brazil
A. m. Levi, 1994: 237, f. 41-47 (Dmf).

Gen. Anepsion Strand, 1929

N.B.: replacement name (omitted by Roewer) for Anepsia L. Koch, 1871, preoccupied.

f buchi Chrysanthus, 1969....................New Guinea, Solomon Is.
A. b. Chrysanthus, 1969: 35, f. 13-14 (Df).
A. b. Chrysanthus, 1971: 34, f. 67-68 (f).

mf depressum (Thorell, 1877)....................China, Myanmar to Sulawesi
Paraplectana depressa Thorell, 1877b: 353 (Df).
Anepsia depressa Simon, 1895a: 868, f. 930.
A. d. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 466, f. 13-17 (f).
A. d. Chrysanthus, 1969: 32, f. 3-5 (Dm).
A. d. Zhu et al, 1994: 26, f. 1A-C (f).
A. d. Yin et al., 1997: 116, f. 41a-c (f).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 133O-P, 146C (f).

f depressum birmanicum (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Paraplectana depressa birmanica Thorell, 1895: 208 (Df).
A. d. b. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 466, f. 18 (f).

f fuscolimbatum (Simon, 1901)....................Malaysia
Anepsia fuscolimbata Simon, 1901k: 61 (Df).
A. f. Chrysanthus, 1969: 32, f. 1-2 (f).

f hammeni Chrysanthus, 1969....................New Guinea
A. h. Chrysanthus, 1969: 33, f. 6-7 (Df).
A. h. Chrysanthus, 1971: 33, f. 65-66 (f).

f jacobsoni Chrysanthus, 1961....................Indonesia
A. j. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 467, f. 19-21 (Df).

m japonicum Yaginuma, 1962....................China, Japan
Anepsium j. Yaginuma, 1962b: 134, f. 6-8 (Dm).
A. j. Yaginuma, 1986a: 123, f. 65.1 (m).
A. j. Yin et al., 1997: 117, f. 42a-c (m).
A. j. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 134B-C, 146D (m).

f maculatum (Thorell, 1897)....................Myanmar
Anepsia maculata Thorell, 1897b: 11 (Df).
A. m. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 469, f. 31-32 (f).

mf maritatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877)....................Sri Lanka, China to Sulawesi
Paraplectana maritata O. P.-Cambridge, 1877c: 32, pl. 7, f. 7 (Dmf).
Paraplectana picta Thorell, 1877b: 356 (Df).
Paraplectana picta Thorell, 1878b: 19 (Dm).
Paraplectana nigroanalis Hasselt, 1882: 15, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
Anepsia maritata Simon, 1905c: 63.
A. m. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 465, f. 3-10 (mf).
A. m. Yaginuma & Wen, 1983: 196, f. 4A-B (f).
A. m. Song, 1987: 158, f. 118 (f).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 118, f. 43a-b (f).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 134A, 146E (f).

mf peltoides (Thorell, 1878)....................Australia, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch.
Paraplectana p. Thorell, 1878b: 21 (Dj).
Paraplectana p. Strand, 1911d: 155 (Df).
A. p. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 469, f. 33-34 (f).
A. p. Chrysanthus, 1969: 33, f. 9, 11 (Dm).
A. p. Chrysanthus, 1971: 33, f. 62-64 (mf).
A. p. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 23 (mf).

f reimoseri Chrysanthus, 1961....................New Guinea
A. r. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 469, f. 35-36 (Df).

mf rhomboides (L. Koch, 1867) *....................Samoa
Epeira r. L. Koch, 1867b: 177 (Dmf).
Anepsia r. L. Koch, 1871: 46, pl. 3, f. 8-9 (mf).
A. r. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 465, f. 1-2 (f).
A. r. Chrysanthus, 1969: 31, f. 10 (m).

mf roeweri Chrysanthus, 1961....................Taiwan, Philippines, Riouw Is.
A. r. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 467, f. 22-27 (Dmf).
A. r. Yoshida, 1991a: 1, f. 1-8 (mf).

f semialbum (Simon, 1880)....................New Caledonia
Paraplectana semialba Simon, 1880i: 168 (Df).
A. s. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 466, f. 11-12 (f).

f villosum (Thorell, 1877)....................Sulawesi
Paraplectana villosa Thorell, 1877b: 359 (Df).
A. v. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 468, f. 28-30 (f).

mf wichmanni (Kulczyn'ski, 1911)....................New Guinea
Anepsia wichmannii Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 500, pl. 20, f. 59 (Df).
A. w. Chrysanthus, 1961a: 470, f. 37-40 (f, Dm).
A. w. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 207, f. 54-56, 69 (mf).
A. w. Chrysanthus, 1969: 37, f. 12 (m).

f wolffi Chrysanthus, 1969....................Solomon Is.
A. w. Chrysanthus, 1969: 35, f. 15-16 (Df).

Gen. Arachnura Vinson, 1863

Nomen nudum:
A. nipponica Kishida (Yaginuma, in Brignoli, 1983c: 251).

f angura Tikader, 1970....................India
A. a. Tikader, 1970: 31, f. 19a-b (Df).
A. a. Tikader, 1982a: 210, f. 411-413 (f).

f caudatella Roewer, 1955....................New Guinea, Queensland
Epeira caudata Bradley, 1876a: 147, pl. 1, f. 7 (Df; preoccupied by Hentz, 1850).
A. caudata Simon, 1895a: 777.
A. c. Roewer, 1955c: 752 (replacement name).

mf feredayi (L. Koch, 1872)....................Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand
Epeira f. L. Koch, 1872a: 122, pl. 11, f. 2 (Df).
A. nigrita Urquhart, 1885: 37 (Df).
A. obtusa Urquhart, 1885: 37 (Df).
A. f. Hickman, 1926: 182, pl. 15, f. 7 (Dm).
A. f. Dondale, 1966: 1160, f. 1G-J (f).
A. f. Uyemura, 1976a: 13, f. 7 (f).

mf heptotubercula Yin, Hu & Wang 1983....................China
A. h. Yin, Hu & Wang, 1983: 1, f. 1A-F, 2A-c (Dmf).
A. h. Feng, 1990: 51, f. 26.1-9 (mf).
A. h. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 100, f. 93.1-7, 94.1-4 (mf).
A. h. Yin et al., 1997: 120, f. 44a-j (mf).
A. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 134D-E, H-I, 146F-G (mf).

mf higginsi (L. Koch, 1872)....................Australia, Tasmania
Epeira higginsii L. Koch, 1872a: 120, pl. 11, f. 1 (Df).
A. h. Simon, 1895a: 776, f. 848.
A. h. Butler, 1933: 279, pl. 17, f. 1.
A. h. Hickman, 1967: 60, f. 104-105 (f, Dm).
A. h. Uyemura, 1976a: 13, f. 7 (f).
A. h. Uyemura, 1976b: 23, f. 1.1, 3, 5, 2.3-5, 3.2, 4.2 (f).
A. higginsii Davies, 1988b: 320, f. 41 (f, Dm).

mf logio Yaginuma, 1956....................China, Japan
A. l. Yaginuma, 1956a: 1, f. 1-14 (Dmf).
A. l. Yaginuma, 1960: 66, f. 62 (mf).
A. l. Yaginuma, 1971: 66, f. 62 (mf).
A. l. Hu, 1984: 101, f. 96.1-3 (mf).
A. l. Yaginuma, 1986a: 116, f. 61.1 (mf).
A. l. Chikuni, 1989b: 77, f. 45 (mf).
A. l. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 99, f. 92.1-2 (mf).
A. l. Yin et al., 1997: 121, f. 45a-d (m).
A. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 134J, 146H-I (m).

mf melanura Simon, 1867....................India to Japan and Sulawesi
A. m. Simon, 1867: 17 (Df).
A. digitata Thorell, 1877b: 410 (Df).
A. m. Simon, 1895a: 776, f. 847 (f).
A. m. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 203, f. 39-41, 68 (f).
A. m. Tanikawa, 1991a: 12, f. 1-6 (f, Dm).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 122, f. 46a-d (f).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 134F-G, 146J (f).

f perfissa (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira p. Thorell, 1895: 175 (Dj).
A. p. Thorell, 1898: 343 (Df).

m pygmaea (Thorell, 1890)....................Nias Is.
Poltys pygmaeus Thorell, 1890b: 29 (Dm).
A. p. Simon, 1895a: 777.

f quinqueapicata Strand, 1911....................Aru Is.
A. q. Strand, 1911d: 148, pl. 5, f. 50 (Df).

f scorpionoides Vinson, 1863 *....................Congo, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mauritius
Arachnoura s. Vinson, 1863: 291, 310, pl. 13, f. 1 (Df).
Hapalochrota caudata Keyserling, 1864: 82, pl. 3, f. 6-11 (Df).
A. scorpionides Uyemura, 1976b: 26, f. 1.2, 4, 6, 2.1-2, 3.1, 4.1 (f).

f simoni Berland, 1924....................New Caledonia
A. s. Berland, 1924a: 218, f. 122-123 (Df).

f spinosa (Saito, 1933)....................Taiwan
Cyclosa s. Saito, 1933b: 52, pl. 3, f. 33 (Df).
A. s. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 51 (Tf from Cyclosa, after Yoshida, 1978).

Gen. Araneus Clerck, 1757

N.B.: generic name validated by ICZN Direction 104; not a senior synonym of Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1976: 388) or Molinaranea Mello-Leitão, 1940g: 237, type M. molinai Mello-Leitão, 1940 [=M. cinaberina (Nicolet, 1849)] (Levi, 1991a: 177, contra Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1963: 107); considered a senior synonym of Cathaistela Archer, 1958: 16, type Araneus ventricosus (L. Koch, 1878) by Yaginuma, 1959c: 28 (N.B.: spelling Catheisthela in Brignoli, 1983c: 250 is a lapsus); of Amamrotypus Archer, 1951a: 17, type A. mammatus Archer, 1951, Cambridgepeira Archer, 1951b: 2, type Araneus detrimentosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889), Conaranea Archer, 1951b: 5, type Araneus excelsus (Banks, 1896) [=A. bispinosus (Keyserling, 1885)] (considered instead a junior synonym of Atea C. L. Koch, 1837 by Archer, 1951c: 3), Conepeira Archer, 1951b: 12, type Araneus miniatus (Walckenaer, 1842) and Neosconella F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 (contra Archer, 1951a: 38) by Levi, 1973: 478; and of Atea C. L. Koch, 1837 by Levi, 1991a: 171, contra Grasshoff, 1976: 150.

Transferred to other genera:
A. aballensis albozonatus Caporiacco, 1941 -- see Neoscona.
A. aballensis angustifolius Caporiacco, 1941 -- see Neoscona.
A. aballensis bimaculatus Caporiacco, 1941 -- see Neoscona.
A. aballensis foliatus Caporiacco, 1941 -- see Neoscona.
A. aballensis nigricans Caporiacco, 1941 -- see Neoscona.
A. aballensis subconcolor Caporiacco, 1941 -- see Neoscona.
A. abscissus (Karsch, 1879) -- see Gibbaranea.
A. acacesiiformis Caporiacco, 1954 -- see Eriophora.
A. accentuatus Thorell, 1899 -- see Neoscona.
A. achine Simon, 1906 -- see Neoscona.
A. acinctus (Urquhart, 1890) -- see Zealaranea.
A. aculifer (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Aculepeira.
A. acutus (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Alpaida.
A. adiantoides (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Neoscona.
A. adiantus (Walckenaer, 1802) -- see Neoscona.
A. advena Petrunkevitch, 1911 -- see Parawixia.
A. aequiangulus Franganillo, 1930 -- see Verrucosa.
A. aequiangulus ochraceus Franganillo, 1930 -- see Verrucosa.
A. aestimabilis (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Alpaida.
A. aestivus (Urquhart, 1892) -- see Zealaranea.
A. affinitatus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Molinaranea.
A. agriliformis (Taczanowski, 1879) -- see Micrathena.
A. airensis Denis, 1955 -- see Neoscona.
A. akeholmi Brignoli, 1983 -- see Tatepeira.
A. alberti Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. albini (Scopoli, 1763) -- see Linyphia under Linyphiidae.
A. albiscutum (Urquhart, 1889) -- see Zealaranea.
A. albisectus Mello-Leitão, 1936 -- see Ocrepeira.
A. albiventer (Keyserling, 1884) -- see Eustala.
A. albobitriangulosus (Caporiacco, 1939) -- see Neoscona.
A. albolineatus (Urquhart, 1892) -- see Cryptaranea.
A. alboniger (Franganillo, 1931) -- see Larinia.
A. albopunctatus (Taczanowski, 1879) -- see Ocrepeira.
A. albostrictus (Urquhart, 1889) -- see Zealaranea.
A. albovittatus (Mello-Leitão, 1941) -- see Aculepeira.
A. alpicus (L. Koch, 1869) -- see Araniella.
A. alternidens Schenkel, 1936 -- see Neoscona.
A. amulensis (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Neoscona.
A. angulatulus Schenkel, 1937 -- see Neoscona.
A. angulopictus Schenkel, 1953 -- see Alenatea.
A. angusticlavus (Urquhart, 1892) -- see Zealaranea.
A. annulatus (Keyserling, 1886) -- see Eriophora.
A. annulellus (Strand, 1907) -- see Neoscona.
A. arabescus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Neoscona.
A. arcopictus Schenkel, 1953 -- see Alenatea.
A. argyronotus Mello-Leitão, 1939 -- see Eriophora.
A. armida (Audouin, 1826) -- see Aculepeira.
A. artifex (Tullgren, 1910) -- see Neoscona.
A. asbenicus Denis, 1955 -- see Pararaneus.
A. astridae (Strand, 1917) -- see Eriophora.
A. atrihastulus (Urquhart, 1890) -- see Cryptaranea.
A. aureus (Saito, 1934) -- see Eriophora.
A. australasia (Griffith & Pidgeon, 1833) -- see Poecilopachys.
A. aysenensis Tullgren, 1902 -- see Molinaranea.
A. benjaminus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Neoscona.
A. bettoni Pocock, 1898 -- see Neoscona.
A. bialbimacula (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Zealaranea.
A. biapicatus (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Eriophora.
A. bicaudatus (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Nicolepeira.
A. bicoloratus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Parawixia.
A. bicornis (Lepechin, 1774) -- see Gibbaranea bituberculata.
A. bicornutus (Martini & Goeze, 1778) -- see Gibbaranea bituberculata.
A. bicornutus (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Alpaida.
A. bioculatus Thorell, 1899 -- see Neoscona.
A. bituberculatus (Walckenaer, 1802) -- see Gibbaranea.
A. blandus (Blackwall, 1865) -- see Neoscona.
A. blatteus (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Eriophora.
A. blondeli (Simon, 1885) -- see Neoscona.
A. borellii Simon, 1897 -- see Alpaida.
A. brouni (Urquhart, 1885) -- see Eriophora.
A. brouni olivinius (Urquhart, 1889) -- see Zealaranea.
A. bucheti Lessert, 1930 -- see Neoscona.
A. calciope Simon, 1895 -- see Chorizopes.
A. calix (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Metazygia.
A. calotypus (Chamberlin, 1916) -- see Alpaida.
A. capitalis (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Eriophora.
A. caputlupi (Doleschall, 1859) -- see Parawixia.
A. carbonarioides (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Aculepeira.
A. carbonarius (L. Koch, 1869) -- see Aculepeira.
A. carbonarius sinensis Schenkel, 1953 -- see Aculepeira.
A. carenatus (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Nicolepeira.
A. carmineus (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Alpaida.
A. carolinalis (Archer, 1951) -- see Metazygia.
A. carteri Badcock, 1932 -- see Alpaida.
A. castaneoscutatus Simon, 1895 -- see Metazygia.
A. catawba (Banks, 1911) -- see Colphepeira.
A. caudacutus (Taczanowski, 1873) -- see Mecynometa under Tetragnathidae.
A. cavaleriei Schenkel, 1963 -- see Eriovixia.
A. cedrorum Simon, 1929 -- see Nuctenea.
A. centrodes (Thorell, 1887) -- see Cyclosa.
A. cerasiae (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Acanthepeira.
A. cereolellus (Strand, 1907) -- see Neoscona.
A. ceropegius (Walckenaer, 1802) -- see Aculepeira.
A. cerviniventris (Simon, 1884) -- see Neoscona.
A. chabarovi Bakhvalov, 1981 -- see Larinioides.
A. championi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Alpaida.
A. charitonovi (Ermolajew, 1928) -- see Aculepeira.
A. cheesmanae Berland, 1938 -- see Neoscona.
A. chiarinii (Pavesi, 1883) -- see Neoscona.
A. chilensis (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
A. cinaberinus (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
A. citrinellus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Alpaida.
A. citrinus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Alpaida.
A. clymene (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
A. collinus (Keyserling, 1886) -- see Eriophora.
A. collusor Petrunkevitch, 1911 -- see Heterognatha.
A. compsus (Chamberlin, 1916) -- see Metepeira.
A. confusionis (Strand, 1906) -- see Pararaneus.
A. conicus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Alpaida.
A. conifer (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Neoscona.
A. coniformis (Roewer, 1942) -- see Alpaida.
A. consequus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Ocrepeira.
A. cooksoni (Butler, 1877) -- see Neoscona.
A. cordiformis (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Cyrtophora.
A. cornutus Clerck, 1757 -- see Larinioides.
A. coroniger (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Parawixia.
A. cossoni (Simon, 1885) -- see Araniella.
A. crassicaudex (Thorell, 1899) -- see Pararaneus.
A. crassus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Zealaranea.
A. crewi (Banks, 1903) -- see Metazygia.
A. croaticus Kulczyn'ski, 1905 -- see Araniella.
A. crucifer (Lucas, 1839) -- see Neoscona.
A. crucifer albimaculatus (Strand, 1908) -- see Neoscona.
A. crucifer ladislausi (Strand, 1908) -- see Neoscona.
A. crucifer ochroleucellus (Strand, 1908) -- see Neoscona.
A. crucifer pyramidellus (Strand, 1908) -- see Neoscona.
A. cruciferoides (Tullgren, 1910) -- see Neoscona.
A. crucinotatus (Pokrowsky, 1904) -- see Zygiella.
A. cucurbitinus (Linnaeus, 1758) -- see Araniella.
A. cucurbitinus maderianus Kulczyn'ski, 1905 -- see Araniella.
A. cucurbitinus opisthographus Kulczyn'ski, 1905 -- see Araniella.
A. cutucensis (Kraus, 1955) -- see Aculepeira.
A. cylicophorus Badcock, 1932 -- see Verrucosa.
A. cylindriformis (Roewer, 1942) -- see Linyphiidae incertae sedis.
A. cyrtophoroides (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Kapogea.
A. cyrtoscapus (Pocock, 1898) -- see Pararaneus.
A. danensis (Strand, 1906) -- see Neoscona.
A. darolicola (Strand, 1906) -- see Pararaneus.
A. davidi Schenkel, 1963 -- see Alenatea.
A. davisi (Hingston, 1932) -- see Spilasma.
A. dehaani (Doleschall, 1859) -- see Parawixia.
A. delicatus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Alpaida.
A. deliciosus (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Alpaida.
A. designatus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 -- see Alpaida.
A. devius (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936) -- see Eustala.
A. diegensis Schenkel, 1950 -- see Eustala.
A. dilatatus (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Metazygia.
A. discolorus (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Colaranea.
A. displicatus (Hentz, 1847) -- see Araniella.
A. dissimulatus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Mimetus under Mimetidae.
A. doenitzi (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Neoscona.
A. dorsatulus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Molinaranea.
A. dubius (Keyserling, 1863) -- see Metazygia.
A. dufouri (Simon, 1874) -- see Siwa.
A. dumetorum (Fourcroy, 1785) -- see Larinioides.
A. dumicola (Urquhart, 1888) -- see Zealaranea.
A. duocyphus Chamberlin, 1916 -- see Ocrepeira.
A. edwardianus Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. egregius Kulczyn'ski, 1911 -- see Neogea.
A. electus (Keyserling, 1883) -- see Kaira.
A. elinguis (Keyserling, 1883) -- see Bertrana.
A. emertoni (Banks, 1904) -- see Eustala.
A. eriophoroides Caporiacco, 1954 -- see Parawixia.
A. errans (Roewer, 1942) -- see Metazygia.
A. erraticus (Keyserling, 1883) -- see Metazygia.
A. essequibensis (Hingston, 1932) -- see Eustala.
A. excelsus (Simon, 1889) -- see Eriovixia.
A. eximius (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936) -- see Neoscona.
A. fasciolatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Mastophora.
A. fernandensis Simon, 1907 -- see Neoscona.
A. fiebrigi (Dahl, 1906) -- see Ocrepeira.
A. flavicomus (Simon, 1880) -- see Eriophora.
A. flavifrons (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Nicolepeira.
A. flaviventris (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
A. flavomaculatus (Urquhart, 1889) -- see Colaranea.
A. foliatus (Fourcroy, 1785) -- see Larinioides.
A. folisecens (Hingston, 1932) -- see Hingstepeira.
A. folium Schrank, 1803 -- see Larinioides.
A. formicae Tullgren, 1910 -- see Neoscona.
A. franganilloides Brignoli, 1983 -- see Kapogea.
A. fratrellus (Chamberlin, 1924) -- see Heurodes.
A. fuliginatus (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Cyclosa.
A. fuligineus (C. L. Koch, 1838) -- see Eriophora.
A. furcifer (Keyserling, 1886) -- see Verrucosa.
A. fuscocoloratus (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Alenatea.
A. galatheae (Thorell, 1891) -- see Metepeira.
A. galbanus (Urquhart, 1890) -- see Colaranea.
A. geayi (Caporiacco, 1954) -- see Eriophora.
A. genialis (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metazygia.
A. gerhardti Caporiacco, 1949 -- see Neoscona.
A. gibbosus (Walckenaer, 1802) -- see Gibbaranea.
A. globiger Hogg, 1913 -- see Molinaranea.
A. glomerabilis (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metazygia.
A. glomosus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Cyclosa.
A. gracilentus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Argiope.
A. gracilis (Menge, 1879) -- see Larinioides.
A. granatai Caporiacco, 1941 -- see Neoscona.
A. graphicus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Alpaida.
A. gravabilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Aculepeira.
A. grayi (Blackwall, 1863) -- see Alpaida.
A. gressus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metepeira.
A. hallucinor Petrunkevitch, 1911 -- see Acacesia.
A. haploscapus Pocock, 1898 -- see Neoscona.
A. helvolus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Aculepeira.
A. herbeoides (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Mangora.
A. heroine (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Eriophora.
A. hetian Hu & Wu, 1989 -- see Gibbaranea.
A. hirtipedatus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Mangora.
A. hirtipes (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Mangora.
A. hirtus (C. L. Koch, 1844) -- see Neoscona.
A. hispidus (C. L. Koch, 1844) -- see Eriophora.
A. hoffmanni Schenkel, 1937 -- see Neoscona.
A. holmi Schenkel, 1953 -- see Neoscona.
A. hoplophallus Pocock, 1899 -- see Pararaneus.
A. hyadesi (Simon, 1884) -- see Nicolepeira.
A. hyperboreus Kulczyn'ski, 1908 -- see Aculepeira.
A. ikomosanensis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Cyrtophora.
A. immundus (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Parawixia.
A. incertus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Metazygia.
A. inconspicuus (Simon, 1874) -- see Araniella.
A. inexplicabilis Badcock, 1932 -- see Alpaida.
A. invisibilis (Urquhart, 1891) -- see Cryptaranea.
A. iris (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Acanthepeira.
A. itemvarians Bonnet, 1955 -- see Hypsosinga.
A. ithaca (McCook, 1894) -- see Larinioides.
A. ixobolus (Thorell, 1873) -- see Larinioides.
A. karabagi Karol, 1965 -- see Aculepeira.
A. kariae (Strand, 1919) -- see Aculepeira.
A. katangae Giltay, 1935 -- see Neoscona.
A. keyserlingi (Roewer, 1942) -- see Metepeira.
A. kibonotensis (Tullgren, 1910) -- see Neoscona.
A. kochi (Taczanowski, 1873) -- see Parawixia.
A. koratsensis (Dönitz & Strand, 1906) -- see Neoscona.
A. lacteus Saito, 1933 -- see Neoscona.
A. laevigatus (Urquhart, 1891) -- see Novaranea.
A. laglaizei (Simon, 1877) -- see Eriovixia.
A. lambarenensis Simon, 1907 -- see Neoscona.
A. lamentarius (Keyserling, 1883) -- see Spilasma.
A. lanuginosus (Lenz, 1886) -- see Neoscona.
A. lapillulus Simon, 1907 -- see Neoscona.
A. laticeps (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Metazygia.
A. latro (Fabricius, 1781) -- see Alpaida.
A. leimenstolli Strand, 1906 -- see Neoscona.
A. lencoranicus Bakhvalov, 1983 -- see Aculepeira.
A. leucaspis Schenkel, 1963 -- see Neoscona.
A. leuciscus (Urquhart, 1891) -- see Eriophora.
A. lewisi (Archer, 1958) -- see Lewisepeira.
A. limbatus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Euryopis under Theridiidae.
A. locuples (Butler, 1879) -- see Neoscona.
A. lodiculafaciens (Hingston, 1932) -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
A. lunulifer (Reimoser, 1938) -- see Pararaneus.
A. lunulus (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Ursa.
A. lyratus (Fischer-Waldheim, 1830) -- see Larinioides.
A. maculaticeps (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Neoscona.
A. magellanicus (Walckenaer, 1847) -- see Molinaranea.
A. mammifer Tullgren, 1902 -- see Molinaranea.
A. manicatus Simon, 1895 -- see Alpaida.
A. manicola (Strand, 1906) -- see Pararaneus.
A. marcuzzii Caporiacco, 1955 -- see Neoscona.
A. margaritaceus (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Heterognatha.
A. marshalli Pocock, 1898 -- see Neoscona.
A. melanopa (Gerstäcker, 1873) -- see Neoscona.
A. melloi Brignoli, 1983 -- see Aculepeira.
A. melloteei Simon, 1896 -- see Neoscona.
A. melo (Krynicki, 1837) -- see Gibbaranea.
A. mensamontis Pocock, 1900 -- see Neoscona.
A. mesonauta Simon, 1907 -- see Neoscona.
A. messalina (Hasselt, 1888) -- see Eriophora.
A. minas (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Parawixia.
A. minimus (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Neoscona.
A. moatus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 -- see Alpaida.
A. modestus (Simon, 1890) -- see Neoscona.
A. molinai (Mello-Leitão, 1940) -- see Molinaranea.
A. monticola (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Parawixia.
A. moraballii (Hingston, 1932) -- see Metazygia.
A. mormon (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Larinia.
A. multiplicans (Chamberlin, 1924) -- see Neoscona.
A. multipunctatus Simon, 1895 -- see Alpaida.
A. mundanius (Roewer, 1942) -- see Cryptaranea.
A. mundulellus (Strand, 1915) -- see Metazygia.
A. mundulus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metazygia.
A. musivus (Hasselt, 1888) -- see Eriophora.
A. mutatus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 -- see Alpaida.
A. mutilatus Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Neoscona.
A. naevius (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
A. naiba (Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1929) -- see Neoscona.
A. nanshanensis Yin et al., 1990 -- see Chorizopes.
A. napiformis (Thorell, 1899) -- see Eriovixia.
A. nauticus (L. Koch, 1875) -- see Neoscona.
A. neotheis Petrunkevitch, 1911 -- see Neoscona.
A. nephiloides trapezoidalis Franganillo, 1930 -- see Eriophora.
A. neptuninus (Mello-Leitão, 1948) -- see Dubiepeira.
A. netus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Singa.
A. neufvilleorum Lessert, 1930 -- see Eriophora.
A. nicaraguensis (Keyserling, 1885) -- see Eriophora.
A. nidificans (Hingston, 1932) -- see Neoscona.
A. nigritus Thorell, 1899 -- see Neoscona.
A. nigritus fernandensis Simon, 1907 -- see Neoscona.
A. nigriventris (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Metepeira.
A. nigrocinctus (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Metazygia.
A. nigrofrenatus Simon, 1895 -- see Alpaida.
A. nigrohastulus (Urquhart, 1890) -- see Cryptaranea.
A. nigrolineatus Caporiacco, 1955 -- see Acacesia.
A. nigropunctatulus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Alpaida.
A. nigropustulatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1893) -- see Alpaida.
A. nigrostriatus Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Neoscona.
A. nigrostriatus nigrovittatus Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Neoscona.
A. nocturnellus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Neoscona.
A. nordenskioldi (Tullgren, 1905) -- see Parawixia.
A. noseki Strand, 1907 -- see Aculepeira.
A. novellus Simon, 1907 -- see Neoscona.
A. oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1863) -- see Neoscona.
A. obliteratus (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
A. occidaneus Simon, 1907 -- see Neoscona.
A. ochraceus (Grube, 1861) -- see Cercidia.
A. odites Simon, 1906 -- see Neoscona.
A. omoedus (Thorell, 1870) -- see Gibbaranea.
A. opimus (L. Koch, 1878) -- see Neoscona.
A. orinus (Chamberlin, 1916) -- see Eustala.
A. orizabensis (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Neoscona.
A. oviger (Panzer, 1804) -- see Larinioides.
A. pachanus Pocock, 1898 -- see Neoscona.
A. pallidulus (Keyserling, 1864) -- see Metazygia.
A. palloides Roewer, 1955 -- see Metazygia.
A. pantherinus (Taczanowski, 1872) -- see Alpaida.
A. paracymbifer (Strand, 1906) -- see Pararaneus.
A. paraopeba Mello-Leitão, 1917 -- see Parawixia.
A. parascylla Schenkel, 1963 -- see Neoscona.
A. patagiatus Clerck, 1757 -- see Larinioides.
A. patagonicus Tullgren, 1901 -- see Molinaranea.
A. pavidus Simon, 1906 -- see Neoscona.
A. peckhami (McCook, 1894) -- see Metellina under Tetragnathidae.
A. pentagonus (Hentz, 1850) -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
A. perforatus (Thorell, 1899) -- see Pararaneus.
A. perperus Petrunkevitch, 1911 -- see Carepalxis.
A. perplicatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Neoscona.
A. petasatus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Eustala.
A. phaethontis Simon, 1896 -- see Molinaranea.
A. platyparomma (Caporiacco, 1939) -- see Neoscona.
A. plebejus (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Neoscona.
A. porculus (Simon, 1877) -- see Heurodes.
A. potanini Simon, 1895 -- see Larinioides.
A. potteri Simon, 1901 -- see Neoscona.
A. pratensis (Hentz, 1847) -- see Neoscona.
A. productus (L. Koch, 1867) -- see Eriophora.
A. proximus (Kulczyn'ski, 1885) -- see Araniella.
A. pseudocentrodes (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Eriovixia.
A. pseudoscylla Schenkel, 1953 -- see Neoscona.
A. psyllus (Thorell, 1887) -- see Cyclosa.
A. pubiventris (Simon, 1889) -- see Larinia.
A. punctigera (Doleschall, 1857) -- see Neoscona.
A. punctipes (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Mangora.
A. purpurus (Urquhart, 1887) -- see Zealaranea.
A. pustulosus (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Eriophora.
A. quadriloratus Simon, 1897 -- see Alpaida.
A. quadrimaculosus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Molinaranea.
A. quadripunctatulus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Molinaranea.
A. raptus Thorell, 1899 -- see Neoscona.
A. redemptus (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936) -- see Ocrepeira.
A. redii (Scopoli, 1763) -- see Agalenatea.
A. restiarius (Tullgren, 1910) -- see Neoscona.
A. restiarius obscurus (Tullgren, 1910) -- see Neoscona.
A. rhinurus Pocock, 1899 -- see Eriovixia.
A. rhodomelas (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Alpaida.
A. ribeiroi Mello-Leitão, 1917 -- see Parawixia.
A. rivalis (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Parawixia.
A. roemeri (Strand, 1908) -- see Alpaida.
A. rostratulus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Alpaida.
A. rostratus (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Mangora.
A. rubellulus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Alpaida.
A. rubens (Hentz, 1847) -- see Hypsosinga.
A. rubroguttulatus (Keyserling, 1879) -- see Eustala.
A. rufipalpis (Lucas, 1858) -- see Neoscona.
A. rufofemoratus (Simon, 1884) -- see Neoscona.
A. rugosus Badcock, 1932 -- see Parawixia.
A. rugosus Franganillo, 1936 -- see Kapogea.
A. rumpfi (Thorell, 1878) -- see Neoscona.
A. sacer (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Neoscona.
A. sachalinensis (Saito, 1934) -- see Eriophora.
A. salaeria (Chamberlin, 1920) -- see Neoscona.
A. salei (Keyserling, 1863) -- see Metepeira.
A. sandrei Simon, 1895 -- see Alpaida.
A. sanguipes (Thorell, 1899) -- see Pararaneus.
A. sanguipes antepictus Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. sanguipes constrictifascius Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. sanguipes decoratellus Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. sanguipes indistinctepictus Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. sanguipes lanceolatellus Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. sanguipes monotonius Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. sanguipes nigrifoliatus Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. sanguipes recurvatus Strand, 1913 -- see Neoscona.
A. santa (Chamberlin, 1916) -- see Metepeira.
A. sargi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Aculepeira.
A. saxitalis (Urquhart, 1887) -- see Zealaranea.
A. sclopetarius Clerck, 1757 -- see Larinioides.
A. scrofa (Molina, 1788) -- see Phrixotrichus under Theraphosidae.
A. scylla nigromaculatus Yaginuma, 1961 -- see Neoscona.
A. seditiosus (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Metepeira.
A. semilunaris (Karsch, 1879) -- see Neoscona.
A. septemmammatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Alpaida.
A. septentrionalis Kulczyn'ski, 1908 -- see Aculepeira.
A. sericatus Clerck, 1757 -- see Larinioides.
A. sermonifer Mello-Leitão, 1932 -- see Parawixia.
A. setospinosus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 -- see Cyrtophora.
A. setosus (Mello-Leitão, 1948) -- see Parawixia.
A. sexpunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758) -- see Nuctenea.
A. sextus (Chamberlin, 1916) -- see Kaira.
A. sia (Strand, 1906) -- see Yaginumia.
A. silvicultrix (C. L. Koch, 1845) -- see Nuctenea.
A. similaris (Urquhart, 1890) -- see Zealaranea.
A. simplicissimus (Keyserling, 1883) -- see Metazygia.
A. singularis (Banks, 1898) -- see Neoscona.
A. sinhagadensis Tikader, 1975 -- see Neoscona.
A. slateri (Butler, 1879) -- see Neoscona.
A. spasskyi Brignoli, 1983 -- see Neoscona.
A. spectator (Karsch, 1886) -- see Pararaneus.
A. spenceri Pocock, 1898 -- see Neoscona.
A. spiniger (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Alpaida.
A. stanleyi Lessert, 1930 -- see Neoscona.
A. strenuus (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Mangora.
A. streptoceros Pocock, 1898 -- see Pararaneus.
A. subbituberculatus Thorell, 1899 -- see Neoscona.
A. subcomptus (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Cryptaranea.
A. subfuscus (C. L. Koch, 1837) -- see Neoscona.
A. submodestus (Strand, 1906) -- see Neoscona.
A. subpullatus (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Neoscona.
A. suedicola (Simon, 1890) -- see Pararaneus.
A. suedicola pardalis Simon, 1907 -- see Pararaneus.
A. surculorum Simon, 1896 -- see Molinaranea.
A. suspicax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) -- see Larinioides.
A. tabula Simon, 1895 -- see Alpaida.
A. taczanowskii Simon, 1897 -- see Alpaida.
A. talishius (Zawadsky, 1902) -- see Aculepeira.
A. taruensis Pocock, 1898 -- see Neoscona.
A. tatarendensis (Tullgren, 1905) -- see Tatepeira.
A. tbilisiensis Mcheidze, 1997 -- see Araniella.
A. tedgenicus Bakhvalov, 1978 -- see Aculepeira.
A. temerarius Tullgren, 1910 -- see Neoscona.
A. tenellus (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Wixia.
A. theisi (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Neoscona.
A. theisiellus (Tullgren, 1910) -- see Neoscona.
A. thyridotus (Thorell, 1870) -- see Eriophora.
A. tokachianus Saito, 1934 -- see Eriophora.
A. transitorius (C. L. Koch, 1839) -- see Wagneriana.
A. transmarinus (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Eriophora.
A. transversalis (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Nicolepeira.
A. trapezoides (Karsch, 1879) -- see Eriophora.
A. travassosi (Soares & Camargo, 1948) -- see Aculepeira.
A. tricolor (Fischer-Waldheim, 1830) -- see Larinioides.
A. trigonellus Caporiacco, 1954 -- see Ocrepeira.
A. trilineatus (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Alpaida.
A. trinitatis Hogg, 1918 -- see Eustala.
A. trisignatus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Alpaida.
A. trispinosus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Alpaida.
A. tristimoniae Petrunkevitch, 1911 -- see Neoscona.
A. trituberculosus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Novakia.
A. tubulofaciens (Hingston, 1932) -- see Micrepeira.
A. tullgreni Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Neoscona.
A. tullgreni obscuratus Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Neoscona.
A. tumidus (Taczanowski, 1879) -- see Wagneriana.
A. tuonabo Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 -- see Alpaida.
A. turbinatus (Thorell, 1899) -- see Eriovixia.
A. turritus (Keyserling, 1886) -- see Heurodes.
A. tyloscapus Pocock, 1899 -- see Pararaneus.
A. ullrichi (Hahn, 1835) -- see Gibbaranea.
A. umbraticus Clerck, 1757 -- see Nuctenea.
A. uncivulva (Strand, 1907) -- see Pararaneus.
A. undatus (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Zealaranea.
A. undulatus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Parawixia.
A. unguiformis (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Alpaida.
A. ursinus (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Eriophora.
A. utahanus (Chamberlin, 1919) -- see Neoscona.
A. vachoni Karol, 1964 -- see Aculepeira.
A. valdiviensis (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
A. vallentini Hogg, 1913 -- see Molinaranea.
A. variabilis (Keyserling, 1863) -- see Alpaida.
A. varians Thorell, 1899 -- see Neoscona.
A. vegae Holm, 1970 -- see Aculepeira.
A. velutinus (Taczanowski, 1878) -- see Parawixia.
A. veniliae (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Alpaida.
A. venustulus (Keyserling, 1879) -- see Ocrepeira.
A. verecundus (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Ocrepeira.
A. victoria (Thorell, 1870) -- see Aculepeira.
A. vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) -- see Neoscona.
A. vigilax (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Metepeira.
A. viridipedatus (Roewer, 1942) -- see Eustala.
A. viridis (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Eriophora.
A. viriditas (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Colaranea.
A. viriditas hastatus (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Colaranea.
A. viriditas lineolus (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Colaranea.
A. viriditas veruinus (Urquhart, 1886) -- see Colaranea.
A. viriosus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metazygia.
A. voluptificus (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metazygia.
A. vulgaris (Hentz, 1847) -- see Neoscona.
A. wagenknechti (Mello-Leitão, 1940) -- see Molinaranea.
A. wagneri (Rainbow, 1896) -- see Phonognatha under Tetragnathidae.
A. wenzeli Simon, 1897 -- see Alpaida.
A. zebra (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Verrucosa.
A. zelotypus (Keyserling, 1883) -- see Chrysometa under Tetragnathidae.
A. zilloides (Banks, 1898) -- see Metazygia.

In synonymy:
A. abundus (Taczanowski, 1878) = A. bogotensis (Keyserling, 1863) (Levi, 1991a: 196).
A. albosigillatus (Mello-Leitão, 1947, T from Larinia) = A. omnicolor (Keyserling, 1893) (Levi, 1991a: 202).
A. angulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) = A. angulatus Clerck, 1757 (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
A. arabescus (Mello-Leitão, 1947, T from Metepeira) = A. corporosus (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1991a: 206).
A. atlantis (Archer, 1951) = A. partitus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 510).
A. badianus (Roewer, 1961, T from Larinia) = A. aethiopissa Simon, 1907 (Grasshoff, 1970b: 218).
A. bellus (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942) = A. pegnia (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1981b: 255).
A. biplagiatus (Bertkau, 1880) = A. unanimus (Keyserling, 1879) (Levi, 1991a: 203).
A. bourgeoisi Berland, 1913 = A. meropes (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1991a: 223).
A. cambridgei (Roewer, 1942) = A. rufipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 234).
A. candidus Simon, 1895 = A. uniformis (Keyserling, 1879) (Levi, 1991a: 246).
A. canmorus Schenkel, 1950 = A. gemmoides Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 (Levi, 1971a: 171).
A. chasisus (Zhu & Song, 1994, T from Neoscona) = A. pallasi Thorell, 1875 (Marusik, Logunov & Koponen, 2000: 12).
A. chiricahua Levi, 1973 = A. guerrerensis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Levi, 1991a: 285).
A. darlingtoni Archer, 1951 = A. nordmanni (Thorell, 1870) (Levi, 1971a: 152).
A. dawsoni (Archer, 1951) = A. miniatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 508).
A. delineatus (Mello-Leitão, 1943, T from Metepeira) = A. corporosus (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1991a: 206).
A. denningi Archer, 1951 = A. corticarius (Emerton, 1884) (Levi, 1971a: 158).
A. diadematus (Linnaeus, 1758) = A. diadematus Clerck, 1757 (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
A. dubius (Dönitz & Strand, 1906, T from Lithyphantes=Steatoda) = A. ejusmodi (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) (Yaginuma, 1954e: 26).
A. farinosus (Mello-Leitão, 1941) = A. omnicolor (Keyserling, 1893) (Levi, 1991a: 202).
A. flavidus Yin et al., 1990 = A. quadratus Clerck, 1757 (Marusik, Logunov & Koponen, 2000: 13).
A. floridanus (Banks, 1896) = A. juniperi (Emerton, 1884) (Levi, 1973: 522).
A. floridensis (Banks, 1904) = A. miniatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 508).
A. foratus (Keyserling, 1893) = A. niveus (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1975b: 104).
A. gertschi (Archer, 1951) = A. mammatus (Archer, 1951) (Levi, 1973: 500).
A. gigas (Leach, 1815, removed from S of A. raji) = A. bicentenarius (McCook, 1888) (Levi, 1971a: 143, older name suppressed by petition to ICZN).
A. glabratus (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) = A. guttatus (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1991a: 254).
A. glyphicus (Archer, 1951) = A. guttulatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 530).
A. gosoganus (Chamberlin, 1920) = A. trifolium (Hentz, 1847) (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 94).
A. gratuitus Petrunkevitch, 1911 = A. expletus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 231).
A. griseomaculatus (Yin & Wang, 1982, T from Neoscona) = A. ellipticus (Tikader & Bal, 1981) (Yin et al., 1997: 347, sub Neoscona).
A. innominatus (Archer, 1951) = A. cingulatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 526).
A. issiculus Bakhvalov, 1981 = A. pallasi Thorell, 1875 (Marusik, 1989b: 41).
A. kisatchia Archer, 1951 = A. bicentenarius (McCook, 1888) (Levi, 1971a: 143).
A. lacteus (Mello-Leitão, 1944, T from Eustala) = A. corporosus (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1991a: 207).
A. leitaoi Brignoli, 1983 = A. guttatus (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1991a: 254).
A. linteatus (McCook, 1894) = A. detrimentosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1973: 542).
A. llano (Archer, 1951) = A. juniperi (Emerton, 1884) (Levi, 1973: 522).
A. lucidus (Keyserling, 1884) = A. uniformis (Keyserling, 1879) (Levi, 1991a: 246).
A. maculifrons Oliger, 1983 = A. tsuno Yaginuma, 1972 (Marusik, 1989b: 42).
A. magnus (Caporiacco, 1955) = A. bogotensis (Keyserling, 1863) (Levi, 1991a: 196).
A. manitobae Archer, 1951 = A. groenlandicola (Strand, 1906) (Levi, 1971a: 164).
A. marylandicus (Archer, 1951) = A. cingulatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 526).
A. mayo (McCook, 1894, removed from S of A. miniatus) = A. triguttatus (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1973: 492).
A. montanus (Archer, 1951) = A. thaddeus (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1973: 544).
A. mumai (Archer, 1951) = A. juniperi (Emerton, 1884) (Levi, 1973: 522).
A. nawazi (Dyal, 1935) = A. mitificus (Simon, 1886) (Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 638).
A. nigrofoliatus (Keyserling, 1884) = A. miniatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 506).
A. nivosus (Archer, 1951) = A. niveus (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1973: 528).
A. nobilis (Mello-Leitão, 1944, T from Larinia) = A. corporosus (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1991a: 207).
A. ozarkensis (Archer, 1951) = A. cingulatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 526).
A. pachygnathoides Schenkel, 1963 = A. ejusmodi Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Zhu, 1983: 20).
A. papuanus Kulczyn'ski, 1911 = A. cyrtarachnoides (Keyserling, 1887) (Chrysanthus, 1960: 36).
A. peruvianus (Taczanowski, 1878) = A. venatrix (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1991a: 252).
A. piatus (Roewer, 1942) = A. ventricosus (L. Koch, 1878) (Song, 1988: 128).
A. pima Levi, 1971 = A. illaudatus (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936) (Levi, 1975c: 268).
A. pirus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 = A. gemma (McCook, 1888) (Levi, 1971a: 172).
A. plesius (Chamberlin, 1916) = A. meropes (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1991a: 223).
A. pseudomelas Archer, 1951 = A. nordmanni (Thorell, 1870) (Levi, 1971a: 152).
A. punctillatus (Keyserling, 1879, removed from S of A. miniatus) = A. partitus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 510).
A. quechuanus (Chamberlin, 1916) = A. bogotensis (Keyserling, 1863) (Levi, 1991a: 196).
A. raji (Scopoli, 1763) = A. marmoreus Clerck, 1757 (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
A. raji betulae (Sulzer, 1776) = A. marmoreus Clerck, 1757 (Roberts, 1985: 208).
A. reaumuri (Scopoli, 1763) = A. quadratus Clerck, 1757 (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
A. reptilis (Keyserling, 1892) = A. pratensis (Emerton, 1884) (Levi, 1973: 492).
A. sachimau Archer, 1951 = A. iviei Archer, 1951 (Levi, 1971a: 162).
A. sanguinalis (Hentz, 1847) = A. guttulatus (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 530).
A. sarasota (Archer, 1951) = A. juniperi (Emerton, 1884) (Levi, 1973: 522).
A. septimus (Hentz, 1847) = A. trifolium (Hentz, 1847) (Archer, 1940: 46, but see Levi, 1971b: 287).
A. silvaticus (Emerton, 1884, removed from S of A. solitarius) = A. nordmanni (Thorell, 1870) (Levi, 1971a: 150).
A. similellus (Roewer, 1942) = A. guttatus (Keyserling, 1865) (Levi, 1991a: 254).
A. sinister (Thorell, 1873) = A. saevus (L. Koch, 1872) (Tullgren, 1952: 164).
A. sinuoscapus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = A. venatrix (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1991a: 252).
A. smithi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1898) = A. expletus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 231).
A. solersioides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) = A. pegnia (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1973: 546).
A. solitarius (Emerton, 1884) = A. saevus (L. Koch, 1872) (Levi, 1971a: 148).
A. styliger (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) = A. expletus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 231).
A. trifolium candicans (McCook, 1894) = A. trifolium (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1971a: 167).
A. tusigia (Chamberlin, 1919) = A. marmoreus Clerck, 1757 (Levi, 1971a: 156).
A. unicus (Archer, 1951) = A. bonsallae (McCook, 1894) (Levi, 1973: 524).
A. vespae (Strand, 1908) = A. uniformis (Keyserling, 1879) (Levi, 1991a: 246).
A. vesta (Bryant, 1948) = A. detrimentosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 269).
A. zimmermanni (Thorell, 1875) = A. saevus (L. Koch, 1872) (Tullgren, 1952: 164).

Homonyms replaced:
A. bipunctatus (Mello-Leitão, 1948) -- see A. guttatus.
A. blandus (Bryant, 1945) -- see A. elizabethae.
A. bryantae (Brignoli, 1983, T from Meta) -- see A. elizabethae.
A. conicus Franganillo, 1946 -- see A. balboae (nomen dubium).
A. cruciferoides Spassky, 1952 -- see Neoscona tedgenica.
A. holmi Caporiacco, 1955 -- see Wixia tatarendensis.
A. miniatus (Archer, 1951) -- see A. allani.
A. niger Franganillo, 1936 -- see A. franganillianus (nomen dubium).
A. nigropunctatus Rainbow, 1920 -- see A. rainbowi.
A. parvus (Bryant, 1945) -- see A. bryantae.

Nomina dubia:
NOTE: For a listing of early names (established prior to 1825) described in Aranea or Araneus (in the sense including all spiders) and not subsequently recognized, see Bonnet, 1955: 399-406, 408. Such names are mentioned here only if they have been cited in more recent literature.
A. accinctus (Walckenaer, 1842: 111, locality unknown, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1476.
A. aciculatus (Walckenaer, 1842: 128, locality unknown, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1476.
A. affixus (Walckenaer, 1842: 112, locality unknown, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1476.
A. ambagiosus (Walckenaer, 1842: 113, Spain, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1477.
A. anaglyphe (Walckenaer, 1842: 128, f, USA, originally in Epeira) -- never used.
A. angustatus (Martini & Goeze, in Lister, 1778: 301, originally in Aranea) -- Bonnet, 1958: 3074.
A. anuncinatus Franganillo, 1930: 28 (f, Cuba) -- Levi, 1971b: 287.
A. anuncinatus depilosus Franganillo, 1930: 29 (Cuba, omitted by Roewer) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. approximatus (Blackwall, 1846a: 80, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1971a: 167.
A. astutus (Blackwall, 1863a: 36, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. austerus Workman, 1900: 133 (f, Java) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. balboae Brignoli, 1983c: 262 (replacement name for A. conicus Franganillo, 1946: 97, f. 1-2, f, Cuba, preoccupied by Pallas, 1772) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. bantamensis Workman, 1900: 141 (f, Malaysia) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. bicolor (Fabricius, 1798: 291, Brazil, originally in Aranea) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1395.
A. bilineatus (Cantor, 1842: 492, China, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1395.1478.
A. bormensis Berland, 1913b: 94, pl. 9, f. 46-47 (f, Ecuador) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. bourguyi Mello-Leitão, 1915a: 135 (f, Brazil) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. callidulus (Roewer, 1942a: 859, replacement name for Epeira callida Walckenaer, 1842: 68, f, USA, preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1802 sub Aranea) -- never used.
A. carnifex (Fabricius, 1775: 486, originally in Aranea) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1395, Bonnet, 1956: 1052.
A. cautus (Walckenaer, 1842: 35, 127, mf, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. clercki (Walckenaer, 1842: 34, locality unknown, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1479.
A. consimilis Mello-Leitão, 1915a: 133 (f, Brazil) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. contestationis Caporiacco, 1954: 105, f. 25, 25a-b (f, French Guiana) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. crux (Roewer, 1942a: 840, replacement name for Epeira cruciata Nicolet, 1849: 494, f, Chile, preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1805) -- Levi, 1991a: 180.
A. decaspinus (Taczanowski, 1873: 143, f, French Guiana, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. depressatus (Roewer, 1942a: 841, replacement name for Epeira depressa Walckenaer, 1842: 134, f, Brazil, preoccupied by Razoumowsky, 1789) -- Levi, 1991a: 180.
A. elegantulus (Roewer, 1942a: 841, replacement name for Epeira elegans Blackwall, 1862b: 431, f, Brazil, preoccupied by Meyer, 1790, sub Aranea) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. emphanus (Walckenaer, 1842: 74, f, USA, originally in Epeira) -- never used.
A. ergaster (Walckenaer, 1842: 55, f, USA, originally in Epeira) -- never used.
A. esuriens (Fabricius, 1798: 291. Mauritius, originally in Aranea) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1397.
A. fascinatrix (Walckenaer, 1842: 111, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1481.
A. foliplicans (Hingston, 1932: 367, f, Guyana, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181, Levi, 1995b: 209.
A. franganillianus Brignoli, 1983c: 262 (replacement name for A. niger Franganillo, 1936c: 73, f, Cuba, preoccupied by Lister, 1778) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. fuligineus romboidalis Franganillo, 1930: 25 (f, Cuba) -- Levi, 1971b: 292.
A. fuligineus sanguineus Franganillo, 1930: 25 (f, Cuba) -- Levi, 1971b: 292.
A. fuliginosus (Walckenaer, 1842: 41, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. fulvus (Walckenaer, 1842: 129, f, USA, originally in Epeira) -- never used.
A. fumidus (Blackwall, 1862b: 433, m, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. gracilipes (Blackwall, 1862b: 437, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1482.
A. grammicus (Blackwall, 1862b: 434, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. heraldicus (Cantor, 1842: 492, China, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1483.
A. incertus (C. L. Koch, 1843: 100, originally in Atea) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1419.
A. intersectus (Fourcroy, 1785: 532, originally in Aranea) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1398.
A. intrepidus Mello-Leitão, 1915a: 134 (f, Brazil) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. itatiayae Mello-Leitão, 1915a: 133 (f, Brazil) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. jaspidatus (Walckenaer, 1842: 59, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1971a: 167.
A. jucundus (Walckenaer, 1842: 110, locality unknown, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1484.
A. lepidus (Blackwall, 1862b: 430, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. liliputanus (Nicolet, 1849: 501, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1484.
A. luteolus (Blackwall, 1862b: 435, m, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. malangensis Workman, 1900: 144 (m, Malaysia) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. melanillus (Roewer, 1942a: 829, replacement name, sub Aranea, for Epeira melania Urquhart, 1891a: 166, f, New Zealand, preoccupied by L. Koch, 1871) -- Court & Forster, 1988: 69.
A. minutellus (Roewer, 1942a: 847, replacement name for Epeira minuta Nicolet, 1849: 508, f, Chile, preoccupied by Meyer, 1790 sub Aranea) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. mucronatus (Blackwall, 1862b: 438, m, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. multiguttatus (Blackwall, 1862b: 432, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. mundatulus (Roewer, 1942a: 847, replacement name for Epeira munda Blackwall, 1863a: 33, f, Brazil, preoccupied by C. L. Koch, 1836) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. nigrocellatus Caporiacco, 1954: 110, f. 28 (f, French Guiana) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. nitidus (Walckenaer, 1842: 110, locality unknown, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1486.
A. nobilis (Fabricius, 1798, originally in Aranea) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1400, Bonnet, 1958: 4104.
A. novellus Workman, 1900: 137 (f, Singapore) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. ophir Workman, 1900: 142 (f, Singapore) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. pallidus Workman, 1900: 135 (f, Malaysia) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. perfoliatus Franganillo, 1930: 28 (f, Cuba) -- Levi, 1971b: 287, 1991a: 181.
A. perplexus (Walckenaer, 1842: 101, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. petri Simon, 1897e: 6 (j, Paraguay) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. prostypa (Walckenaer, 1842: 136, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. prudens (Walckenaer, 1842: 135, New Guinea, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1487.
A. rapaxatus (Roewer, 1942a: 850, replacement name for Epeira rapax Blackwall, 1863a: 32, m, Brazil, preoccupied by Fabricius, 1798 sub Aranea) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. rubriventer (Martini & Goeze, in Lister, 1778: 260, originally in Aranea) -- Bonnet, 1959: 4879.
A. russatus Workman, 1900: 134 (f, Singapore) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. rusticus Workman, 1900: 136 (f, Malaysia) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. sacculifaciens (Hingston, 1932: 364, f, Guyana) -- Levi, 1991a: 181, 1995b: 209.
A. scitulus (Blackwall, 1863a: 37, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. scurrilis Workman, 1900: 143 (m, Malaysia) -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.
A. segmentatulus (Roewer, 1942a: 863, replacement name for Epeira segmentata Walckenaer, 1842: 120, f, USA) -- never used.
A. sinuatus (Walckenaer, 1842: 137, Southeast Asia, originally in Epeira) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1489.
A. spira (Walckenaer, 1842: 80, f, Brazil, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. spithameus (Blumenbach, 1782: 396, originally in Aranea) -- Bonnet, 1958: 3074.
A. striatus Clerck, 1757: 119 -- Alicata & Cantarella, 1994: 113.
A. sulphureus Franganillo, 1930: 29, f. 10 (f, Cuba) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
A. sumavensis Barta, 1869: 133 (Bohemia) -- omitted by Roewer.
A. uchidai Kishida, 1924 (Sakhalin) -- Marusik et al., 1993: 82.
A. variegatus (Olivier, 1789: 225, originally in Aranea) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1404.
A. viridanus (Urquhart, 1893a: 175, originally in Epeira, f, New Zealand) -- Sirvid & Vink, 2000: 49.
A. viridicans (Urquhart, 1888: 116, f, New Zealand, originally in Epeira) -- Court & Forster, 1988: 69.
A. vulpeculus (Walckenaer, 1842: 69, f, USA, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1971a: 167.

Nomen nudum:
A. quinqueuncatus Simon, 1895a: 822 (f, South America).

f aballensis (Strand, 1906)....................Ethiopia
Aranea a. Strand, 1906b: 622 (Df).

mf abeicus Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 255, f. 316-320 (Dmf).

mf abigeatus Levi, 1975....................USA
A. illaudatus Levi, 1971a: 176, f. 233-237 (f, misidentified).
A. a. Levi, 1975c: 269, f. 5-11 (Dmf).

f acachmenus Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. a. Rainbow, 1916a: 98, pl. 21, f. 14-15 (Df).

f acolla Levi, 1991....................Peru
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 219, f. 138-141 (Df).

f acrocephalus (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar
Epeira acrocephala Thorell, 1887: 195 (Df).

f acronotus (Grube, 1861)....................Russia
Epeira acronota Grube, 1861: 164 (Df).
A. a. Wesolowska, 1988b: 407, f. 12-13 (f).

f acropygus (Thorell, 1877)....................Sulawesi
Epeira acropyga Thorell, 1877b: 398 (Df).
A. acropyga Simon, 1899a: 91.

mf acuminatus (L. Koch, 1872)....................Queensland, Solomon Is.
Epeira acuminata L. Koch, 1872a: 109, pl. 9, f. 2 (Dm).
A. a. Rainbow, 1913: 11, f. 6 (Df).
A. a. Rainbow, 1916a: 110, pl. 22, f. 30-31 (f).

mf acusisetus Zhu & Song, 1994....................China, Japan
A. a. Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 27, f. 2A-C (Dm).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 143, f. 58a-c (m).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 134K-L, 146K (m).
A. a. Tanikawa, 2001b: 83, f. 73-74, 77-78 (m, Df).

m adiantiformis Caporiacco, 1941....................Ethiopia
A. a. Caporiacco, 1941b: 83, f. 29a-d (Dm).

f adjuntaensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930)....................Puerto Rico
Meta a. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 349, f. 232-234 (Df).
A. a. Levi, 1986a: 105 (Tf from Meta).
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 273, f. 414-417 (f).

m aethiopicus (Roewer, 1961)....................Senegal
Eustala aethiopica Roewer, 1961b: 48, f. 11a-e (Dm).
A. a. Grasshoff, 1970b: 215 (Tm from Eustala).

mf aethiopissa Simon, 1907....................Senegal, Bioko
A. a. Simon, 1907d: 291 (Df).
Larinia badiana Roewer, 1961b: 49, f. 12a-e (Dmf).
A. a. Grasshoff, 1970b: 218 (S).

m affinis Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. a. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 53, f. 4-6 (Dm).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 155, f. 71a-c (m).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 236, f. 134M, 135A, 146L (m).

f agastus Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. a. Rainbow, 1916a: 104, pl. 22, f. 20-21 (Df).

m akakensis (Strand, 1906)....................Ethiopia
Aranea a. Strand, 1906b: 621 (Dm).

f aksuensis Yin, Xie & Bao, 1996....................China
A. a. Yin, Xie & Bao, 1996: 1, f. 1-5 (Df).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 155, f. 72a-e (f).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135B-D, 146M (f).

f albiaculeis (Strand, 1906)....................Ethiopia
Aranea a. Strand, 1906b: 621 (Df).
A. a. Caporiacco, 1940c: 822.

f albidus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Queensland
Epeira albida L. Koch, 1871: 83, pl. 7, f. 2 (Df).
A. a. Rainbow, 1911: 181.

f albilunatus Roewer, 1961....................Senegal
A. a. Roewer, 1961b: 51, f. 13a-d (Df).
A. albilunulatus Brignoli, 1983c: 259.

mf albomaculatus Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. a. Yin et al., 1990: 15, f. 35-42 (Dmf).
A. a. Yin & Kim, 1997: 58, f. 1A-E (mf).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 132, f. 47a-h (mf).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135E-G, 142F, 146N (mf).

f alboquadratus Dyal, 1935....................India
A. a. Dyal, 1935: 183 (Df).

mf albotriangulus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland, New South Wales
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1887a: 187, pl. 16, f. 4 (Dmf).

mf alboventris (Emerton, 1884)....................USA
Epeira a. Emerton, 1884: 314, pl. 34, f. 5, pl. 36, f. 12 (Df).
A. attestor Petrunkevitch, 1911: 280 (unnecessary replacement name).
Epeira attestor Kaston, 1948: 260, f. 791-792 (f, Dm).
Conepeira a. Archer, 1951b: 20, f. 47, 71 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. a. Levi, 1973: 514, f. 192-203, 443 (mf).

mf alhue Levi, 1991....................Chile, Argentina
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 244, f. 262-266 (Dmf).

mf allani Levi, 1973....................USA
Amamrotypus miniatus Archer, 1951a: 18, f. 25 (Df, preoccupied in Araneus by Walckenaer, 1842).
A. a. Levi, 1973: 494, f. 32-43, 440 (f, Dm; replacement name).

mf alsine (Walckenaer, 1802)....................Palearctic
Aranea a. Walckenaer, 1802: 193 (D).
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1805: 59 (D).
Epeira lutea C. L. Koch, 1837b: 3 (D).
Epeira bohemica C. L. Koch, 1838: 59, f. 376 (Dm, not f).
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 33 (Df).
Epeira lutea C. L. Koch, 1844: 123, f. 926-927 (Dmf).
Epeira lutea Blackwall, 1864a: 345, pl. 25, f. 249 (mf).
Epeira lutea Menge, 1866: 61, pl. 9, f. 10 (mf).
Epeira lutea Thorell, 1870a: 17.
Epeira a. Simon, 1874a: 78 (m).
Epeira a. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 130, pl. 5, f. 13 (mf).
Epeira a. Becker, 1896: 22, pl. 4, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira a. Bösenberg, 1901: 37, pl. 2, f. 24 (mf).
A. a. Lessert, 1910b: 316.
A. a. Charitonov, 1926c: 115, pl. 5, f. 4 (m).
A. a. Simon, 1929: 684, 758, f. 1053-1054 (mf).
Aranea a. Wiehle, 1931: 83, f. 119-123 (mf).
Aranea a. Drensky, 1943: 242, f. 26 (mf).
Aranea a. Mikulska, 1953: 13, f. 14, 17 (mf).
A. a. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 133, f. 85D, 86D (mf).
Aranea a. Zamaraev, 1964: 359, f. 73-75 (mf).
A. a. Azheganova, 1968: 74, f. 147-148 (mf).
A. a. Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 592 (f).
A. a. Miller, 1971: 212, pl. XL, f. 9-10 (mf).
A. a. Levi, 1971a: 162, f. 131-137 (mf).
A. a. Loksa, 1972: 89, f. 79A, 80G-H (mf).
A. a. Izmailova, 1972c: 50, f. 1 (f).
A. a. Palmgren, 1974a: 24, f. 9d, 10h-i (mf).
A. a. Roberts, 1985: 210, f. 94a (mf).
A. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 74, f. 168 (mf).
A. a. Roberts, 1995: 319, f. (mf).
A. a. Mcheidze, 1997: 279, f. 638-640 (mf).
A. a. Roberts, 1998: 333, f. (mf).

f altitudinum Caporiacco, 1934....................Karakorum
A. a. Caporiacco, 1934a: 153, pl. 3, f. 11 (Df).

mf amabilis Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. a. Tanikawa, 2001b: 82, f. 69-72, 75-76 (Dmf).

f amblycyphus Simon, 1908....................Western Australia
A. a. Simon, 1908d: 427 (Df).

f amurius Bakhvalov, 1981....................Russia
A. a. Bakhvalov, 1981b: 142, f. 1 (Df).

f amygdalaceus (Keyserling, 1864)....................Mauritius
Epeira amygdalacea Keyserling, 1864: 128, pl. 6, f. 5-6 (Df).

f ana Levi, 1991....................Costa Rica
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 268, f. 389-391 (Df).

f anantnagensis Tikader & Bal, 1981....................India
A. a. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 46, f. 99-102 (Df).
A. a. Tikader, 1982a: 25, f. 436-439 (f).

f anaspastus (Thorell, 1892)....................Singapore
Epeira anaspasta Thorell, 1892a: 234 (Df).
Epeira anaspasta Workman, 1896: 49, pl. 49 (f).

mf anatipes (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1887a: 175, pl. 15, f. 3 (Dmf).

mf ancurus Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. a. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 54, f. 7-11 (Dmf).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 157, f. 73a-e (mf).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135H-I, 142G-H, 147A (mf).

mf andrewsi (Archer, 1951)....................USA
Aranea a. Archer, 1951a: 31, f. 63-64, 82 (Dmf).
A. a. Levi, 1971a: 146, f. 27-33 (mf).

f anguinifer (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904)....................Mexico, Costa Rica
Aranea anguinifera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 514, pl. 49, f. 14 (Df).
Epeira anguinifera Banks, 1909a: 210.
A. anguiniferus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 278.
Conaranea anguinifera Archer, 1951b: 11 (Tf from Araneus).
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 286, f. 494-496 (f).

mf angulatus Clerck, 1757....................Palearctic
A. a. Clerck, 1757: 22, pl. 1, f. 1-3 (Df).
A. virgatus Clerck, 1757: 41, pl. 2, f. 2 (Df).
Aranea angulata Linnaeus, 1758: 620 (Df).
Aranea cruciata Walckenaer, 1802: 190 (Df).
Epeira angulata Walckenaer, 1805: 57.
Epeira cruciata Walckenaer, 1805: 57.
Epeira angulata Hahn, 1834: 19, f. 108 (f, Dm).
Epeira eremita C. L. Koch, 1835: 131, pl. 23-24 (Df).
Epeira angulata Hahn, 1836: 1, pl. 28, f. b (f).
Epeira quercetorum C. L. Koch, 1837b: 3 (D).
Epeira pinetorum C. L. Koch, 1837b: 3 (D).
Epeira angulata C. L. Koch, 1844: 77, f. 892-893 (mf; not f. 894-895).
Epeira pinetorum C. L. Koch, 1844: 95, f. 904-905 (Dmf).
Epeira angulata Blackwall, 1864a: 360, pl. 27, f. 259 (mf).
Epeira angulata Menge, 1866: 47, pl. 2, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira regia Simon, 1874a: 54 (Df).
Epeira spinivulva Simon, 1874a: 61, pl. 1, f. 10 (f, misidentified).
Epeira angulata Emerton, 1884: 299, pl. 33. f, 12, pl. 35, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira angulata Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 128, pl. 4, f. 45 (mf).
Epeira angulata Keyserling, 1892: 114, pl. 6, f. 84 (f).
Epeira angulata McCook, 1894: 186, pl. 10, f. 3-5, pl. 11, f. 2-4 (f).
A. a. Simon, 1895a: 829, f. 861-863 (mf).
Epeira angulata Becker, 1896: 12, pl. 1, f. 4 (mf).
Epeira angulata Bösenberg, 1901: 25, pl. 1, f. 5 (mf).
Epeira angulata Emerton, 1902: 164, f. 389 (mf).
A. a. Kulczyn'ski, 1911a: 59, pl. 2, f. 74-75, 79 (mf).
A. a. Fage, 1921a: 175, f. 3a (m).
A. a. Simon, 1929: 677, 755, f. 1033 (mf).
Aranea angulata Reimoser, 1930b: 13, f. 2 (mf).
Aranea angulata Wiehle, 1931: 52, f. 4b, 5a, 71-79 (mf).
A. a. Nakatsudi, 1942b: 11, f. 2B-C (f).
Aranea angulata Drensky, 1943: 240, f. 15, 17 (mf).
Aranea angulata Archer, 1951a: 31, f. 66 (f).
A. a. Tullgren, 1952: 162, f. 9a-b (f).
A. a. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 127, f. 80C, 83A-B (mf).
A. a. Saito, 1959: 85, f. 89a-h (f).
A. a. Wiehle, 1963c: 265, f. 60, 62 (mf).
Aranea angulata Zamaraev, 1964: 355, f. 40-43 (f).
A. a. Wiehle, 1967c: 199, f. 11-12 (f).
A. a. Azheganova, 1968: 75, f. 149-150 (mf).
A. a. Tyschchenko, 1971: 193, f. 570, 572 (f).
A. a. Miller, 1971: 207, pl. XXXVIII, f. 14-16 (f).
A. a. Levi, 1971a: 142, f. 9-14 (mf).
A. a. Loksa, 1972: 74, f. 63C, 65A-E (mf).
A. a. Namkung, Paik & Yoon, 1972: 93, f. 7 (f).
A. a. Palmgren, 1974a: 17, f. 7a-d (mf).
A. a. Punda, 1975b: 31, f. 39-40, 76 (f).
A. a. Roberts, 1985: 206, f. 92c (mf).
A. a. Zhang, 1987: 63, f. 46.1-3 (mf).
A. a. Hu & Wu, 1989: 82, f. 61.1-2 (f).
A. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 72, f. 164 (mf).
A. a. Thaler, 1991b: 50, f. 24, 28 (m).
A. a. Roberts, 1995: 317, f. (mf).
A. a. Mcheidze, 1997: 268, f. 588-591 (mf).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 158, f. 74a-d (f).
A. a. Roberts, 1998: 330, f. (mf).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135J-L, 147B (f).

f angulatus afolius (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira angulata afolia Franganillo, 1909: 187 (Df).
Epeira angulata afolia Franganillo, 1910: 12 (f).

mf angulatus atricolor Simon, 1929....................France
A. a. a. Simon, 1929: 678, 756 (Dmf).

f angulatus castaneus (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira angulata castanea Franganillo, 1909: 187 (Df).
Epeira angulata castanea Franganillo, 1910: 12 (f).

f angulatus crucinceptus (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira cruciata crucincepta Franganillo, 1909: 188 (Df).
Epeira cruciata crucincepta Franganillo, 1910: 13 (f).

f angulatus fuscus (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira cruciata fusca Franganillo, 1909: 188 (Df).
Epeira cruciata fusca Franganillo, 1910: 12, f. 6 (f).

f angulatus iberoi (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira cruciata i. Franganillo, 1909: 188 (Df).
Epeira cruciata i. Franganillo, 1910: 13 (f).

f angulatus levifolius (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira angulata levifolia Franganillo, 1909: 187 (Df).
Epeira angulata levifolia Franganillo, 1910: 11 (f).

f angulatus niger (Franganillo, 1918)....................Spain
Epeira angulata nigra Franganillo, 1918b: 121 (Df).

f angulatus nitidifolius (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira angulata nitidifolia Franganillo, 1909: 186 (Df).
Epeira angulata nitidifolia Franganillo, 1910: 11 (f).

f angulatus pallidus (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira cruciata pallida Franganillo, 1909: 188 (Df).
Epeira cruciata pallida Franganillo, 1910: 12, f. 5 (f).

mf angulatus personatus Simon, 1929....................Belgium, France
A. a. personata Simon, 1929: 678, 756 (Dmf).

f angulatus serifolius (Franganillo, 1909)....................Portugal
Epeira angulata serifolia Franganillo, 1909: 187 (Df).
Epeira angulata serifolia Franganillo, 1910: 12 (f).

f anjonensis Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. a. Schenkel, 1963: 171, f. 99a-b (Df).

f annuliger (Thorell, 1898)....................Myanmar
Epeira annuligera Thorell, 1898: 354 (Df).

f annulipedatus (Roewer, 1942)....................Funafuti
Epeira annulipes Rainbow, 1897a: 117, pl. 4, f. 3 (Df; preoccupied by Lucas, 1838).
Aranea annulipedata Roewer, 1942a: 824 (replacement name).

f annulipes (Lucas, 1838)....................Canary Is.
Epeira a. Lucas, 1838: 41, pl. 6, f. 2 (Df).

f anuncinatus ochrorufus Franganillo, 1931....................Cuba
A. a. o. Franganillo, 1931: 288, f. 21a (Df; N.B.: omitted by Roewer and Brignoli; species name is a nomen dubium).

mf apache Levi, 1975....................USA
A. a. Levi, 1975c: 270, f. 12-20 (Dmf).

f apicalis (Thorell, 1899)....................Cameroon
Aranea a. Thorell, 1899: 58 (Df).

f apiculatus (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira apiculata Thorell, 1895: 183 (Df).

mf apobleptus Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. a. Rainbow, 1916a: 112, pl. 22, f. 32-37 (Dmf).

?? appendiculatus (Taczanowski, 1873)....................French Guiana
Epeira appendiculata Taczanowski, 1873: 137 (D; "nicht zu deuten" per Roewer).

f apricus (Karsch, 1884)....................São Tomé
Epeira aprica Karsch, 1884a: 67, f. 8 (Df).

f aralis Bakhvalov, 1981....................Kyrgyzstan
A. a. Bakhvalov, 1981a: 137, f. 1 (Df).

mf arenaceus (Keyserling, 1886)....................Queensland, New South Wales
Epeira arenacea Keyserling, 1886a: 145, pl. 12, f. 2-3 (Dmf).

f arfakianus (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea
Epeira arfakiana Thorell, 1881: 96 (Df).

mf arganicola Simon, 1909....................Morocco
Araneus a. Simon, 1909b: 26 (Dmf).

f argentarius Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. a. Rainbow, 1916a: 114, pl. 22, f. 38-39 (Df).

mf arizonensis (Banks, 1900)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira a. Banks, 1900a: 100 (Dmf).
Epeira a. Banks, 1901a: 585, pl. 22, f. 5 (m).
A. a. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 280.
Neosconella a. Archer, 1951a: 38 (Tmf from Araneus).
Conaranea gertschi Archer, 1951b: 7, f. 17, 30 (f only, misidentified).
A. a. Levi, 1973: 497, f. 60-71 (mf).
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 290, f. 507-510 (mf).

f asiaticus Bakhvalov, 1983....................Kyrgyzstan
A. a. Bakhvalov, 1983: 69, f. 3 (Df).

f aubertorum Berland, 1938....................New Hebrides
A. aubertarum Berland, 1938: 174, f. 131-132 (Df).

mf aurantiifemuris (Mello-Leitão, 1942)....................Argentina
Metepeira a. Mello-Leitão, 1942b: 402, f. 21-22 (Df).
Metepeira aurantifemuris Brignoli, 1983c: 275.
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 199, f. 37-41 (Tf from Metepeira, Dm).

mf auriculatus Song & Zhu, 1992....................China
A. a. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 167, f. 1A-D (Dmf).
A. a. Song & Li, 1997: 411, f. 13A-D (mf).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 144, f. 59a-e (mf).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135M-N, 142I-J (mf).

mf axacus Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 277, f. 440-444 (Dmf).

f badiofoliatus Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. b. Schenkel, 1963: 155, f. 92a-c (Df).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 199, f. 116a-c (f).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135O-P, 147C (f).

m badongensis Song & Zhu, 1992....................China
A. b. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 168, f. 2A-B (Dm).
A. b. Song & Li, 1997: 412, f. 14A-B (m).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 200, f. 117a-c (m).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 142K-L (m).

f bagamoyensis (Strand, 1906)....................East Africa
Aranea b. Strand, 1906b: 688 (Df).

f baicalicus Bakhvalov, 1981....................Russia
A. b. Bakhvalov, 1981b: 148, f. 6 (Df).

f balanus (Doleschall, 1859)....................Amboina
Epeira b. Doleschall, 1859: 36, pl. 3, f. 1 (Df).

f bandelieri (Simon, 1891)....................Venezuela, Brazil
Epeira b. Simon, 1891d: 10, pl. 1 (Df).
A. b. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 281.
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 214, f. 113-115 (f).

f bantaengi Merian, 1911....................Sulawesi
A. bantaČngi Merian, 1911: 220 (Df).

f baotianmanensis Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991....................China
A. b. Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991: 37, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 159, f. 75a-d (f).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135Q-S, 147D (f).

f bargusinus Bakhvalov, 1981....................Russia
A. b. Bakhvalov, 1981b: 147, f. 5 (Df).

jj basalteus Schenkel, 1936....................China
A. b. Schenkel, 1936b: 99, f. 35 (Djj).

f baul Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 288, f. 503-506 (Df).

f beebei Petrunkevitch, 1914....................Myanmar
A. b. Petrunkevitch, 1914a: 172, pl. 26, f. 9-10 (Df).

f beebei Levi, 1991....................Venezuela
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 229, f. 184-187 (Df; N.B.: primary junior homonym).

mf beijiangensis Hu & Wu, 1989....................China
A. b. Hu & Wu, 1989: 82, f. 62.1-5 (Dmf).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 160, f. 76a-f (mf).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 135T, 136A-B, 142O, 147E (mf).

f biapicatifer (Strand, 1907)....................Australia
Aranea biapicatifera Strand, 1907i: 202 (Df).

f bicavus Zhu & Wang, 1994....................China
A. b. Zhu & Wang, in Zhu et al, 1994: 28, f. 3A-C (Df).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 161, f. 77a-c (f).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 136C-D, 147F (f).

mf bicentenarius (McCook, 1888)....................USA, Canada
Epeira bicentennaria McCook, 1888b: 194, f. 3 (Df, lapsus, corrected by McCook, 1894: 186).
Epeira gigas Leach, 1815: 132, pl. 109 (Df).
Aranea kisatchia Archer, 1951a: 27, f. 69 (Df).
Aranea bicentenaria Archer, 1951a: 31, f. 68, 78 (removed f from S of A. angulatus, Dm).
A. b. Levi, 1971a: 143, f. 15-26 (mf, S).

j bigibbosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand
Epeira bigibbosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 45 (Dj).

f bilunifer Pocock, 1900....................India
A. b. Pocock, 1900a: 227, f. 74 (Df).
A. b. Patel, 1975b: 162, f. 3a-c (f).
A. b. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 43, f. 91-94 (f).
A. b. Tikader, 1982a: 221, f. 428-431 (f).

mf bimaculicollis Hu, 2001....................China
A. b. Hu, 2001: 439, f. 283.1-3, 284.1-5 (Dmf).

mf bimini Levi, 1991....................Bahama Is.
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 264, f. 372-375 (Dmf).

mf biprominens Yin, Wang & Xie, 1989....................China
A. b. Yin, Wang & Xie, 1989: 330, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. prominens Yin & Bao, 1995a: 127, f. 4-6 (Dm).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 162, f. 78a-g (mf).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 136E-G, 142P-Q, 147G (mf).

f bipunctatus (Thorell, 1898)....................Myanmar
Epeira bipunctata Thorell, 1898: 356 (Df).

?? bipunctatus Franganillo, 1931....................Cuba
A. b. Franganillo, 1931: 288 (D; if this species is ever recognized, a replacement name will be needed).

mf bispinosus (Keyserling, 1885)....................USA
Epeira bispinosa Keyserling, 1885: 531, pl. 13, f. 30 (Df).
Epeira bispinosa Keyserling, 1892: 124, pl. 6, f. 92 (f).
Epeira bispinosa McCook, 1894: 180, pl. 9, f. 3 (f).
Epeira pacifica McCook, 1894: 180, pl. 11, f. 15-16 (Dmf).
Epeira excelsa Banks, 1896b: 90 (Df).
Aranea bispinosa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 512.
A. b. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 282.
Conaranea excelsa Archer, 1951b: 9, f. 20-21, 27 (removed f from S of A. bispinosus, rejected, Dm).
Conaranea bispinosa Archer, 1951b: 10, f. 4, 14-15, 22-23 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. b. Levi, 1973: 500, f. 86-106 (mf).

mf bivittatus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA
Epeira bivittata Walckenaer, 1842: 78 (Df).
Conepeira bivittata Archer, 1951b: 21, f. 12, 49, 70 (removed f from S of Araneus miniatus, Dm, but both misidentified, =A. juniperi).
A. b. Levi, 1973: 519, f. 221-230, 445 (f, Dm).

f blaisei Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
A. b. Simon, 1909e: 108 (Df).

f blochmanni (Strand, 1907)....................Java
Aranea b. Strand, 1907m: 419 (Df).

mf blumenau Levi, 1991....................Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 200, f. 42-48 (Dmf).

mf boerneri (Strand, 1907)....................India
Aranea börneri Strand, 1907k: 182, f. 10-12 (Dmf).

f boerneri clavimaculus (Strand, 1907)....................India
Aranea börneri clavimacula Strand, 1907k: 188 (Df).

f boerneri obscurellus (Strand, 1907)....................India
Aranea börneri obscurella Strand, 1907k: 189 (Df).

f boesenbergi (Fox, 1938)....................China
Aranea b. Fox, 1938b: 367, f. 7 (Df).
A. bosenbergi Yin et al., 1997: 163, f. 79 (f).
A. bosenbergi Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 136H (f).

mf bogotensis (Keyserling, 1863)....................Colombia to Bolivia and Brazil
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1864: 88, pl. 4, f. 1-6 (Df).
Epeira abunda Taczanowski, 1878b: 152, pl. 1, f. 7 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1892: 167, pl. 8, f. 124 (f).
A. abundus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 277.
A. b. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 283.
Aranea quechuana Chamberlin, 1916: 250, pl. 19, f. 1 (Dm).
Metepeira b. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 256 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).
Neosconella magna Caporiacco, 1955: 351, f. 33a-d (Df).
A. magnus Brignoli, 1983c: 263.
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 196, f. 1-4, 17-36 (f, Sm).

mf boneti Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 268, f. 385-388 (Dmf).

mf bonsallae (McCook, 1894)....................USA
Epeira bonsallae McCook, 1894: 179, pl. 8, f. 10 (Df).
Conepeira unica Archer, 1951b: 23, f. 75 (Df).
A. bonsallae Levi, 1973: 524, f. 265-294, 453-454 (removed f from S of A. bispinosus, Dm, S).

mf borealis Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. b. Tanikawa, 2001b: 69, f. 22-23, 28-31 (Dmf).

mf boreus Uyemura & Yaginuma, 1972....................Japan
A. b. Uyemura & Yaginuma, 1972: 10, f. 1-7 (Dmf).
A. b. Yaginuma, 1986a: 100, f. 53.6 (mf).
A. b. Chikuni, 1989b: 66, f. 15 (f).

f bosmani Simon, 1903....................Equatorial Guinea
A. b. Simon, 1903e: 89 (Df).

mf bradleyi (Keyserling, 1887)....................Australia, Tasmania
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1887a: 165, pl. 14, f. 2 (Df).
A. b. Butler, 1933: 276, pl. 17, f. 8.
A. b. Hickman, 1967: 62, f. 108-111 (mf, removed from S of Cyrtophora beccarii).

m braueri (Strand, 1906)....................Ethiopia
Aranea b. Strand, 1906b: 629 (Dm).

mf brisbanae (L. Koch, 1867)....................New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand
Epeira b. L. Koch, 1867b: 176 (Df).
Epeira b. L. Koch, 1872a: 111, pl. 6, f. 4 (f).
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1887a: 161, pl. 13, f. 6-7 (f, Dm).

f bryantae Brignoli, 1983....................Hispaniola
Neosconella parva Bryant, 1945a: 381, f. 19, 24 (Df, preoccupied in Araneus by Karsch, 1878).
A. b. Brignoli, 1983c: 262 (replacement name).
A. b. Levi, 1991a: 262, f. 353-356 (f).

mf bufo (Denis, 1941)....................Canary Is.
Glyptogona b. Denis, 1941a: 116, f. 5-6 (Df).
Wagneriana b. Wunderlich, 1987a: 135, f. 361a (Tf from Glyptogona).
A. b. Wunderlich, 1992a: 366, f. 346-352 (Tf from Wagneriana, Dm).

f caballo Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 273, f. 418-421 (Df).

mf calusa Levi, 1973....................USA
A. c. Levi, 1973: 512, f. 152-157 (Df).
A. c. Levi, 1981b: 255, f. 5-7 (Dm).

f camilla (Simon, 1889)....................India
Epeira c. Simon, 1889i: 338 (Df).
A. c. Dyal, 1935: 179.

f canacus Berland, 1931....................New Caledonia
A. c. Berland, 1931b: 669, f. 8-11 (Df).

f canalae Berland, 1924....................New Caledonia
A. c. Berland, 1924a: 222, f. 126-127 (Df).

m canestrinii (Thorell, 1873)....................Italy
Epeira ornata Canestrini, 1868: 200 (Dm; preoccupied by Blackwall, 1850).
Epeira c. Thorell, 1873: 491, 549 (replacement name).
Araneus ornatus Simon, 1929: 765.

m caplandensis (Strand, 1907)....................South Africa
Aranea c. Strand, 1907a: 535 (Dm).
Aranea c. Strand, 1907n: 631 (Dm).

j carabellus (Strand, 1913)....................Central Africa
Aranea carabella Strand, 1913a: 377 (Dj).

mf carchi Levi, 1991....................Ecuador
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 215, f. 122-127 (Dmf).

mf cardioceros Pocock, 1899....................Socotra
A. c. Pocock, 1899c: 40 (Dmf).
A. c. Pocock, 1903g: 191, pl. 14, f. 4 (mf).

m carimagua Levi, 1991....................Colombia
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 230, f. 190 (Dm).

f carnifex (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand
Epeira c. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 50 (Df).

f carroll Levi, 1973....................USA
A. c. Levi, 1973: 516, f. 215-220 (Df).

m castilho Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 196, f. 15-16 (Dm).

j catillatus (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira catillata Thorell, 1895: 191 (Dj).

f catospilotus Simon, 1907....................Guinea-Bissau, Principe, Congo
A. c. Simon, 1907d: 298 (Df).

f caudifer Kulczyn'ski, 1911....................New Guinea
A. c. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 482, pl. 20, f. 52-54 (Df).

mf cavaticus (Keyserling, 1882)....................USA, Canada
Epeira cavatica Keyserling, 1881c: 269, pl. 11, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira cinerea Emerton, 1884: 302, pl. 33, f. 10, pl. 35, f. 7-8 (Dmf).
Epeira cavatica Keyserling, 1892: 118, pl. 6, f. 87 (mf).
Epeira cavatica McCook, 1894: 185, pl. 10, f. 1-2, pl. 22, f. 6 (mf).
Epeira cinerea Emerton, 1902: 165, f. 391 (f).
A. c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 284.
Aranea cavatica Comstock, 1940: 484, f. 489 (f).
Aranea cavatica Kaston, 1948: 251, f. 798-799 (f).
A. c. Levi, 1971a: 170, f. 187-194 (mf).

mf celebensis Merian, 1911....................Sulawesi
A. c. Merian, 1911: 219, pl. 9, f. 6 (Dmf).

f cercidius Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. c. Yin et al., 1990: 20, f. 47-50 (Df).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 135, f. 50a-d (f).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 136I-K. 147H (f).

mf cereolus (Simon, 1885)....................Senegal, Cameroon, Ethiopia
Epeira cereola Simon, 1885d: 368 (Df).
Aranea cereola Thorell, 1899: 56.
A. c. Caporiacco, 1940c: 824, f. 30 (Dm).

m chiapas Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 262, f. 351-352 (Dm).

f chiaramontei Caporiacco, 1940....................Ethiopia
A. c. Caporiacco, 1940d: 19, f. 1.1-2 (Df; spelled chiaromontei in legend).

f chingaza Levi, 1991....................Colombia
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 258, f. 330-334 (Df).

mf chunhuaia Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. c. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 54, f. 12-16 (Dmf).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 164, f. 80a-e (mf).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 136L-M. 142M-N, 147I (mf).

mf cingulatus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA
Epeira cingulata Walckenaer, 1842: 40 (Df).
Conepeira marilandica Archer, 1951b: 21, f. 40, 50 (Dm; not f, f. 11, 72, =A. gadus).
Conepeira mumai Archer, 1951b: 22, f. 73 (f, misidentified).
Conepeira innominata Archer, 1951b: 24, f. 62, 77 (Dmf).
Conepeira ozarkensis Archer, 1951b: 25, f. 16, 76 (Dmf).
A. c. Levi, 1973: 526, f. 301-313, 455-462 (removed f from S of A. miniatus, Sm).

mf circe (Audouin, 1826)....................Palearctic
Epeira c. Audouin, 1826: 338, pl. 2, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira schreibersii Hahn, 1834: 20, f. 109 (Df).
Epeira regia C. L. Koch, 1835: 129, pl. 20 (Df).
Epeira gistlii C. L. Koch, 1835: 129, pl. 22 (Df).
Epeira schreibersii Hahn, 1836: 1, pl. 28, f. c (f).
Epeira pectoralis C. L. Koch, 1837b: 3 (D).
Epeira cornuta Walckenaer, 1842: 123 (Dmf, preoccupied).
Epeira gistlii C. L. Koch, 1844: 85, f. 898 (f).
Epeira regia C. L. Koch, 1844: 88, f. 899 (f).
Epeira schreibersii C. L. Koch, 1844: 90, f. 900-901 (f, Dm).
Epeira affinis Doleschall, 1852: 648 (Df, preoccupied by Nicolet and Blackwall).
Epeira austriaca Thorell, 1870a: 6 (replacement name for E. affinis Doleschall, 1852).
Epeira c. Simon, 1874a: 58 (m).
Epeira cornuta Lebert, 1877: 118, pl. 4, f. 23 (mf).
Epeira c. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 128, pl. 4, f. 44 (mf).
Epeira schreibersi Bösenberg, 1901: 25, pl. 1, f. 6 (mf).
A. c. Lessert, 1910b: 208.
A. c. Simon, 1929: 676, 756, f. 1031, 1034-1035, 1040 (mf).
Aranea c. Wiehle, 1931: 56, f. 80-83 (mf).
Aranea c. Drensky, 1943: 240, f. 17 (m).
A. c. Wiehle, 1963c: 268, f. 61, 63 (mf).
Aranea c. Zamaraev, 1964: 355, f. 44-45 (f).
A. c. Miller, 1971: 207, pl. XXXVIII, f. 17-19 (f).
A. c. Loksa, 1972: 73, f. 62A-D, 63A (f).
A. c. Izmailova, 1989: 51, f. 36 (f).
A. c. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 72, f. 163 (mf).
A. c. Thaler, 1991b: 50, f. 25, 29 (m).

?? circe strandi (Kolosváry, 1935)....................Hungary
Aranea c. s. Kolosváry, 1935b: 215, f. 1 (D).

f circellus Song & Zhu, 1992....................China
A. c. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 168, f. 3A-B (Df).
A. c. Song & Li, 1997: 412, f. 15A-B (f).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 145, f. 60a-c (f).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 136N-O (f).

f circulissparsus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira circulissparsa Keyserling, 1887a: 190, pl. 16, f. 7 (Df).

f circumbasilaris Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. c. Yin et al., 1990: 29, f. 69-73 (Df).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 165, f. 81a-e (f).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 136P-R, 147J (f).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 187, f. 109A-D (f).

f coccinella Pocock, 1898....................South Africa
A. c. Pocock, 1898c: 211, pl. 8, f. 6 (Df).

mf cochise Levi, 1973....................USA
A. c. Levi, 1973: 497, f. 55-59 (Df).
A. c. Dean, Agnew & Breene, 1989: 126, f. 1-2 (Dm).
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 278, f. 445-448 (mf).

m cohnae Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 229, f. 188 (Dm).

mf colima Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 266, f. 376-380 (Dmf).

f colubrinus Song & Zhu, 1992....................China
A. c. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 169, f. 4A-B (Df).
A. c. Song & Li, 1997: 413, f. 16A-B (f).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 146, f. 61a-c (f).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 136S-T (f).

m compsus (Soares & Camargo, 1948)....................Brazil
Neosconella compsa Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 376, f. 32 (Dm).
A. c. Brignoli, 1983c: 262.

f comptus Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. c. Rainbow, 1916a: 108, pl. 22, f. 27-28 (Df).

f comptus fuscocapitatus Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. c. f. Rainbow, 1916a: 109, pl. 22, f. 29 (Df).

mf concepcion Levi, 1991....................Chile
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 241, f. 250-253 (Dmf).

f concinnus Rainbow, 1900....................New South Wales
Epeira variabilis Rainbow, 1897b: 517, pl. 17, f. 3 (Df, preoccupied).
A. c. Rainbow, 1900a: 490 (replacement name).

f concoloratus (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904)....................Panama
Aranea concolorata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 511, pl. 49, f. 3 (Df).
A. c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 286.
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 249, f. 282-285 (f).

f corbita (L. Koch, 1871)....................Samoa
Epeira c. L. Koch, 1871: 72, pl. 6, f. 9 (Df).

mf corporosus (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Argentina
Epeira corporosa Keyserling, 1892: 189, pl. 9, f. 140 (Df).
A. c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 287.
Metepeira corporosa Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 187 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).
Metepeira delineata Mello-Leitão, 1943c: 105, f. 5 (Df).
Eustala lactea Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 329 (Dm).
Larinia nobilis Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 331, f. 15 (Dm).
Metepeira arabesca Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 248, f. 14-15 (Df).
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 206, f. 71-77 (f, Sm).

f corticaloides (Roewer, 1955)....................Corsica
Epeira corticalis Simon, 1874a: 99 (Df; preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1802 sub Aranea).
A. corticalis Simon, 1929: 687, 760.
Aranea c. Roewer, 1955c: 784 (replacement name).

mf corticarius (Emerton, 1884)....................USA, Canada, Alaska
Epeira corticaria Emerton, 1884: 300, pl. 33, f. 14, pl. 35, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira incestifica Keyserling, 1892: 132, pl. 7, f. 98 (Df).
Epeira corticaria McCook, 1894: 176, pl. 8, f. 7 (f).
Epeira corticaria Emerton, 1902: 165, f. 392 (f).
Epeira corticaria Emerton, 1909: 199, pl. 5, f. 3 (Dm).
A. c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 287.
Aranea corticaria Comstock, 1940: 486, f. 401 (f).
Aranea corticaria Kaston, 1948: 252, f. 800-802 (f).
Aranea corticaria Archer, 1951a: 30, f. 76 (m).
Aranea denningi Archer, 1951a: 30, f. 81 (Dm).
A. c. Levi & Field, 1954: 448, f. 32 (m).
A. c. Levi, 1971a: 158, f. 114-122 (mf, S).

f crassipes (Rainbow, 1897)....................New South Wales
Epeira c. Rainbow, 1897b: 515, pl. 17, f. 2 (Df).

f crinitus (Rainbow, 1893)....................New South Wales
Anepsia crinita Rainbow, 1893b: 23, pl. 3, f. 5 (Df).
A. c. Simon, 1895a: 869.

f crispulus Tullgren, 1952....................Sweden
A. c. Tullgren, 1952: 168, f. 15a-b (Df).
Araniella c. Grasshoff, 1976: 150 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).

mf cristobal Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 277, f. 435-439 (Dmf).

f cuiaba Levi, 1991....................Brazil, Argentina
A. c. Levi, 1991a: 248, f. 276-278 (Df).

f cungei Bakhvalov, 1974....................Kyrgyzstan
A. c. Bakhvalov, 1974: 110, f. 59, 61 (Df).
A. c. Bakhvalov, 1981a: 140, f. 3 (f).

f cyclops Caporiacco, 1940....................Ethiopia
A. c. Caporiacco, 1940c: 772 (Df).

f cyphoxis Simon, 1908....................Western Australia
A. c. Simon, 1908d: 426 (Df).

mf cyrtarachnoides (Keyserling, 1887)....................New Guinea to New South Wales
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1887a: 181, pl. 15, f. 8-9 (Dmf).
A. papuanus Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 489, pl. 20, f. 50 (Df).
A. c. Chrysanthus, 1960: 36, f. 46, 51, 65, 74 (mf, S).

f dayongensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. d. Yin et al., 1990: 22, f. 58-61 (Df).
A. d. Yin et al., 1997: 147, f. 62a-d (f).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137A-B, 147K (f).

f decaisnei (Lucas, 1863)....................Philippines
Epeira d. Lucas, 1863: 411 (Df).

m decentellus (Strand, 1907)....................India, China
Aranea decentella Strand, 1907k: 190, f. 14 (Dm).
A. d. Yin et al., 1997: 201, f. 118a-d (m).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 143A (m).

f decolor (L. Koch, 1871)....................New South Wales, Victoria, Fiji
Epeira d. L. Koch, 1871: 71, pl. 6, f. 8 (Df).

f decoratus (Thorell, 1899)....................Cameroon
Aranea decorata Thorell, 1899: 56 (Df).

m demoniacus Caporiacco, 1939....................Ethiopia
A. d. Caporiacco, 1939a: 346, f. 14 (Dm).

f depressatulus (Roewer, 1942)....................New Guinea
A. depressus Rainbow, 1898a: 340, pl. 7, f. 6 (Df; preoccupied by Razoumowsky, 1789, sub Aranea).
Aranea depressatula Roewer, 1942a: 826 (replacement name).

mf desierto Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. d. Levi, 1991a: 280, f. 453-456 (Dmf).

mf detrimentosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................USA to Colombia
Epeira detrimentosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 26, pl. 6, f. 7 (Dm).
Epeira detrimentosa Keyserling, 1892: 137, pl. 7, f. 101 (m, Df).
Epeira nigrohumeralis O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: 111, pl. 15, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira tranquilla Keyserling, 1893: 224, pl. 11, f. 166 (Df).
Epeira tranquilla McCook, 1894: 162, pl. 6, f. 3 (f).
Epeira linteata McCook, 1894: 176, pl. 8, f. 5-6 (Dmf).
Epeira detrimentosa Banks, 1898b: 253, pl. 15, f. 7 (f).
Aranea detrimentosa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 515, pl. 49, f. 18 (mf).
A. d. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 289.
A. linteatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 300.
Aranea vesta Bryant, 1948a: 60, f. 4, 6 (Dmf).
Cambridgepeira dentrimentosa Archer, 1951b: 2, f. 8-10 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. d. Levi, 1973: 538, f. 398-414 (mf, S).
A. vesta Brignoli, 1983c: 261.
A. d. Levi, 1991a: 269, f. 395-399 (mf, S).

m diabrosis (Walckenaer, 1842)....................New South Wales
Epeira d. Walckenaer, 1842: 131 (Dm).

f diadematoides Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. d. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 55, f. 17-19 (Df).
A. d. Yin et al., 1997: 166, f. 82a-c (f).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137C-D, 147L (f).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 188, f. 110A-C (f).

mf diadematus Clerck, 1757 *....................Holarctic
A. d. Clerck, 1757: 25, pl. 1, f. 4 (Df).
A. peleg Clerck, 1757: 27, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).
Aranea diadema Linnaeus, 1758: 619 (D).
Aranea linnaei Scopoli, 1763: 392 (Df).
Aranea d. Fabricius, 1775: 441 (D).
Aranea cruciger De Geer, 1778: 218, pl. 11, f. 3-8 (Df).
Aranea papalis Fourcroy, 1785: 534 (Df).
A. d. Fabricius, 1793: 415 (D).
Aranea myagria Walckenaer, 1802: 192 (Df).
Epeira myagria Walckenaer, 1805: 59.
Epeira d. Sundevall, 1833a: 235 (Dm).
Epeira diademata Hahn, 1834: 22, f. 110 (mf).
Epeira d. C. L. Koch, 1844: 103, f. 910 (mf).
Epeira fruticosus Bremi-Wolff, 1849: 1-16.
Epeira frutetorum Bremi-Wolff, 1849: 1-16.
Epeira diademata Blackwall, 1864a: 358, pl. 26, f. 258 (mf).
Epeira diademata Menge, 1866: 42, pl. 1, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira pyrenaea Simon, 1874a: 75 (Dmf).
Epeira diademata Hansen, 1882: 17, pl. 1, f. 31 (mf).
Epeira diademata Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 129, pl. 5, f. 14 (mf).
Epeira diademata McCook, 1894: 188, pl. 10, f. 11, pl. 11, f. 10-11 (mf).
Epeira diademata Becker, 1896: 17, pl. 1, f. 5 (mf).
Epeira diademata Bösenberg, 1901: 22, pl. 1, f. 2 (mf).
Aranea d. Reimoser, 1929c: 84, f. 1 (mf).
A. d. Simon, 1929: 680, 757, f. 1041-1042 (mf).
Aranea d. Wiehle, 1931: 70, f. 103-108 (mf).
Aranea diadema Drensky, 1943: 242, f. 25 (mf).
Aranea diadema Kaston, 1948: 249, f. 779-782 (mf).
A. d. Chrysanthus, 1949b: 350, f. 3 (f).
Aranea diademata Archer, 1951a: 23, f. 80 (m).
A. d. Tullgren, 1952: 166, f. 11a-b (f).
Aranea diadema Mikulska, 1953: 51, f. 61, 64 (mf).
A. d. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 127, f. 79C, 84A, 85A, 86A, 87A (mf).
A. d. Braendegaard, 1958: 32, f. 21-22 (mf).
A. d. Bristowe, 1958: 24, f. 4 (f).
A. d. Yaginuma, 1960: 51, f. 47 (f).
A. d. Laurent, 1963: 294, f. 35-36 (f).
A. d. Grasshoff, 1964: 305, f. 1-2 (f).
Aranea diadema Zamaraev, 1964: 359, f. 76-79 (mf).
A. d. Azheganova, 1968: 75, f. 144, 151, 168 (mf).
A. d. Grasshoff, 1968: 7, f. 7, 9, 11, 16a, 17k-m, 20a-c, 21a-d, 23, 25-26, 28-29, 30a-b, 31-33, 34a, 35a-d, 36a-d, 37a-d, 38a-d, 39a-d, 40a, 41a-c, 42a, 43-46 (mf).
A. d. Levi, 1970: 109, f. 1-3 (m).
A. d. Miller, 1971: 211, pl. XL, f. 1-2 (mf).
A. d. Yaginuma, 1971: 51, f. 47 (f).
A. d. Tyschchenko, 1971: 196, f. 577, 588 (mf).
A. d. Levi, 1971a: 147, f. 34-41, 95, 184-186 (mf).
A. d. Loksa, 1972: 86, f. 78B, 79C, 80A-B (mf).
A. d. Grasshoff, 1973b: 131, f. 1-2, 4-5 (mf).
A. d. Bakhvalov, 1974: 110, f. 67-68, 70 (mf).
A. d. Palmgren, 1974a: 21, f. 9a, 10a-c (mf).
A. d. Saaristo, 1975: 21, f. 2, 4, 6, 8-9 (mf).
A. d. Punda, 1975b: 36, f. 46-50 (mf).
A. d. Moore, 1977: 87, f. 9 (m).
A. d. Saaristo, 1977: 5, f. 2, 4, 6, 8-9 (mf).
A. d. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1982: 50, f. IV.10 (f).
A. d. Kraus, 1984: 376, f. 3 (mf).
A. diadema Hu, 1984: 90, f. 83.1-4 (mf).
A. d. Roberts, 1985: 208, f. 93a (mf).
A. d. Zhu et al., 1985: 71, f. 58a-c (f).
A. d. Schult, 1986: 267, f. 31-32 (mf).
A. d. Yaginuma, 1986a: 95, f. 49.2 (mf).
A. d. Song, 1987: 162, f. 122 (f).
A. d. Roberts, 1987: 181, f. 941-f (m).
A. d. Zhang, 1987: 66, f. 48.1-4 (mf).
A. d. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1989: 226, f. LXX.10 (f).
A. d. Chikuni, 1989b: 65, f. 9 (mf).
A. d. Hu & Wu, 1989: 87, f. 64.1-4 (mf).
A. d. Feng, 1990: 56, f. 31.1-5 (f).
A. d. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 8 (m).
A. d. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 74, f. 167 (mf).
A. d. Salz, 1992: 59, f. 1B-C (mf).
A. d. Roberts, 1995: 317, f. (mf).
A. d. Agnarsson, 1996: 60, f. 46A-C (mf).
A. d. Mcheidze, 1997: 271, f. 605-608 (mf).
A. d. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 372, f. 8, 25 (mf).
A. d. Yin et al., 1997: 167, f. 83a-h (mf).
A. d. Levy, 1998a: 326, f. 57-67 (mf).
A. d. Roberts, 1998: 331, f. (mf).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137E, G, 143B-C, 147M (mf).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 189, f. 111A-D (mf).

f diadematus islandicus (Strand, 1906)....................Iceland
Aranea diademata islandica Strand, 1906a: 431 (Df).

mf diadematus nemorosus Simon, 1929....................France
A. d. nemorosa Simon, 1929: 680, 757 (Dmf).

mf diadematus soror (Simon, 1874)....................Corsica
Epeira s. Simon, 1874a: 74 (Dmf).
A. d. s. Simon, 1929: 681, 757.

mf diadematus stellatus (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Europe
Epeira stellata C. L. Koch, 1836b: 134, pl. 7 (Df).
Epeira stellata C. L. Koch, 1844: 105, f. 911 (f).
Epeira diademata alpina Calloni, 1889: 66.
Epeira diademata obscura Calloni, 1889: 262.
Epeira diademata nigra Gétaz, 1889: 60 (Df).
A. d. s. Simon, 1929: 681, 757.

mf dianiphus Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. d. Rainbow, 1916a: 106, pl. 22, f. 22-25 (Dmf).

f dianiphus xanthostichus Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. d. x. Rainbow, 1916a: 107, pl. 22, f. 26 (Df).

f diffinis Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. d. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 56, f. 20-22 (Df).
A. d. Yin et al., 1997: 202, f. 119a-c (f).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137H-I, 147N (f).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 190, f. 112A-C (f).

f dimidiatus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Queensland, New South Wales
Epeira dimidiata L. Koch, 1871: 95, pl. 8, f. 1 (Df).

f distinctus (Rainbow, 1897)....................Funafuti
Epeira distincta Rainbow, 1897a: 118, pl. 4, f. 4 (Df).

f diversicolor (Rainbow, 1893)....................New South Wales
Epeira d. Rainbow, 1893b: 16, pl. 3, f. 1 (Df).

f doenitzellus (Strand, 1906)....................Japan
Aranea dönitzella Strand, in Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 383, pl. 4, f. 40 (Df).
A. doenitzella Saito, 1933b: 54, pl. 3, f. 16.
A. dönitzella Yin et al., 1997: 202, f. 120 (f).
A. doenitzella Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137F (f).

mf dofleini (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906)....................Japan
Aranea d. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 235, f. 4 (Dmf).

m dospinolongus Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
A. d. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 635, f. 403a-f (Dm).

mf dreisbachi Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. d. Levi, 1991a: 280, f. 449-452 (Dmf).

m drygalskii (Strand, 1909)....................South Africa
Aranea d. Strand, 1909g: 571 (Dm).

f ealensis Giltay, 1935....................Congo
A. e. Giltay, 1935a: 1, f. 1-2 (Df).

f eburneiventris (Simon, 1908)....................Western Australia
Larinia e. Simon, 1908d: 424 (Df).
A. e. Grasshoff, 1970b: 218 (Tf from Larinia).

mf eburnus (Keyserling, 1886)....................Queensland, New South Wales
Epeira eburna Keyserling, 1886a: 148, pl. 12, f. 4 (Df).
A. e. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 27 (f, Dm).

mf ejusmodi Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................China, Japan
A. e. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 229, pl. 11, f. 215 (Dmf).
Lithyphantes dubius Dönitz & Strand, in Bösenberg & Strand, 1906:: 380, pl. 4, f. 34 (Df).
Lithyphantes dubius Paik, 1942: 101, f. 1-2 (f).
A. e. Yaginuma, 1954e: 26, f. 1.1-7, 2A-H (mf, S).
Agalenatea e. Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 37 (Tmf from Araneus, rejected).
A. e. Yaginuma, 1960: 55, f. 51 (m).
A. pachygnathoides Schenkel, 1963: 167, f. 97a-c (Df).
A. e. Yaginuma, 1971: 55, f. 51 (m).
A. e. Yin, 1978: 1, f. 1A-D (mf).
Aranea e. Song, 1980: 92, f. 38a-d (mf).
A. e. Wang, 1981: 102, f. 44A-D (mf).
A. e. Zhu, 1983: 20 (S).
A. e. Hu, 1984: 92, f. 85.1-2 (f).
A. e. Guo, 1985: 55, f. 2-11.1-4 (mf).
A. e. Zhu et al., 1985: 73, f. 60a-c (f).
A. e. Yaginuma, 1986a: 99, f. 53.2 (m).
A. e. Chikuni, 1989b: 69, f. 23 (mf).
A. e. Feng, 1990: 57, f. 32.1-5 (mf).
A. e. Chen & Gao, 1990: 45, f. 48a-b (mf).
A. e. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 87, f. 77.1-5 (mf).
A. e. Song, Zhu & Li, 1993: 870, f. 34A-C (mf).
A. e. Zhao, 1993: 229, f. 105a-c (f).
A. e. Yin et al., 1997: 136, f. 51a-e (mf).
A. e. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137J-K, 143D (mf).

f elatatus (Strand, 1911)....................Aru Is., Kei Is.
Aranea elatata Strand, 1911d: 152, pl. 4, f. 3, pl. 5, f. 38 (Df).

f elizabethae Levi, 1991....................Hispaniola
Meta blanda Bryant, 1945a: 386, f. 22 (Df; preoccupied by M. b. L. Koch, 1878, but that species was transferred to Leucauge by Bösenberg & Strand, 1906).
M. bryantae Brignoli, 1983c: 230 (replacement name for Meta blanda Bryant).
A. blanda Levi, 1986a: 105 (Tf from Meta).
A. e. Levi, 1991a: 263, f. 357-360 (replacement name for Meta bryantae Brignoli, 1983, preoccupied in Araneus).

mf ellipticus (Tikader & Bal, 1981)....................Bangladesh, India, China
Neoscona elliptica Tikader & Bal, 1981: 24, f. 45-49 (Dmf).
Neoscona elliptica Tikader, 1982a: 259, f. 515-519 (mf).
Neoscona griseomaculata Yin & Wang, 1982: 260, f. A-L (Dmf).
Neoscona griseomaculata Yin, Wang & Hu, 1983: 34, f. 6C (m).
Neoscona griseomaculata Hu, 1984: 122, f. 122.1-11 (mf).
A. e. Grasshoff, 1986: 118 (Tmf from Neoscona).
Neoscona griseomaculata Song, 1987: 171, f. 131 (mf).
Neoscona griseomaculata Feng, 1990: 90, f. 65.1-4 (mf).
Neoscona griseomaculata Chen & Gao, 1990: 66, f. 81a-c (mf).
Neoscona griseomaculata Zhao, 1993: 242, f. 114a-b (mf).
Neoscona elliptica Zhu & Zhang, 1993: 38, f. 14-20 (mf).
A. e. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 639, f. 406a-d (f).
Neoscona elliptica Yin et al., 1997: 347, f. 245a-k (mf, S).
Neoscona elliptica Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 175O-Q, 178Q-R, 180F (mf).

f elongatus Yin, Wang & Xie, 1989....................China
A. e. Yin, Wang & Xie, 1989: 331, f. 5-9 (Df).
A. e. Yin et al., 1997: 137, f. 52a-e (f).
A. e. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137L-N, 147O (f).

f emmae Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
A. e. Simon, 1900a: 482, pl. 16, f. 6 (Df).

f enucleatus (Karsch, 1879)....................India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Sumatra
Epeira enucleata Karsch, 1879d: 550 (Df).
Epeira albertisii Thorell, 1887: 182 (Df).
Epeira soronis Thorell, 1890a: 143 (Df).
A. soronis Simon, 1899a: 91.

f enyoides (Thorell, 1877)....................Sulawesi
Epeira e. Thorell, 1877b: 396 (Df).

f excavatus Franganillo, 1930....................Cuba
A. e. Franganillo, 1930: 25 (Df).

mf expletus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico to Panama
Epeira expleta O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 25, pl. 6, f. 11 (Df; N.B.: the spelling explecta in Roewer is a lapsus).
Neosconella expleta F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 476, pl. 45, f. 7 (f).
A. e. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 291.
Epeira smithi O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 280, pl. 37, f. 4 (Df).
Neosconella styligera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 475, pl. 44, f. 1-2 (Dmf).
Neosconella guttata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 477, pl. 45, f. 9 (Df; preoccupied by Keyserling, 1865, sub Epeira).
Aranea smithi F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 511, pl. 49, f. 1 (f).
A. gratuitus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 294 (replacement name for Neosconella guttata).
A. smithi Petrunkevitch, 1911: 316.
A. styliger Petrunkevitch, 1911: 318.
A. gratuitus Kraus, 1955b: 22, f. 59-61 (f).
Neosconella styligera Levi, 1973: 547, f. 439 (m).
A. e. Levi, 1991a: 231, f. 193-210 (f, Sm).

f exsertus Rainbow, 1904....................Australia
A. e. Rainbow, 1904a: 102, f. 26-27 (Df).

mf fastidiosus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland
Epeira fastidiosa Keyserling, 1887a: 183, pl. 16, f. 1 (Dm).
A. f. Rainbow, 1916a: 101, pl. 21, f. 16-17 (Df).

f favorabilis Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. f. Rainbow, 1916a: 103, pl. 22, f. 18-19 (Df).

f faxoni (Bryant, 1940)....................Cuba
Aranea f. Bryant, 1940: 334, f. 102-103 (Df).
A. f. Brignoli, 1983c: 262.
A. f. Levi, 1991a: 264, f. 369-371 (f).

f felinus (Butler, 1876)....................Queensland
Epeira felina Butler, 1876a: 351, pl. 10, f. 1-2 (Df).

f fengshanensis Zhu & Song, 1994....................China
A. f. Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 31, f. 6A-D (Df).
A. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137O-Q, 147P (f).

f ferganicus Bakhvalov, 1983....................Kyrgyzstan
A. f. Bakhvalov, 1983: 91, f. 5 (Df).

m ferrugineus (Thorell, 1877)....................Sulawesi
Epeira ferruginea Thorell, 1877b: 379 (Dm).

f fictus (Rainbow, 1896)....................Queensland
Epeira ficta Rainbow, 1896a: 323, pl. 18, f. 2 (Df).

f finneganae Berland, 1938....................New Hebrides
A. f. Berland, 1938: 176, f. 137-140 (Df).

j fishoekensis (Strand, 1909)....................South Africa
Aranea f. Strand, 1909g: 573 (Dj).

f fistulosus Franganillo, 1930....................Cuba
A. f. Franganillo, 1930: 29 (Df; N.B.: omitted by Roewer and Brignoli).

f flagelliformis Zhu & Yin, 1998....................China
A. f. Zhu & Yin, in Yin et al., 1997: 168, f. 84a-e (Df).
A. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 137R-T, 147Q (f).

f flavisternis (Thorell, 1878)....................Amboina, New Guinea
Epeira f. Thorell, 1878b: 61 (Df).
A. f. Simon, 1899a: 90.

f flavisternis momiensis (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea
Epeira f. m. Thorell, 1881: 106 (Df).

m flavopunctatus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Fiji
Epeira flavopunctata L. Koch, 1871: 79, pl. 5, f. 4 (Dm).

f flavosellatus Simon, 1895....................Brazil
A. f. Simon, 1895a: 824 (Dm).

f flavosignatus (Roewer, 1942)....................Sulawesi
Araneus flavopunctatus Merian 1911: 218 (Df; preoccupied by L. Koch, 1871, sub Epeira).
Aranea flavosignata Roewer, 1942a: 817 (replacement name).

mf flavus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)....................Mexico to Nicaragua
Singa flava O. P.-Cambridge, 1894a: 136, pl. 17, f. 15 (Dm, S. lutea in legend).
Aranea flava F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 516, pl. 51, f. 3 (m).
A. f. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 292.
A. f. Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tm from Singa).
A. f. Levi, 1991a: 272, f. 404-409 (m, Df).

mf floriatus Hogg, 1914....................New Guinea
A. f. Hogg, 1914a: 57 (Dmf).
A. f. Hogg, 1915a: 446, f. 25 (f).

f formosellus (Roewer, 1942)....................India
A. formosus Dyal, 1935: 185, pl. 11, f. 5 (Df; preoccupied by Olivier, 1789, sub Aranea).
Aranea formosella Roewer, 1942a: 817 (replacement name).

m frio Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. f. Levi, 1991a: 276, f. 429-430 (Dm).

mf fronki Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. f. Levi, 1991a: 228, f. 179-183 (Dmf).

f frosti (Hogg, 1896)....................Central Australia
Epeira f. Hogg, 1896: 315, pl. 24, f. 1 (Df).

mf fulvellus (Roewer, 1942)....................India, Pakistan
A. fulvus Dyal, 1935: 178, pl. 11, f. 4 (Df; preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1842, sub Epeira).
Aranea fulvella Roewer, 1942a: 817 (replacement name).
A. fulvus Reddy & Patel, 1992b: 138, f. 1A-G (f, Dm).

f fuscinotus (Strand, 1908)....................East Africa
Aranea rufipalpis fuscinotum Strand, 1908e: 294 (Df).
Aranea fuscinotum Roewer, 1942a: 808 (elevated to species).

mf gadus Levi, 1973....................USA
Conepeira marilandica Archer, 1951b: 21, f. 11, 72 (f, misidentified).
A. g. Levi, 1973: 520, f. 231-247, 446 (Dmf).

mf galero Levi, 1991....................Panama, Colombia
A. g. Levi, 1991a: 234, f. 223-227 (Dmf).

f gazellae (Karsch, 1878)....................Bismarck Arch.
Epeira g. Karsch, 1878c: 803 (Df).

j gazerti (Strand, 1909)....................South Africa
Aranea g. Strand, 1909g: 574 (Dj).

f geminatus (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea
Epeira geminata Thorell, 1881: 122 (Df).

mf gemma (McCook, 1888)....................USA, Canada, Alaska
Epeira g. McCook, 1888b: 193, f. 1-2 (Df).
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 115, pl. 6, f. 85 (f).
Epeira g. McCook, 1894: 182, pl. 10, f. 6, pl. 11, f. 12-14 (f).
Araneus gemmus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935b: 21, pl. 10, f. 79 (f).
A. pirus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935b: 22, pl. 10, f. 81 (Df).
Aranea g. Comstock, 1940: 486, f. 134, 490 (f).
A. g. Levi, 1971a: 172, f. 203-214 (mf, S).
A. g. Levi, 1975c: 268, f. 2 (m).

mf gemmoides Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935....................USA, Canada
A. g. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935b: 22, pl. 10, f. 80 (Dmf).
A. canmorus Schenkel, 1950b: 65, f. 22a-c (Df).
Aranea g. Levi, 1951: 12, f. 14-16 (m).
A. g. Levi & Field, 1954: 450, f. 29-31 (mf).
A. g. Levi, 1971a: 171, f. 195-202 (mf, S).
A. g. Levi, 1975c: 268, f. 1 (m).

m gerais Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. g. Levi, 1991a: 231, f. 191-192 (Dm).

m gestrellus (Strand, 1907)....................Moluccas
Aranea gestrella Strand, 1907k: 178, f. 15 (Dm).

mf gestroi (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea
Epeira g. Thorell, 1881: 116 (Dmf).

f gibber (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand
Epeira gibbera O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 51 (Df).

mf ginninderranus Dondale, 1966....................Australian Capital Territory
A. g. Dondale, 1966: 1169, f. 3A-C (Dmf).

f goniaeus (Thorell, 1878)....................Myanmar, Java, Amboina, New Guinea
Epeira goniaea Thorell, 1878b: 51 (Df).

f goniaeus virens (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Epeira goniaea v. Thorell, 1890a: 120 (Df).

f goniaeoides (Strand, 1915)....................Lombok
Aranea g. Strand, 1915d: 224, pl. 17, f. 70 (Df).

f graeffi (L. Koch, 1871)....................Australia
Epeira g. L. Koch, 1871: 98 (Df).

f graemii Pocock, 1900....................South Africa
A. g. Pocock, 1900e: 324 (Df).

mf granadensis (Keyserling, 1864)....................Venezuela to Peru
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1864: 86, pl. 4, f. 7-9 (Df).
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 194, pl. 9, f. 144 (f, Dm).
Araneus g. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 294.
Neoscona g. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 325.
A. g. Levi, 1991a: 220, f. 146-152 (mf).

mf granti Hogg, 1914....................New Guinea
A. g. Hogg, 1914a: 57 (Df).
A. g. Hogg, 1915a: 448, f. 26 (f).
A. g. Chrysanthus, 1960: 36, f. 32-33, 49, 60, 72 (f, Dm).

f gratiolus Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. g. Yin et al., 1990: 32, f. 78-80 (Df).
A. g. Yin et al., 1997: 170, f. 86a-c (f).
A. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 238, f. 138A-B, 148B (f).

mf groenlandicola (Strand, 1906)....................USA, Canada, Greenland
Aranea reaumuri g. Strand, 1906a: 431 (Df).
Aranea manitobae Archer, 1951a: 37, f. 51, 59, 62 (Dm).
A. g. Levi, 1970: 110, f. 16-17 (m).
A. groenlandicolus Levi, 1971a: 164, f. 159-166 (elevated f from subspecies of A. reaumuri, Sm).
A. g. Levi, 1973: 480 (correction of spelling).

mf grossus (C. L. Koch, 1844)....................Europe to Central Asia
Epeira gigas C. L. Koch, 1835: 129, pl. 22 (Df; preoccupied).
Epeira grossa C. L. Koch, 1844: 82, f. 896-897 (Df).
Epeira grossa Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 329, pl. 12, f. 9 (Dm).
A. g. Fage, 1921a: 175, f. 3B (m).
A. g. Simon, 1929: 677, 756, f. 1032, 1036-1039 (mf).
A. g. Wiehle, 1963c: 265, f. 65-73 (mf).
A. g. Wiehle, 1967b: 187, f. 15-16 (f).
A. g. Miller, 1971: 207, pl. XXXVIII, f. 20-21 (f).
A. g. Loksa, 1972: 74, f. 63B, 64A-E (mf).
A. grossi Bakhvalov, 1974: 111, f. 88, 91-92, 97 (mf).
A. g. Izmailova, 1989: 54, f. 38 (f).
A. g. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 72, f. 165 (mf).
A. g. Thaler, 1991b: 50, f. 26-27, 30 (m).
A. g. Mcheidze, 1997: 267, f. 581-583 (f).

m guandishanensis Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. g. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 57, f. 23-24 (Dm).
A. g. Yin et al., 1997: 171, f. 87a-c (m).
A. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 143E-F, 148C (m).

f guatemus Levi, 1991....................Guatemala
A. g. Levi, 1991a: 232, f. 211-214 (Df).

mf guerrerensis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936....................USA, Mexico
A. g. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 45, pl. 13, f. 117-118 (Df).
Conaranea pacifica Archer, 1951b: 10, f. 26, 28-29 (removed mf from S of A. bispinosus, misidentified).
A. chiricahua Levi, 1973: 496, f. 44-54, 441 (Dmf).
A. g. Levi, 1991a: 285, f. 487-493 (f, Sm).

j guessfeldi (Karsch, 1879)....................West Africa
Epeira güssfeldii Karsch, 1879a: 335 (Dj).

f gundlachi (Banks, 1914)....................Cuba
Epeira g. Banks, 1914c: 641, pl. 43, f. 8 (Df).

jj gurdus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Tibet
Epeira gurda O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 46 (Djj).

mf guttatus (Keyserling, 1865)....................Costa Rica to Argentina
Epeira guttata Keyserling, 1865: 823, pl. 18, f. 17-18 (Df).
Epeira similis Taczanowski, 1873: 130 (Df; preoccupied by Blackwall, 1844).
Epeira guttata Keyserling, 1892: 193, pl. 9, f. 143 (f).
Aranea glabrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 512, pl. 49, f. 6 (Df).
A. glabratus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 293.
A. g. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 296.
A. similis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 315.
Aranea similella Roewer, 1942a: 852 (replacement name).
Neosconella bipunctata Mello-Leitão, 1948: 170, f. 12 (Df, preoccupied in Araneus by Thorell, 1898).
A. leitaoi Brignoli, 1983c: 263 (replacement name).
A. g. Levi, 1991a: 253, f. 303-315 (f, Dm, S).

mf guttulatus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA
Epeira guttulata Walckenaer, 1842: 78 (Df).
Epeira sanguinalis Hentz, 1847: 476, pl. 31, f. 15 (Dm).
A. sanguinalis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 314.
Conepeira glyphica Archer, 1951b: 17, f. 56 (Df).
Conepeira guttulata Archer, 1951b: 18, f. 42, 67 (removed f from S of A. miniatus, Dm, S).
Conepeira glyphica Levi & Field, 1954: 450, f. 33-34 (f).
A. g. Levi, 1973: 530, f. 3, 332-361, 470-474 (mf, S).

f habilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico to Guatemala
Epeira h. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 28, pl. 8, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira h. Keyserling, 1892: 220, pl. 10, f. 163 (f).
Neosconella h. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 477, pl. 45, f. 8 (f).
A. h. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 296.
A. h. Levi, 1991a: 234, f. 219-222 (f).

j haematomerus (Gerstäcker, 1873)....................Central Africa
Epeira haematomera Gerstäcker, 1873: 491, pl. 18, f. 9 (Dj).

f hamiltoni (Rainbow, 1893)....................New South Wales
Epeira h. Rainbow, 1893b: 21, pl. 3, f. 7 (Df).

f hampei Simon, 1895....................Java
A. h. Simon, 1895a: 822 (Df).

f haploscapellus (Strand, 1907)....................South Africa
Aranea haploscapella Strand, 1907a: 533 (Df).
Aranea haploscapella Strand, 1907n: 616 (Df).

f haruspex (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Tibet
Epeira h. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 46 (Df).

f henanensis (Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991)....................China
Hypsosinga h. Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991: 39, f. 5-7 (Df).
A. h. Yin et al., 1997: 197, f. 114a-h (Tf from Hypsosinga).
A. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138C-D, 148D (f).

m herbeus (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Epeira herbea Thorell, 1890a: 156 (Dm).

f hierographicus Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
A. h. Simon, 1909e: 107 (Df).

f himalayaensis Tikader, 1975....................India, China
A. h. Tikader, 1975b: 145, f. 1-3 (Df).
A. h. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 50, f. 107-110 (f).
A. h. Tikader, 1982a: 229, f. 444-447 (f).
A. h. Hu & Li, 1987a: 326, f. 8.1-3 (f).
A. h. Yin et al., 1990: 33, f. 81-83 (f).
A. h. Yin et al., 1997: 171, f. 88a-d (f).
A. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138E, H-I, 148E (f).
A. h. Hu, 2001: 441, f. 285.1-3 (f).

f himalayanus (Simon, 1889)....................India
Epeira himalayana Simon, 1889i: 339 (Df).

f hirsti Lessert, 1915....................East Africa
A. h. Lessert, 1915a: 33, pl. 2, f. 50, 52-53 (Df).

f hirsutulus (Stoliczka, 1869)....................India
Epeira hirsutula Stoliczka, 1869: 239, pl. 20, f. 13 (Df).

f hispaniola (Bryant, 1945)....................Hispaniola
Aranea h. Bryant, 1945a: 366, f. 2 (Df).
A. h. Brignoli, 1983c: 262.
A. h. Levi, 1991a: 263, f. 365-368 (f).

f hoggi (Rainbow, 1897)....................Funafuti
Epeira h. Rainbow, 1897a: 119, pl. 5, f. 1 (Df).

mf holzapfelae Lessert, 1936....................Mozambique
A. holzapfeli Lessert, 1936: 246, f. 40-42 (Dmf; patronym for Ms. Holzapfel).

mf horizonte Levi, 1991....................Colombia to Paraguay
A. h. Levi, 1991a: 211, f. 99-104 (Df).
A. h. Braul, Bertoncello & Lise, 1999: 124 (Dm).

m hortensis (Blackwall, 1859)....................Madeira
Epeira h. Blackwall, 1859b: 263 (Dm).

mf hoshi Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. triguttatus Saito, 1934b: 326, pl. 13, f. 23, pl. 15, f. 66 (f, misidentified).
A. triguttatus Saito, 1959: 90, f. 106a-d (f, misidentified).
A. triguttatus Yaginuma, 1960: 55, f. 51 (f, misidentified).
A. h. Tanikawa, 2001b: 73, f. 39-40, 45-48 (Dmf).

f hotteiensis (Bryant, 1945)....................Hispaniola
Meta h. Bryant, 1945a: 387, f. 25 (Df).
A. h. Levi, 1986a: 105 (Tf from Meta).
A. h. Levi, 1991a: 263, f. 361-364 (f).

mf huahun Levi, 1991....................Chile, Argentina
A. h. Levi, 1991a: 244, f. 258-261 (Dmf).

f hui Hu, 2001....................China
A. h. Hu, 2001: 442, f. 286.1-3 (Df).

m huixtla Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. h. Levi, 1991a: 286, f. 497-498 (Dm).

f humilis (L. Koch, 1867)....................Queensland
Theridion humile L. Koch, 1867b: 191 (Df).
Epeira h. L. Koch, 1872a: 107, pl. 9, f. 1 (f).

f idoneus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland
Epeira idonea Keyserling, 1887a: 177, pl. 15, f. 5 (Df).

mf iguacu Levi, 1991....................Brazil, Argentina
A. i. Levi, 1991a: 256, f. 321-325 (Dmf).

mf illaudatus (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936)....................USA
Aranea illaudata Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936b: 19, f. 36-37 (Dm).
Aranea illaudata Archer, 1951a: 36, f. 74 (m, not f, f. 67=A. nordmanni).
A. pima Levi, 1971a: 176, f. 218-232 (Dmf).
A. i. Levi, 1970: 108, f. 14-15, 18-19 (mf).
A. i. Levi, 1971a: 176, f. 238-240 (m, not f, f. 233-237, =A. abigeatus).
A. i. Levi, 1975c: 268, f. 3-4 (m, S).
A. i. Roth, 1985: B6-5, f. 49 (f).

f indistinctus (Doleschall, 1859)....................Java
Epeira indistincta Doleschall, 1859: 41, pl. 9, f. 6 (Df).

m inquietus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira inquieta Keyserling, 1887a: 189, p. 16, f. 6 (Dm).

f interjectus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Queensland
Epeira interjecta L. Koch, 1871: 96, pl. 7, f. 7 (Df).

mf inustus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Taiwan, Sumatra to Australia
Epeira inusta L. Koch, 1871: 94, pl. 7, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira weyersi Simon, 1885a: 38 (Df).
Epeira iunsta Thorell, 1890a: 151.
A. i. Chrysanthus, 1960: 41, f. 48, 52, 59, 67-68 (f, Dm).
A. i. Lee, 1966: 40, f. 11a-c (f).
A. i. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 631, f. 400a-d, 401a-c (mf).
A. i. Yin et al., 1997: 135, f. 53a-c (f).
A. i. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138F-G, 148F (f).

mf iriomotensis Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. i. Tanikawa, 2001b: 71, f. 24-25, 32-35 (Dmf).

j isabella (Vinson, 1863)....................Madagascar
Epeira i. Vinson, 1863: 157, 308, pl. 4, f. 2 (Dj).

mf ishisawai Kishida, 1920....................Russia, Korea, Japan
A. i. Kishida, 1920c: 474, f. 41 (Df).
A. i. Yaginuma, 1957a: 55, f. 18 (f).
Catheistela i. Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 36 (Tf from Araneus).
A. i. Namkung, Paik & Yoon, 1972: 93, f. 8 (f).
A. i. Chikuni, 1989b: 63, f. 4 (f, Dm).

mf iviei (Archer, 1951)....................USA, Canada
Aranea i. Archer, 1951a: 33, f. 53 (Df).
Aranea sachimau Archer, 1951a: 33, f. 55 (Df).
A. i. Levi, 1970: 109, f. 7-9 (m).
A. i. Levi, 1971a: 162, f. 138-151 (f, Dm, S).

f jalimovi Bakhvalov, 1981....................Russia
A. j. Bakhvalov, 1981b: 146, f. 4 (Df).

m jalisco Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. j. Levi, 1991a: 269, f. 392-394 (Dm).

m jamundi Levi, 1991....................Colombia
A. j. Levi, 1991a: 222, f. 157 (Dm).

mf juniperi (Emerton, 1884)....................USA, Canada
Epeira j. Emerton, 1884: 313, pl. 34, f. 6, pl. 36, f. 14-16 (Dmf).
Epeira j. McCook, 1894: 167, pl. 6, f. 13 (f).
Singa floridana Banks, 1896e: 69 (Df).
Epeira j. Emerton, 1909: 200, pl. 5, f. 1 (m).
A. floridanus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 292.
A. j. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 298.
Conepeira bivittata Archer, 1951b: 21, f. 12, 49, 70 (mf, misidentified).
Conepeira mumai Archer, 1951b: 22, f. 51 (Dm; not f, f. 73, =A. cingulatus).
Conepeira sarasota Archer, 1951b: 23, f. 74 (Df).
Conepeira llano Archer, 1951b: 24, f. 52, 55 (Dmf).
Conepeira j. Archer, 1951b: 25, f. 54, 78 (Tmf from Araneus, misidentified, =A. nashoba).
A. floridanus Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tf from Singa).
A. j. Levi, 1973: 522, f. 248-264, 447-452 (mf, S).

f kalaharensis Simon, 1910....................Southern Africa
A. k. Simon, 1910b: 194 (Df).

f kapiolaniae Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
A. k. Simon, 1900a: 483, pl. 16, f. 7 (Df).

f karissimbicus (Strand, 1913)....................Central Africa
Aranea karissimbica Strand, 1913a: 374 (Df).

f kerr Levi, 1981....................USA
A. k. Levi, 1981b: 254, f. 1-4 (Df).

f kirgisikus Bakhvalov, 1974....................Kyrgyzstan
A. k. Bakhvalov, 1974: 111, f. 71, 75 (Df).

f kiwuanus (Strand, 1913)....................Central Africa
Aranea kiwuana Strand, 1913a: 373 (Df).

m klaptoczi Simon, 1908....................Libya
A. k. Simon, 1908a: 430 (Dm).

mf koepckeorum Levi, 1991....................Peru
A. k. Levi, 1991a: 224, f. 168-173 (Dmf).

mf komi Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. k. Tanikawa, 2001b: 75, f. 41-42, 49-51 (Dmf).

f kraepelini (Lenz, 1891)....................Madagascar
Epeira k. Lenz, 1891: 176, pl. 2, f. 16 (Df).

f lacrymosus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................New South Wales
Epeira lacrymosa Walckenaer, 1842: 34 (Df).

f ladschicola (Strand, 1906)....................Ethiopia
Aranea l. Strand, 1906b: 622 (Df).

f lamperti (Strand, 1907)....................South Africa
Aranea l. Strand, 1907a: 534 (Df).
Aranea l. Strand, 1907n: 626 (Df).

m lancearius (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira lancearia Keyserling, 1887a: 157, pl. 13, f. 3 (Dm).

f lanio Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. l. Levi, 1991a: 268, f. 381-384 (Df).

mf lapponicus (Holm, 1945)....................Sweden, Finland, Russia
Aranea lapponica Holm, 1945b: 61, f. 20a-b (Df).
A. l. Palmgren, 1974a: 30, f. 12p-t (f, Dm).
A. l. Brignoli, 1983c: 257.

f lateriguttatus (Karsch, 1879)....................West Africa
Epeira lateriguttata Karsch, 1879a: 336 (Df).

mf lathyrinus (Holmberg, 1875)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Epeira lathyrina Holmberg, 1875: 283, pl. 6, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira montevidensis Keyserling, 1878a: 571, pl. 14, f. 1-2 (Dmf).
Epeira caerulea Bertkau, 1880a: 87, pl. 2, f. 31 (Df).
Epeira montevidensis Keyserling, 1892: 148, pl. 7, f. 109 (mf).
A. l. Simon, 1897e: 1.
Neosconella lathyrina Mello-Leitão, 1933b: 41.
Metepeira lathyrina Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 188 (Tmf from Araneus).
Cambridgepeira lathyrina Archer, 1951b: 3, f. 7 (Tmf from Metepeira).
A. l. Levi, 1991a: 210, f. 85-91 (mf).

m latirostris (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira l. Thorell, 1895: 186 (Dm).

f leai (Rainbow, 1894)....................New South Wales
Epeira l. Rainbow, 1894a: 287, pl. 10, f. 1 (Df).

f lechugalensis (Keyserling, 1883)....................Peru
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1883a: 195, pl. 15, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1892: 191, pl. 9, f. 142 (f).
A. l. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 299.

mf legonensis Grasshoff & Edmunds, 1979....................Ghana
A. l. Grasshoff & Edmunds, 1979: 303, f. 1-11 (Dmf).

f lenkoi Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. l. Levi, 1991a: 258, f. 326-329 (Df).

f lenzi (Roewer, 1942)....................Madagascar
Epeira albomaculata Lenz, 1886: 388, pl. 10, f. 1 (Df; preoccupied by Lucas, 1846).
A. l. Roewer, 1942a: 810 (replacement name).

mf leones Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. l. Levi, 1991a: 281, f. 457-461 (Dmf).

f liber (Leardi, 1902)....................India
Epeira libera Leardi, 1902a: 360 (Df).

f liberalis Rainbow, 1902....................New South Wales
A. l. Rainbow, 1902c: 486, pl. 18, f. 2 (Df).

m liberiae (Strand, 1906)....................Liberia
Aranea l. Strand, 1906b: 687 (Dm).
Aranea l. Strand, 1908l: 66, pl. 2, f. 27 (m).

f licenti Schenkel, 1953....................China
A. l. Schenkel, 1953b: 42, f. 20a-c (Df).
A. l. Yin et al., 1997: 172, f. 89a-c (f).
A. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138J-L (f).

mf lineaacutus (Urquhart, 1887)....................New Zealand
Epeira linea-acuta Urquhart, 1887: 90 (Dmf).

mf lineatipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico to Honduras
Epeira l. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 30, pl. 7, f. 17-18 (Dmf).
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1892: 190, pl. 9, f. 141 (mf).
Neosconella l. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 476, pl. 45, f. 5-6 (mf).
A. l. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 300.
A. l. Levi, 1991a: 239, f. 240-244 (mf).

?? lineatus Franganillo, 1931....................Cuba
A. l. Franganillo, 1931: 288 (D; if this species is ever recognized, a replacement name will be needed).

f linshuensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. l. Yin et al., 1990: 35, f. 84-86 (Df).
A. l. Yin et al., 1997: 173, f. 90a-c (f).
A. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138M-N, 148G (f).

f lintatus Levi, 1991....................Peru
A. l. Levi, 1991a: 262, f. 347-350 (Df).

f linzhiensis Hu, 2001....................China
A. l. Hu, 2001: 443, f. 287.1-3 (Df).

m liriope (L. Koch, 1875)....................Ethiopia
Epeira l. L. Koch, 1875b: 19, pl. 2, f. 3 (Dm).

?? lithyphantiformis (Kishida, 1910)....................Japan
Aranea l. Kishida, 1910: 7 (D).
A. l. Brignoli, 1983c: 257.

mf lixicolor (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira l. Thorell, 1895: 180 (Dmf).

f loczyanus (Lendl, 1898)....................Hong Kong
Epeira loczyana Lendl, 1898: 562, f. 10-12 (Df).

f lodicula (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1887a: 159, pl. 13, f. 4 (Df).

j longicaudus (Thorell, 1877)....................Sulawesi
Epeira longicauda Thorell, 1877b: 408 (Dj).

f luteofaciens (Roewer, 1942)....................Cameroon
Aranea luteola Thorell, 1899: 57 (Df; preoccupied by Blackwall, 1862 sub Epeira).
Aranea l. Roewer, 1942a: 810 (replacement name).

f lutulentus (Keyserling, 1886)....................Queensland
Epeira lutulenta Keyserling, 1886a: 143, pl. 11, f. 6 (Df).

mf macacus Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. ventricosus m. Uyemura, 1961: 103, f. 12-13, 18.5, 19.6, 27, pl. 8, 14 (Dmf).
A. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 92, f. 48.3 (f; elevated from subspecies).
A. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 63, f. 3 (mf).

f macleayi (Bradley, 1876)....................New Guinea, Queensland
Epeira m. Bradley, 1876a: 145, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).

mf madagascaricus (Strand, 1908)....................Madagascar
Aranea rufipalpis madagascarica Strand, 1908e: 290, 293 (Dmf).
Aranea m. Roewer, 1942a: 810.

f mamillanus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira mamillana Keyserling, 1887a: 154, pl. 12, f. 8 (Df).

mf mammatus (Archer, 1951)....................USA
Amamrotypus m. Archer, 1951a: 17, f. 23-24 (Df).
Conaranea gertschi Archer, 1951b: 7, f. 33 (Dm; not f, f. 17, 30, =A. arizonensis).
A. m. Levi, 1973: 500, f. 72-85, 442 (f, Sm; specific name preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1805 sub Epeira but that species previously synonymized with Argiope argentata).

mf mangarevoides (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906)....................Japan, China
Aranea m. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 228, pl. 4, f. 21, pl. 11, f. 213 (Dmf).
A. m. Schenkel, 1963: 142, f. 83a-b (m).

f margaritae Caporiacco, 1940....................Ethiopia
A. m. Caporiacco, 1940c: 826, f. 31 (Df).

f margitae (Strand, 1917)....................Madagascar
Epeira cinerea Lenz, 1886: 390, pl. 10, f. 13 (Df; preoccupied).
Aranea m. Strand, 1917c: 71 (replacement name).

mf mariposa Levi, 1973....................USA
A. m. Levi, 1973: 502, f. 107, 122-137 (Dmf).

mf marmoreus Clerck, 1757....................Holarctic
A. m. Clerck, 1757: 29, pl. 1, f. 2 (Df).
A. babel Clerck, 1757: 30, pl. 1, f. 6 (Df).
A. pyramidatus Clerck, 1757: 34, pl. 1, f. 8 (Df).
Aranea raji Scopoli, 1763: 394 (Df).
Aranea marmorea Fabricius, 1775: 434.
Aranea raji betulae Sulzer, 1776: 254, pl. 29, f. 14 (Df).
Aranea aurantio-maculata De Geer, 1778: 222, pl. 12, f. 16-17 (Df).
Aranea aurantia Olivier, 1789: 200 (Df).
Aranea pyramidata Olivier, 1789: 206 (D).
Aranea reticulata Roemer, 1789: 33, pl. 29, f. 14 (D).
Aranea scalaris Panzer, 1793: 4, pl. 24 (D).
Aranea regalis Panzer, 1797: hft. 40, pl. 21 (D).
Aranea melittagria Walckenaer, 1802: 191 (Df).
Epeira melittagria Walckenaer, 1805: 59.
Epeira scalaris Walckenaer, 1805: 60.
Dysdera lutea Risso, 1826: 162 (D).
Epeira marmorea Sundevall, 1833a: 241 (Dm).
Epeira pyramidata Sundevall, 1833a: 242 (f).
Epeira scalaris Hahn, 1834: 27, f. 114 (Dmf).
Epeira jenisoni C. L. Koch, 1834: 127, pl. 16 (Df).
Epeira bohemica C. L. Koch, 1838: 59, f. 377 (Df, not m).
Epeira marmorea C. L. Koch, 1838: 63, f. 379-380 (mf).
Epeira graduata Walckenaer, 1842: 48 (Dmf).
Epeira conspicellata Walckenaer, 1842: 58 (Dm).
Epeira pyramidata C. L. Koch, 1844: 107, f. 912 (Dm).
Epeira jenisoni C. L. Koch, 1844: 126, f. 928-929 (mf).
Epeira insularis Hentz, 1847: 470, pl. 30, f. 10 (Df).
Epeira obesa Hentz, 1847: 471, pl. 30, f. 11 (Df).
Epeira insularis Keyserling, 1864: 91, pl. 5, f. 3-5 (f).
Epeira scalaris Blackwall, 1864a: 331, pl. 24, f. 240 (mf).
Epeira marmorea Menge, 1866: 50, pl. 4, f. 4 (mf).
Epeira pyramidata Menge, 1866: 51, pl. 3, f. 3 (mf).
Epeira flava Giebel, 1867b: 429 (Df).
Epeira annulipes Giebel, 1869a: 250 (Df).
Epeira marmorea Thorell, 1870a: 9.
Epeira marmorea pyramidata Thorell, 1870a: 10.
Epeira marmorea Emerton, 1884: 307, pl. 33, f. 2, pl. 35, f. 17 (mf).
Epeira insularis Emerton, 1884: 309, pl. 33, f. 1, pl. 35, f. 18 (mf).
Epeira marmorea principalis Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 130, pl. 5, f. 15 (Dmf).
Epeira insularis Keyserling, 1892: 170, pl. 8, f. 126 (mf).
Epeira marmorea McCook, 1894: 143, pl. 1, f. 1-2, pl. 2, f. 1-2, pl. 3, f. 7-8 (mf).
Epeira marmorea Becker, 1896: 20, pl. 4, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira marmorea Bösenberg, 1901: 24, pl. 1, f. 4A-E (mf).
Epeira marmorea pyramidata Bösenberg, 1901: 24, pl. 1, f. 4F-G (f).
Epeira marmorea Emerton, 1902: 168, f. 398-400 (mf).
A. m. pyramidatus Lessert, 1910b: 315.
Aranea tusigia Chamberlin, 1919a: 254, pl. 19, f. 3 (Dm).
A. m. Simon, 1929: 682, 758, f. 1045, 1051 (mf).
A. m. pyramidatus Simon, 1929: 682, 758, f. 1046 (mf).
Aranea raji Reimoser, 1930b: 13, f. 3 (mf).
Aranea raji Wiehle, 1931: 75, f. 109-114 (mf).
Aranea gigas Comstock, 1940: 118, 489, f. 112-113, 493-498 (mf).
Aranea raji Muma, 1943: 85, pl. XIII, f. 16 (f).
Aranea raji Drensky, 1943: 242, f. 25 (mf).
Epeira raji Kaston, 1948: 257, f. 816-822 (m).
Aranea tusigia Archer, 1951a: 32, f. 73 (m).
A. m. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 130, f. 79D, 84C, 85C, 86C, 87B (mf).
Aranea raji Mikulska, 1953: 12, f. 13, 16 (mf).
A. m. Yaginuma, 1957a: 54, f. 15 (f).
A. m. Braendegaard, 1958: 34, f. 23-25 (mf).
A. m. Saito, 1959: 86, f. 93a-j (mf).
Aranea marmorea Zamaraev, 1964: 360, f. 80-82 (mf).
A. m. Azheganova, 1968: 76, f. 155-156 (mf).
A. m. Grasshoff, 1968: 7, f. 6, 16a-c, 17a-c, 20d, 21e-f, 23, 25-26, 29f-i, 30e-f, 34b, 35e-h, 36e-h, 37e-h, 38e-h, 39e-h, 40d, 41g-i, 42d (mf).
A. m. Tyschchenko, 1971: 196, f. 593 (f).
A. m. Miller, 1971: 211, pl. XL, f. 3-4 (mf).
A. m. Levi, 1971a: 156, f. 1-6, 100-105, 107-113, 183 (mf, S).
A. m. Loksa, 1972: 87, f. 78A, 79D, 80E-F (mf).
A. m. Bakhvalov, 1974: 111, f. 86, 93-95 (mf).
A. m. Palmgren, 1974a: 22, f. 9b, 10d-e (mf).
A. m. Punda, 1975b: 36, f. 51-55 (mf).
A. m. Paik, 1976b: 83, f. 1-2 (f).
A. m. Gertsch, 1979: 90, f. 3E (f).
Aranea marmorea Song, 1980: 40, f. 14c (f).
A. m. Oliger, 1981: 5, f. 7-8 (f).
A. m. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1982: 50, f. IV.1-2 (mf).
A. m. Roberts, 1985: 208, f. 93c (mf, S).
A. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 94, f. 49.1 (mf).
A. m. Song, 1987: 164, f. 125 (mf).
A. m. Zhang, 1987: 69, f. 51.1-3 (mf).
A. m. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 57, f. 25-29 (mf).
A. m. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1989: 226, f. LXX.1-2 (mf).
A. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 65, f. 10 (mf).
A. m. Hu & Wu, 1989: 90, f. 67.1-6 (mf).
A. m. pyramidatus Hu & Wu, 1989: 91, f. 68.1-3 (f).
A. m. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 74, f. 169 (mf).
A. m. Roberts, 1995: 318, f. (mf).
A. m. Agnarsson, 1996: 62, f. 48A-D (mf).
A. m. Mcheidze, 1997: 272, f. 609-611 (mf).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 174, f. 91a-e (mf).
A. m. Roberts, 1998: 332, f. (mf).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138O-P, 143G-H, 148H (mf).

f marmoreus trapezius (Franganillo, 1913)....................Spain
Epeira marmorea trapezia Franganillo, 1913: 127 (Df).
Epeira marmorea trapezia Franganillo, 1918a: 63 (Dm).

mf marmoroides Schenkel, 1953....................China
A. m. Schenkel, 1953b: 35, f. 17a-e (Dm).
A. m. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 58, f. 31-35 (m, Df).
A. m. Chen & Gao, 1990: 46, f. 50a-b (mf).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 175, f. 92a-e (mf).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138Q-R, 143I-J (mf).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 191, f. 113A-E (mf).

m masculus Caporiacco, 1941....................Ethiopia
A. m. Caporiacco, 1941b: 85, f. 30a-b (Dm).

f masoni (Simon, 1887)....................Myanmar
Epeira m. Simon, 1887i: 105 (Df).

mf mastersi (Bradley, 1876)....................Australia
Epeira mastersii Bradley, 1876a: 146, pl. 1, f. 6 (Dmf).

m matogrosso Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 230, f. 189 (Dm).

f mauensis Caporiacco, 1949....................Kenya
A. m. Caporiacco, 1949a: 421. f. 61 (Df).

f mauensis ocellatus Caporiacco, 1949....................Kenya
A. m. o. Caporiacco, 1949a: 422 (Df).

mf mayumiae Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. m. Tanikawa, 2001b: 81, f. 56-57, 62-66 (Dmf).

mf mazamitla Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 270, f. 400-403 (Dmf).

mf mbogaensis (Strand, 1913)....................Central Africa
Aranea m. Strand, 1913a: 379 (Dmf).

f memoryi Hogg, 1900....................Victoria
A. memorii Hogg, 1900: 99, pl. 15, f. 1 (Df; patronym for Memory).

mf mendoza Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 284, f. 477-481 (Dmf).

m menglunensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. m. Yin et al., 1990: 41, f. 94-99 (Dm).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 187, f. 104a-h (m).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 143K-L, 148I (m).

mf meropes (Keyserling, 1865)....................Colombia to Argentina
Epeira m. Keyserling, 1865: 825, pl. 19, f. 6-7 (Dm).
Epeira m. Keyserling, 1892: 139, pl. 7, f. 102 (m).
A. m. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 302.
A. bourgeoisi Berland, 1913b: 93, pl. 9, f. 44-45 (Df).
Aranea plesia Chamberlin, 1916: 253, pl. 19, f. 5 (Df).
Larinia m. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 255 (Tm from Araneus, rejected).
A. thaddeus Levi, 1973: 543 (S, rejected).
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 222, f. 158-167 (removed m from S of A. thaddeus, Sf).

m mertoni (Strand, 1911)....................Kei Is.
Aranea m. Strand, 1911d: 153, pl. 4, f. 2, pl. 5, f. 46 (Dm).

f metalis (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar
Epeira m. Thorell, 1887: 204 (Df).

j metellus (Strand, 1907)....................China
Aranea metella Strand, 1907k: 193 (Dj).

f meus (Strand, 1907)....................South Africa
Aranea mea Strand, 1907a: 534 (Df).
Aranea mea Strand, 1907n: 619 (Df).

f miami Levi, 1973....................USA
A. m. Levi, 1973: 512, f. 172-176 (Df).

mf microsoma (Banks, 1909)....................Costa Rica
Epeira m. Banks, 1909a: 211, pl. 6, f. 39, 45 (Dmf).
A. m. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 303.
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 260, f. 343-346 (mf).

f microtuberculatus Petrunkevitch, 1914....................Myanmar
A. m. Petrunkevitch, 1914a: 172, pl. 26, f. 6-8 (Df).

f mimosicola (Simon, 1884)....................Sudan
Epeira m. Simon, 1884k: 17 (Df).

f minahassae Merian, 1911....................Sulawesi
A. m. Merian, 1911: 221 (Df).

mf miniatus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA
Epeira miniata Walckenaer, 1842: 39 (Dmf).
Epeira scutulata Hentz, 1850: 19, pl. 3, f. 3 (Dm).
Larinia nigrofoliata Keyserling, 1884b: 653, pl. 21, f. 5 (Dm).
Epeira scutulata Keyserling, 1892: 129, pl. 6, f. 96 (m, Df).
Larinia nigrofoliata Keyserling, 1893: 291, pl. 15, f. 215 (m).
Epeira miniata McCook, 1894: 177, pl. 8, f. 8-9, pl. 10, f. 7-9 (mf).
Epeira scutulata Emerton, 1902: 178, f. 415 (m).
Epeira floridensis Banks, 1904c: 129, pl. 7, f. 5 (Df).
A. floridensis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 292.
A. m. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 303.
Aranea miniata Archer, 1941b: 20, pl. IV, f. 1 (f).
Aranea floridensis Archer, 1941b: 20, pl. IV, f. 2 (f).
Conepeira partita Archer, 1951b: 13, f. 63 (f, misidentified).
Conepeira floridensis Archer, 1951b: 14, f. 38, 58 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).
Conepeira miniata Archer, 1951b: 15, f. 36-37, 61 (Tmf from Araneus).
Conepeira dawsoni Archer, 1951b: 16, f. 13, 39, 53, 59 (Dmf).
Conepeira nifrofoliata Archer, 1951b: 17, f. 41, 65 (Tmf from Larinia).
A. m. Levi, 1973: 506, f. 158-171 (mf, S).

f minutalis (Simon, 1889)....................India
Epeira m. Simon, 1889i: 340 (Df).

f miquanensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. m. Yin et al., 1990: 41, f. 103-106 (Df).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 188, f. 105a-d (f).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 138S-U, 148J (f).

mf mitificus (Simon, 1886)....................India to Philippines, New Guinea
Epeira mitifica Simon, 1886a: 150 (Df).
Epeira mitifica Workman, 1896: 39, pl. 39 (f, Dm).
Aranea mitifica Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 221, pl. 4, f. 20, pl. 11, f. 207 (f).
A. m. Simon, 1909e: 109.
A. m. Saito, 1939: 19, f. 3(2) (f).
Zilla nawazi Dyal, 1935: 186, pl. 11, f. 6, pl. 16, f. 124 (Df).
Zygiella nawazi Roewer, 1942a: 886.
Afraranea mitifica Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 37 (Tmf from Araneus, rejected).
A. m. Saito, 1959: 87, f. 94a-b (f).
A. mitifica Tikader, 1963b: 43, f. 4a-c (mf).
A. m. Lee, 1966: 40, f. 10k-l (f).
A. nawazi Levi, 1974a: 271 (Tf from Zygiella).
A. mitifica Tikader & Bal, 1981: 53, f. 115-120 (mf).
A. mitifica Tikader, 1982a: 233, f. 452-457 (mf).
A. m. Hu, 1984: 95, f. 89.1-2 (f).
A. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 100, f. 53.5 (m).
A. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 66, f. 14 (mf).
A. m. Feng, 1990: 58, f. 33.1-4 (mf).
A. m. Chen & Gao, 1990: 46, f. 51a-b (mf).
A. m. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 89, f. 79.1-4 (mf).
A. m. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 638, f. 405a-h (f, S).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 139, f. 54a-f (mf).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 139A-B (f).

mf miyashitai Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. mongolicus Saito, 1959: 87, f. 95a-e (f, misidentified).
A. tartaricus Yaginuma, 1986a: 94, f. 49.4 (mf, misidentified).
A. m. Tanikawa, 2001b: 77, f. 54-55, 58-61 (Dmf).

f monica Levi, 1973....................USA
A. m. Levi, 1973: 504, f. 110-121 (Df).

m monoceros (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira m. Thorell, 1895: 184 (Dm; N.B.: listed by Bonnet as a synonym of Eriovixia laglaizei).

mf montereyensis (Archer, 1951)....................USA, Mexico
Conaranea m. Archer, 1951b: 8, f. 3, 24-25 (Dmf).
A. m. Levi, 1973: 506, f. 108-109, 138-151 (mf).

f moretonae Levi, 1991....................Peru
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 219, f. 142-145 (Df).

f mortoni (Urquhart, 1891)....................Tasmania
Epeira m. Urquhart, 1891b: 236, f. 1 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

m morulus (Thorell, 1898)....................Myanmar
Epeira morula Thorell, 1898: 363 (Dm).

f mossambicanus (Pavesi, 1881)....................Mozambique
Epeira mossambicana Pavesi, 1881: 542 (Df).

f motuoensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. m. Yin et al., 1990: 36, f. 87-90 (Df).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 176, f. 93a-d (f).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 139C-D, 148K (f).
A. m. Hu, 2001: 445, f. 288.1-2 (f).

mf mucronatellus (Roewer, 1942)....................Queensland
Epeira mucronata L. Koch, 1871: 74, pl. 6, f. 2-3 (Dmf; preoccupied by Blackwall, 1862).
Aranea mucronatella Roewer, 1942a: 830 (replacement name).

m mulierarius (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland
Epeira mulieraria Keyserling, 1887a: 200, pl. 18, f. 1 (Dm).

m musawas Levi, 1991....................Nicaragua
A. m. Levi, 1991a: 274, f. 427-428 (Dm).

f myurus (Thorell, 1877)....................Sulawesi
Epeira myura Thorell, 1877b: 406 (Df).

f nacional Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. n. Levi, 1991a: 284, f. 474-476 (Df).

mf nashoba Levi, 1973....................USA
Conepeira juniperi Archer, 1951b: 25, f. 54, 78 (mf, misidentified).
A. n. Levi, 1973: 534, f. 380-397 (Dmf).

f navicula (L. Koch, 1871)....................New South Wales
Epeira n. L. Koch, 1871: 102, pl. 8, f. 4 (Df).

f necopinus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Western Australia
Epeira necopina Keyserling, 1887a: 198, pl. 17, f. 7 (Df).

f neocaledonicus Berland, 1924....................New Caledonia, New Hebrides
A. n. Berland, 1924a: 221, f. 124-125 (Df).
A. n. Berland, 1938: 172, f. 126-128 (f, Dm).

f nephelodes (Thorell, 1890)....................Indonesia
Epeira n. Thorell, 1890a: 136 (Df).

mf nidus Yin & Gong, 1996....................China
A. n. Yin & Gong, 1996: 73, f. 1-8 (Dmf).
A. n. Yin et al., 1997: 177, f. 94a-h (mf).
A. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 239, f. 139G-H, 143M-N, 148M (mf).

f nigmanni (Strand, 1906)....................Cameroon
Aranea nigmannii Strand, 1906h: 59 (Df).

f nigricaudus Simon, 1897....................Vietnam
A. nigricauda Simon, 1897b: 474 (Df).

j nigrodecoratus (Strand, 1908)....................Togo
Aranea rufipalpis nigrodecorata Strand, 1908e: 290 (Dj).
Aranea nigrodecorata Roewer, 1942a: 811.

f nigroflavornatus Merian, 1911....................Sulawesi
A. n. Merian, 1911: 222 (Df).

f nigromaculatus Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. n. Schenkel, 1963: 154, f. 91a-c (Df).
A. n. Yin et al., 1997: 204, f. 122a-c (f).
A. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139E-F, 148L (f).

mf nigropunctatus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Queensland, Tahiti
Epeira nigropunctata L. Koch, 1871: 65, pl. 6, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira nigropunctata Keyserling, 1887a: 204, pl. 18, f. 5 (Dm).
A. n. Berland, 1942: 21, f. 8e-f (f).

f nigroquadratus Lawrence, 1937....................South Africa
A. n. Lawrence, 1937: 233, f. 10 (Df).

mf niveus (Hentz, 1847)....................USA
Epeira nivea Hentz, 1847: 474, pl. 31, f. 9 (Df).
Larinia forata Keyserling, 1893: 295, pl. 15, f. 218 (Dm).
Epeira forata McCook, 1894: 165, pl. 6, f. 7, 12 (m, Df).
A. n. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 307.
Aranea nivea Archer, 1941b: 20, pl. III, f. 3-4, pl. IV, f. 4 (mf).
A. guttulatus Archer, 1951b: 18 (S, rejected).
Conepeira forata Archer, 1951b: 18, f. 43, 66 (removed m from S of Larinia nigrofoliata, Df).
Conepeira nivosa Archer, 1951b: 19, f. 45, 57, 68 (Dmf).
A. n. Levi, 1973: 528, f. 314-331, 463-469 (removed f from S of A. guttulatus, Sm).
A. n. Levi, 1975b: 104 (S).

f noegeatus (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar, Singapore
Epeira noegeata Thorell, 1895: 178 (Df).
Epeira noegeata Workman, 1896: 43, pl. 43 (f).

mf nojimai Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. n. Tanikawa, 2001b: 63, f. 1-2, 9-13 (Dmf).

mf nordmanni (Thorell, 1870)....................Holarctic
Epeira angulata C. L. Koch, 1844: 77, f. 894-895, not 892-893 (m, misidentified).
Epeira angulata Westring, 1861: 23 (mf, as var. c, misidentified).
Epeira n. Thorell, 1870a: 4 (Df).
Epeira n. Thorell, 1873: 544.
Epeira n. Dahl, 1883: 28 (Dmf).
Epeira silvatica Emerton, 1884: 300, pl. 33, f. 13, pl. 35, f. 1, 4-6 (Dmf).
Epeira n. Emerton, 1884: 301, pl. 33, f. 6 (f).
Epeira n. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 128, pl. 4, f. 46 (mf).
Epeira silvatica Keyserling, 1892: 117, pl. 6, f. 86 (f).
Epeira n. McCook, 1894: 184, pl. 9, f. 5-7, pl. 11, f. 5 (mf).
Epeira silvatica McCook, 1894: 188, pl. 10, f. 9, pl. 11, f. 9 (f).
Epeira n. Emerton, 1894: 403, pl. 1, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira n. Bösenberg, 1901: 27, pl. 1, f. 8 (f).
Epeira n. Emerton, 1902: 163, f. 387-388 (f).
Epeira silvatica Emerton, 1902: 164, f. 390 (f).
A. n. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 307.
Aranea n. Wiehle, 1931: 58, f. 84-85 (f).
A. n. Saito, 1934a: 333, f. 7 (f).
A. n. Comstock, 1940: 484, f. 486 (f).
A. n. Kaston, 1948: 250, f. 783-784, 793-795 (mf).
Aranea darlingtoni Archer, 1951a: 25, f. 71, 75 (Dmf).
Aranea pseudomelaena Archer, 1951a: 26, f. 70, 79 (Dmf).
A. n. Saito, 1959: 87, f. 96a-b (f).
A. n. Wiehle, 1963c: 271, f. 74-83 (mf).
A. n. Yaginuma & Nishikawa, 1969: 74, f. 4-5 (m).
A. n. Levi, 1970: 109, f. 4-6 (m).
A. n. Tyschchenko, 1971: 194, f. 571 (f).
A. n. Levi, 1971a: 150, f. 61-94, 96-99 (mf, S).
A. n. Namkung, Paik & Yoon, 1972: 93, f. 9 (f).
A. n. Palmgren, 1974a: 19, f. 8a-e (mf).
A. n. Yaginuma, 1986a: 95, f. 49.3 (m).
A. n. Chikuni, 1989b: 65, f. 8 (mf).
A. n. Izmailova, 1989: 56, f. 40 (f).
A. n. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 72, f. 162 (mf).
A. n. Roberts, 1995: 317, f. (mf).
A. n. Mcheidze, 1997: 267, f. 584-586 (f).
A. n. Roberts, 1998: 331, f. (mf).

jj nossibeus (Strand, 1907)....................Madagascar
Aranea nossibea Strand, 1907d: 732 (Djj).
Aranea nossibea Strand, 1907o: 51 (Djj).

f notacephalus (Urquhart, 1891)....................Tasmania
Epeira notacephala Urquhart, 1891b: 239 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

f notandus Rainbow, 1912....................Queensland
A. n. Rainbow, 1912a: 196, f. 7-9 (Df).

f noumeensis (Simon, 1880)....................New Caledonia
Epeira n. Simon, 1880i: 169 (Df).

mf novaepommerianae (Strand, 1913)....................Bismarck Arch.
Aranea novae-pommerianae Strand, 1913d: 117 (Dm).
Aranea novae-pommerianae Strand, 1915d: 223, pl. 14, f. 20, pl. 17, f. 64 (Df).

f nox (Simon, 1877)....................Myanmar, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Philippines, Moluccas
Epeira n. Simon, 1877b: 77 (Df).
Epeira pilula Thorell, 1877b: 388 (Df).
A. n. Simon, 1905c: 62.
Aranea noxilla Strand, 1907k: 177 (provisional name only).

m nuboso Levi, 1991....................Costa Rica
A. n. Levi, 1991a: 276, f. 431-432 (Dm).

mf nympha (Simon, 1889)....................India, Pakistan, China
Epeira n. Simon, 1889i: 339 (Df).
A. n. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 55, f. 121-124 (f).
A. n. Tikader, 1982a: 235, f. 458-461 (f).
A. n. Hu & Li, 1987b: 263, f. 10.1-4 (f).
A. n. Yin et al., 1997: 148, f. 63a-d (f).
A. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139J-L, 148N (f).
A. n. Hu, 2001: 445, f. 289.1-4, 290.1-4 (f, Dm).

f obscuratus (Urquhart, 1893)....................Tasmania
Epeira obscurata Urquhart, 1893b: 116 (Df).

mf obscurissimus Caporiacco, 1934....................Karakorum
A. o. Caporiacco, 1934a: 156, pl. 4, f. 2 (Dmf).

f obtusatus (Karsch, 1891)....................Sri Lanka
Epeira obtusata Karsch, 1891: 283, pl. 10, f. 7 (Df).

mf ocaxa Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. o. Levi, 1991a: 288, f. 499-502 (Dmf).

j ocellatulus (Roewer, 1942)....................Guatemala
Epeira ocellata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 29, pl. 6, f. 17 (Dj; preoccupied by Linnaeus, 1758 sub Aranea).
Aranea ocellata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 518.
A. ocellatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 307.
Aranea ocellatula Roewer, 1942a: 849 (replacement name).

m octodentalis Song & Zhu, 1992....................China
A. o. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 169, f. 5A-B (Dm).
A. o. Song & Li, 1997: 414, f. 17A-B (m).
A. o. Yin et al., 1997: 149, f. 64a-c (m).
A. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 144A-B (m).

f ogatai Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. o. Tanikawa, 2001b: 76, f. 43-44, 52-53 (Df).

mf omnicolor (Keyserling, 1893)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Epeira o. Keyserling, 1893: 210, pl. 10, f. 155 (Df).
A. o. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 307.
Neosconella farinosa Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 152, f. 48, pl. I, f. 2 (Df).
Eriophora o. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 178 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).
Larinia albosigillata Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 247, f. 13 (Df).
Metepeira o. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 249 (Tf from Eriophora, rejected).
A. farinosus Brignoli, 1983c: 262.
A. o. Levi, 1991a: 202, f. 49-57 (f, Dm, S).

f orgaos Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. o. Levi, 1991a: 211, f. 92-94 (Df).

mf origenus (Thorell, 1890)....................Myanmar, Sumatra
Epeira origena Thorell, 1890a: 130 (Dmf).

f oxygaster Caporiacco, 1940....................Ethiopia
A. o. Caporiacco, 1940c: 823, f. 29 (Df).

f oxyurus (Thorell, 1877)....................Myanmar, Sulawesi
Epeira oxyura Thorell, 1877b: 400 (Dj).
Epeira raphanus Thorell, 1887: 206 (Df).

f paenulatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand
Epeira paenulata O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 47 (Df).

f pahalgaonensis Tikader & Bal, 1981....................India, China
A. p. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 44, f. 95-98 (Df).
A. p. Tikader, 1982a: 223, f. 432-435 (f).
A. p. Yin et al., 1990: 38, f. 91-93 (f).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 179, f. 95a-d (f).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139I, M-N, 148O (f).

f pahli (Strand, 1906)....................Cameroon
Aranea p. Strand, 1906h: 61 (Df).

m paitaensis Schenkel, 1953....................China
A. p. Schenkel, 1953b: 37, f. 18a-e (Dm).

mf pallasi (Thorell, 1875)....................Russia, Ukraine, Central Asia, China
Epeira pallasii Thorell, 1875b: 54 (Dmf).
Epeira p. Thorell, 1875c: 12 (Dmf).
A. p. Kulczyn'ski, 1909b: 678, pl. 26, f. 22 (f).
A. p. Spassky & Shnitnikov, 1937: 279, f. 4 (f).
A. issiculus Bakhvalov, 1981a: 138, f. 2 (Df).
A. p. Marikovski & Marusik, 1985: 3, f. 1-9 (mf).
A. p. Marusik, 1989b: 41 (S).
Neoscona chasisa Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 43, f. 18A-E (Dmf).
Neoscona chasisa Yin et al., 1997: 346, f. 244a-e (mf).
Neoscona chasisa Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 175M-N, 178P, 180E (mf).
A. p. Marusik, Logunov & Koponen, 2000: 12 (S).

f pallescens (Lenz, 1891)....................Madagascar
Epeira p. Lenz, 1891: 174, pl. 2, f. 15 (Df).

mf pallidus (Olivier, 1789)....................Portugal, Spain, France, Algeria
Aranea pallida Olivier, 1789: 200 (Df).
Epeira pallida Walckenaer, 1805: 60.
Epeira olivieri Walckenaer, 1842: 49 (Df).
A. p. Simon, 1929: 679, 757, f. 1043-1044 (f).
A. p. Grasshoff, 1964: 305, f. 1-2 (f).
A. p. Grasshoff, 1968: 7, f. 17g-i, 20a-b, 21k-o, 23, 25-26, 29a'-b', 30c-d, 34d, 35n-q, 36n-q, 37n-q, 38n-q, 39n-q, 40b, 41d-f, 42b (mf).

f panchganiensis Tikader & Bal, 1981....................India
A. p. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 48, f. 103-106 (Df).
A. pachganiensis Tikader, 1982a: 227, f. 440-443 (f).

f panniferens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand
Epeira p. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 49 (f).

f papulatus (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar, Malaysia
Epeira papulata Thorell, 1887: 188 (Df).
Epeira petax Thorell, 1890a: 164 (Df).

mf partitus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA
Epeira partita Walckenaer, 1842: 46 (Df).
Epeira punctillata Keyserling, 1879: 304, pl. 4, f. 7 (Dm).
A. p. Simon, 1895a: 808.
Epeira miniata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 100 (S, rejected).
Conepeira partita Archer, 1951b: 13, f. 34 (Tf from Araneus, Dm; f, f. 63, misidentified, =A. miniatus).
Conepeira atlantis Archer, 1951b: 13, f. 32, 35, 60 (Dmf).
A. p. Levi, 1973: 510, f. 177-191 (mf, S).
A. p. Roth, 1985: B6-5, f. 50 (f).

mf parvulus Rainbow, 1900....................New South Wales
A. p. Rainbow, 1900a: 489, pl. 24, f. 3 (Dmf).

f parvus (Karsch, 1878)....................South Australia
Epeira parva Karsch, 1878c: 804 (Df).

m pauxillus (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar
Epeira pauxilla Thorell, 1887: 199 (Dm).

m pavlovi Schenkel, 1953....................China
A. p. Schenkel, 1953b: 39, f. 19a-d (Dm).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 205, f. 123a-d (m).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 144C-D (m).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 192, f. 114A-C (m).

f pecuensis (Karsch, 1881)....................Russia, China, Japan
Epeira p. Karsch, 1881f: 219 (Df).
Aranea p. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 227, pl. 11, f. 205 (Df).

mf pegnia (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA to Ecuador and Jamaica
Epeira p. Walckenaer, 1842: 80 (Dmf).
Epeira tytera Walckenaer, 1842: 81 (Df).
Epeira globosa Keyserling, 1865: 820, pl. 18, f. 19-21 (Df).
Epeira triaranea McCook, 1876: 201 (Df).
Epeira globosa McCook, 1878a: 134, f. 4 (f).
Epeira triaranea Emerton, 1884: 315, pl. 34, f. 9, pl. 36, f. 6-7 (f, Dm).
Epeira solersioides O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 25, pl. 7, f. 15 (Dm).
Epeira globosa Keyserling, 1892: 159, pl. 8, f. 117 (f).
Epeira p. McCook, 1894: 170, pl. 7, f. 8-9 (mf).
Epeira globosa Emerton, 1902: 173, f. 406-407 (f).
Neosconella solersioides F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 475, pl. 44, f. 3-4 (m, Df).
A. p. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 309.
A. solersioides Petrunkevitch, 1911: 316.
Neosconella bella Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 78, f. 223-224 (Dm).
Epeira p. Kaston, 1948: 260, f. 810, 828-829 (m).
Neosconella p. Archer, 1951a: 38, f. 42 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. p. Levi, 1973: 546, f. 5-6, 426-438 (mf, S).
A. bellus Brignoli, 1983c: 260.
A. p. Levi, 1981b: 255 (S).
A. p. Levi, 1991a: 236, f. 228-234 (mf).

f pellax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand
Epeira p. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 45 (Df).

mf penai Levi, 1991....................Ecuador
A. p. Levi, 1991a: 216, f. 128-132 (Dmf).

mf pentagrammicus (Karsch, 1879)....................China, Taiwan, Japan
Miranda pentagrammica Karsch, 1879g: 72, pl. 1, f. 6 (Dm).
Aranea pentagrammica Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 219, pl. 4, f. 35, pl. 11, f. 211 (m, Df).
Catheistela pentagrammica Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 36 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. p. Yaginuma, 1986a: 100, f. 53.4 (f).
A. p. Zhang, 1987: 70, f. 52.1-2 (f).
A. p. Chikuni, 1989b: 66, f. 13 (mf).
A. p. Feng, 1990: 61, f. 36.1-3 (f).
A. pentagrammica Chen & Zhang, 1991: 91, f. 81.1-3 (f).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 180, f. 96a-f (mf).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139O-P, 144G-H, 148P (mf).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 193, f. 115A-F (mf).

f perincertus Caporiacco, 1947....................Tanzania
A. p. Caporiacco, 1947d: 176, f. 32 (Df).

f petersi (Karsch, 1878)....................Ethiopia, Mozambique
Epeira petersii Karsch, 1878a: 320, pl. 2, f. 2 (Df).

mf pfeifferae (Thorell, 1877)....................Java, Sulawesi
Epeira p. Thorell, 1877b: 375 (Dm).
Aranea pseudopfeifferae Strand, 1907m: 421 (f,provisional name only).

f phaleratus (Urquhart, 1893)....................Tasmania
Epeira phalerata Urquhart, 1893b: 114 (Df).

f phlyctogena Simon, 1907....................Guinea-Bissau, Bioko, Congo
A. p. Simon, 1907d: 297 (Df, plus two varieties).

f phrygiatus (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA
Epeira phrygiata Walckenaer, 1842: 54 (Df).
A. p. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 310.

f phyllonotus (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar
Epeira phyllonota Thorell, 1887: 201 (Df).

f pichoni Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. p. Schenkel, 1963: 157, f. 93a-b (Df).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 205, f. 124a-b (f).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139Q, 148Q (f).

mf pico Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. p. Levi, 1991a: 215, f. 117-121 (Dmf).

m pictithorax (Hasselt, 1882)....................Sumatra
Epeira p. Hasselt, 1882: 20, pl. 4, f. 4 (Dm).

f pineus Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. p. Yin et al., 1990: 43, f. 107-110 (Df).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 189, f. 106a-d (f).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139R-T, 148R (f).

mf pinguis (Karsch, 1879)....................Russia, China, Japan
Epeira p. Karsch, 1879g: 68 (Df).
Aranea p. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 226, pl. 11, f. 210 (f).
A. p. Yaginuma, 1957a: 55, f. 17 (f).
A. p. Yaginuma, 1969b: 19, f. 1b-8b (mf).
A. p. Song, Yu & Shang, 1981: 83, f. 3-4 (mf).
A. p. Hu, 1984: 95, f. 91.1-2 (mf).
A. p. Yaginuma, 1986a: 95, f. 50.2 (mf).
A. p. Song, 1987: 165, f. 126 (mf).
A. p. Yoshikura, 1987: 298, f. 37.6A (m).
A. p. Zhang, 1987: 70, f. 53.1-2 (mf).
A. quadratus Zhang, 1987: 74, f. 58.1-2 (f, misidentified).
A. p. Chikuni, 1989b: 64, f. 5 (mf).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 181, f. 97a-e (mf).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139U-V, 144E-F (mf).

f pistiger Simon, 1899....................Sumatra
Araneus p. Simon, 1899a: 91 (Df).

f pius (Karsch, 1878)....................New South Wales
Epeira pia Karsch, 1878c: 806 (Df).

f pogisa (Marples, 1957)....................Samoa
Epeira p. Marples, 1957: 394, f. 5a-b (Df).
A. p. Brignoli, 1983c: 260.

f poltyoides Chrysanthus, 1971....................New Guinea
A. p. Chrysanthus, 1971: 29, f. 52-58 (Df).

mf pontii Caporiacco, 1934....................Karakorum
A. p. Caporiacco, 1934a: 154, pl. 3, f. 12 (Dmf).

mf popaco Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. p. Levi, 1991a: 282, f. 466-469 (Dmf).

mf postilena (Thorell, 1878)....................Sumatra, Java, Amboina, New Guinea
Epeira p. Thorell, 1878b: 70 (Dmf).
Epeira p. Workman, 1896: 38, pl. 38 (f).

m poumotuus (Strand, 1913)....................Polynesia
Aranea poumotua Strand, 1913d: 117 (Dm).
Aranea poumotua Strand, 1915d: 221, pl. 17, f. 69 (m).

f powelli (Urquhart, 1894)....................New Zealand
Epeira p. Urquhart, 1894: 214 (Df).

m praedatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)....................Yarkand
Epeira praedata O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 48 (Dm).

f praesignis (L. Koch, 1872)....................Queensland
Epeira p. L. Koch, 1872a: 110, pl. 9, f. 3 (Df).

f prasius (Thorell, 1890)....................Java
Epeira prasia Thorell, 1890a: 154 (Df).

mf pratensis (Emerton, 1884)....................USA, Canada
Singa p. Emerton, 1884: 322, pl. 34, f. 15, pl. 37, f. 14-15 (Dmf).
Epeira reptilis Keyserling, 1892: 244, pl. 12, f. 182 (Dm).
Singa rubella Keyserling, 1893: 284, pl. 14, f. 209 (Df).
Epeira reptilis McCook, 1894: 165, pl. 6, f. 6 (m).
Singa listeri McCook, 1894: 231, pl. 19, f. 3-4 (Dmf).
A. praticola Simon, 1895a: 807.
A. reptilis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
Singa p. Muma, 1943: 99, pl. XIV, f. 7 (f).
Singa p. Kaston, 1948: 240, f. 745, 758-759 (mf).
Singa p. Shear, 1967: 10, f. 26-27 (m).
A. p. Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tmf from Singa).
A. p. Levi, 1973: 492, f. 2, 21-31 (mf, S).
A. p. Kaston, 1977: 30, f. 23-24 (f).

f principis Simon, 1907....................Principe
A. principium Simon, 1907d: 296 (Df).

f pronubus (Rainbow, 1894)....................New South Wales
Epeira pronuba Rainbow, 1894a: 289, pl. 10, f. 2 (Df).

mf prospiciens (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Epeira p. Thorell, 1890a: 138 (Dmf).
A. p. Simon, 1899a: 92.

m providens Kulczyn'ski, 1911....................New Guinea
A. p. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 484, pl. 20, f. 55 (Dm).

f prunus Levi, 1973....................USA
A. p. Levi, 1973: 536, f. 375-379 (Df).

j pseudoconicus Schenkel, 1936....................China
A. p. Schenkel, 1936b: 114, f. 40 (Dj).

f pseudosturmii Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. p. Yin et al., 1990: 25, f. 62-63 (Df).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 150, f. 65a-b (f).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 140A, 148F (f).

m pseudoventricosus Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. p. Schenkel, 1963: 150, f. 88a-c (Dm).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 190, f. 107a-c (m).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 144I (m).

mf psittacinus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales, Victoria
Epeira psittacina Keyserling, 1887a: 173, pl. 14, f. 7 (Dmf).
A. p. Dondale, 1966: 1168, f. 3D-F (mf).

j pudicus (Thorell, 1898)....................Myanmar
Epeira pudica Thorell, 1898: 358 (Dj).

mf puebla Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. p. Levi, 1991a: 285, f. 482-486 (Dmf).

f pulcherrimus (Roewer, 1942)....................Europe, Russia
Epeira pulchra C. L. Koch, 1835: 129, pl. 21 (Df; preoccupied by Razumowsky, 1789 sub Aranea).
Epeira pulchra C. L. Koch, 1844: 100, f. 908 (f).
Aranea pulcherrima Roewer, 1942a: 790 (replacement name).

f pulchriformis (Roewer, 1942)....................New South Wales
Epeira pulchra Rainbow, 1893b: 18, pl. 3, f. 2-3 (Df; preoccupied by C. L. Koch, 1844).
Aranea p. Roewer, 1942a: 831 (replacement name).

f punctipedellus (Strand, 1908)....................East Africa
Aranea rufipalpis punctipedella Strand, 1908e: 292 (Df).
Aranea p. Roewer, 1942a: 812.

f pupulus (Thorell, 1890)....................Java, Amboina
Epeira pupula Thorell, 1890a: 159 (Df).

f purus (Simon, 1907)....................West Africa
Larinia pura Simon, 1907d: 268 (Df).
A. p. Grasshoff, 1970b: 218 (Tf from Larinia).

mf quadratus Clerck, 1757....................Palearctic
A. q. Clerck, 1757: 27, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
Aranea reaumurii Scopoli, 1763: 393 (Df).
Aranea quadrimaculata De Geer, 1778: 223, pl. 12, f. 18 (Df).
Epeira quadrata Walckenaer, 1805: 61.
Epeira quadrata Dufour, 1824: 205, pl. 10, f. 2 (f).
Epeira quadrata Sundevall, 1833a: 239 (Dm).
Epeira quadrata C. L. Koch, 1838: 66, f. 381-382 (mf).
Epeira quadrata Blackwall, 1864a: 324, pl. 23, f. 236 (mf).
Epeira quadrata Menge, 1866: 53, pl. 5, f. 5 (mf).
Epeira quadrata Thorell, 1870a: 14.
Epeira quadrata Hansen, 1882: 18, pl. 1, f. 32 (mf).
Epeira quadrata Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 130, pl. 5, f. 12 (mf).
Epeira quadrata Becker, 1896: 23, pl. 5, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira quadrata Bösenberg, 1901: 23, pl. 1, f. 3 (mf).
Aranea reaumuri Strand, 1906a: 458.
A. q. Simon, 1929: 693, 758, f. 1047, 1052 (mf).
Aranea reaumuri Wiehle, 1931: 79, f. 115-118 (mf).
Aranea reaumuri Reimoser, 1932: 11, f. 1 (mf).
Aranea reaumuri Drensky, 1943: 242, f. 26 (mf).
Aranea reamuri Mikulska, 1953: 12, f. 12, 15 (mf).
A. q. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 130, f. 84B, 85B, 86B (mf).
A. q. Saito, 1959: 88, f. 99a-g (f).
Aranea quadrata Zamaraev, 1964: 360, f. 83-84 (mf).
A. q. Azheganova, 1968: 79, f. 159-160 (mf).
A. q. Grasshoff, 1968: 7, f. 10, 16a, 17d-f, 20d, 21g-i, 23, 25-26, 29k-n, 30g-h, 34c, 35i-m, 36i-m, 37i-m, 38i-m, 39i-m, 40c, 41k-m, 42c (mf).
A. q. Yaginuma, 1969b: 18, f. 1a-8a (mf).
A. q. Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 584, 595 (f).
A. q. Miller, 1971: 212, pl. XL, f. 5-6 (mf).
A. q. Levi, 1971a: 164, f. 152-158 (mf).
A. q. Loksa, 1972: 88, f. 77, 79B, 80C-D (mf).
A. q. Grasshoff, 1973b: 134, f. 4c (f).
A. q. Palmgren, 1974a: 24, f. 9c, 10f-g (mf).
A. q. Punda, 1975b: 34, f. 43-45 (mf).
A. q. Roberts, 1985: 208, f. 93b (mf).
A. q. Yaginuma, 1986a: 95, f. 50.1 (mf).
A. flavidus Yin et al., 1990: 30, f. 74-77 (Df).
A. q. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 74, f. 170 (mf).
A. q. Roberts, 1995: 318, f. (mf).
A. q. Mcheidze, 1997: 278, f. 635-637 (mf).
A. flavidus Yin et al., 1997: 169, f. 85a-d (f).
A. q. Roberts, 1998: 332, f. (mf).
A. flavidus Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 237, f. 137O-W, 148A (f).
A. q. Marusik, Logunov & Koponen, 2000: 13 (S).

f quadratus minimus (Gétaz, 1889)....................Switzerland, France
Epeira quadrata minima Gétaz, 1889: 60 (Df).

f quadratus subviridis (Franganillo, 1913)....................Spain
Epeira quadrata s. Franganillo, 1913: 127 (Df).

f quaesitus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Australia
Epeira quaesita Keyserling, 1887a: 197, pl. 176, f. 6 (Df).

mf queribundus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Australia
Epeira queribunda Keyserling, 1887a: 195, pl. 17, f. 4-5 (Dmf).

f qianshan Zhu, Zhang & Li, 1998....................China
A. q. Zhu, Zhang & Li, 1998: 30, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. q. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 140B-C (f).

f quietus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Australia
Epeira quieta Keyserling, 1887a: 192, pl. 17, f. 1 (Df).

f quirapan Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. q. Levi, 1991a: 284, f. 470-473 (Df).

f rabiosulus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira rabiosula Keyserling, 1887a: 194, pl. 17, f. 3 (Df).

f radja (Doleschall, 1857)....................Amboina, Yule Is., Aru Is.
Epeira r. Doleschall, 1857: 417 (Df).
Epeira r. Doleschall, 1859: pl. 2, f. 3 (f).

m ragnhildae (Strand, 1917)....................Australia
Epeira gracilis Hogg, 1896: 317, pl. 24, f. 2 (Dm, preoccupied).
Aranea r. Strand, 1917c: 71 (replacement name).

f rainbowi (Roewer, 1942)....................Lord Howe Is.
A. nigropunctatus Rainbow, 1920b: 248, pl. 29, f. 55-56 (Df; N.B.: preoccupied by Epeira nigropunctata L. Koch, 1871; erroneously listed by Roewer as a species of the gnaphosid genus Aracus as well as under Aranea).
Aranea r. Roewer, 1942a: 832 (replacement name).

f ramulosus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Australia
Epeira ramulosa Keyserling, 1887a: 203, pl. 18, f. 4 (Df).

j rani (Thorell, 1881)....................Queensland
Epeira r. Thorell, 1881: 93 (Dj).

m rarus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland, Victoria
Epeira rara Keyserling, 1887a: 193, pl. 17, f. 2 (Dm).

j raui (Strand, 1907)....................Cameroon
Aranea r. Strand, 1907i: 177 (Dj).

f raui Levi, 1973....................USA
A. r. Levi, 1973: 516, f. 295-300 (Df; N.B.: needs replacement name).

f recherchensis (Main, 1954)....................Western Australia
Aranea r. Main, 1954: 41, pl. 3, f. 5, 8 (Df).
A. r. Brignoli, 1983c: 260.

mf relicinus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Solomon Is., Bismarck Arch.
Nephila relicina Keyserling, 1887a: 216, pl. 19, f. 6 (Df).
A. r. Pocock, 1898b: 462.
A. r. Kulczyn'ski, 1910: 396, pl. 17, f. 8-9 (f, Dm).

f repetecus Bakhvalov, 1978....................Turkmenistan
A. r. Bakhvalov, 1978: 790, f. 5-7 (Df).

f reversus Hogg, 1914....................Western Australia
A. r. Hogg, 1914b: 77, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).

f riveti Berland, 1913....................Ecuador
A. r. Berland, 1913b: 92, pl. 9, f. 42-43 (Df).

f roseomaculatus Ono, 1992....................Taiwan
A. r. Ono, 1992b: 122, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. r. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140D-E (f).

mf rotundicornis Yaginuma, 1972....................Japan
A. r. Yaginuma, 1972a: 55, f. 9-16 (Dmf).
A. r. Yaginuma, 1986a: 97, f. 51.2 (mf).
A. r. Chikuni, 1989b: 64, f. 7 (mf).

mf rotundulus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland
Epeira rotundula Keyserling, 1887a: 178, pl. 15, f. 6-7 (Dmf).

f royi Roewer, 1961....................Senegal
A. r. Roewer, 1961b: 53, f. 15a-d (Df).

mf rubicundulus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira rubicundula Keyserling, 1887a: 164, pl. 14, f. 1 (Df).

f rubripunctatus (Rainbow, 1893)....................New South Wales
Epeira rubripunctata Rainbow, 1893b: 19, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).

f rubrivitticeps (Strand, 1911)....................Aru Is.
Aranea r. Strand, 1911d: 152, pl. 4, f. 4, pl. 5, f. 39 (Df).

f rufipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala
Epeira rufipes O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 31, pl. 4, f. 12 (Df; preoccupied by Linnaeus, 1758 sub Aranea).
Epeira rufipes Keyserling, 1892: 176, pl. 8, f. 130 (f).
Aranea rufipes F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 515, pl. 49, f. 17 (f).
A. rufipes Petrunkevitch, 1911: 313.
Aranea cambridgei Roewer, 1942a: 838 (replacement name for Epeira rufipes).
Neoscona r. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 170 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).
A. r. Levi, 1991a: 234, f. 215-218 (f, S).

f russicus Bakhvalov, 1981....................Russia
A. r. Bakhvalov, 1981b: 144, f. 3 (Df).

mf ryukyuanus Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. r. Tanikawa, 2001b: 67, f. 5-8, 19-21 (Dmf).

f saccalava (Strand, 1907)....................Madagascar
Aranea s. Strand, 1907d: 731 (Df).
Aranea s. Strand, 1907o: 57 (Df).

mf saevus (L. Koch, 1872)....................Holarctic
Epeira saeva L. Koch, 1872b: 123 (Dm).
Epeira sinistra Thorell, 1873: 545 (Dm).
Epeira zimmermanni Thorell, 1875a: 81 (Df).
Epeira zimmermanni Thorell, 1875c: 6 (Df).
Epeira solitaria Emerton, 1884: 299, pl. 33, f. 11, pl. 35, f. 3 (Dm).
Epeira nigra Emerton, 1894: 402, pl. 1, f. 1 (Dmf).
Epeira zimmermanni Bösenberg, 1901: 26, pl. 1, f. 7 (f).
Epeira s. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 328, pl. 12, f. 5 (m).
A. s. Lessert, 1905b: 641, f. 10 (m).
Epeira solitaria Petrunkevitch, 1910: 211 (Dm).
A. solitarius Petrunkevitch, 1911: 317.
A. s. Lessert, 1910b: 308, f. 167 (m).
A. zimmermanni Charitonov, 1926b: 57, f. 1 (f).
Aranea s. Wiehle, 1931: 60, f. 86 (m).
Aranea zimmermanni Wiehle, 1931: 60.
Aranea angulata Comstock, 1940: 483, f. 483bis (f).
Aranea angulata silvatica Comstock, 1940: 132, f. 133a-b (f).
Aranea solitaria Archer, 1941b: 19, pl. III, f. 2 (f).
Aranea saeva Drensky, 1943: 241, f. 17 (f).
Aranea solitaria Kaston, 1948: 250, f. 785-786, 796-797 (mf).
A. zimmermanni Johansson, 1950: 93, f. 1-2 (f).
Aranea silvatica Archer, 1951a: 26 (removed from S, rejected)
Aranea nigra Archer, 1951a: 29, f. 77 (m, removed from S, rejected).
Aranea solitaria Archer, 1951a: 29, f. 72 (m).
A. s. Tullgren, 1952: 164, f. 10a-b, 12a-b (mf, S).
A. s. Wiehle, 1963c: 276, f. 84-92 (mf).
A. s. Levi, 1970: 109, f. 10-13 (m).
A. s. Levi, 1971a: 148, f. 7-8, 42-51, 55-60 (mf, S).
A. s. Miller, 1971: 208, pl. XXXVIII, f. 22-23 (f).
A. zimmermanni Palmgren, 1974a: 19, f. 7e-i (f, Dm).
A. s. Kûrka, 1981: 55, f. 1-2 (f).
A. s. Izmailova, 1989: 60, f. 43 (m).
A. s. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 74, f. 166 (mf).
A. s. Tanikawa, 2001b: 81, f. 67-68 (m).

m sagicola (Dönitz & Strand, 1906)....................Japan
Aranea s. Dönitz & Strand, in Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 383, pl. 3, f. 3 (Dm).

f salto Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. s. Levi, 1991a: 282, f. 462-465 (Df).

f sambava (Strand, 1907)....................Madagascar
Aranea s. Strand, 1907d: 731 (Df).
Aranea s. Strand, 1907o: 61 (Df).

f santacruziensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
A. s. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 640, f. 407a-e (Df).

f santarita (Archer, 1951)....................USA
Aranea s. Archer, 1951a: 24, f. 65 (Df).
A. s. Levi, 1971a: 150, f. 52-54 (f).

j savesi (Simon, 1880)....................New Caledonia
Epeira s. Simon, 1880i: 169 (Dj).

f schneblei Levi, 1991....................Colombia
A. s. Levi, 1991a: 211, f. 95-98 (Df).

m schrencki (Grube, 1861)....................Russia
Epeira schrenckii Grube, 1861: 162 (Dm).
A. s. Wesolowska, 1988b: 408, f. 14-17 (m).

m scutellatus Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. s. Schenkel, 1963: 153, f. 90 (Dm).

f scutifer (Keyserling, 1886)....................New South Wales
Epeira scutifera Keyserling, 1886a: 152, pl. 12, f. 7 (Df).

mf scutigerens Hogg, 1900....................Victoria
A. s. Hogg, 1900: 100, pl. 15, f. 2 (Dmf).

mf seensis Oliger, 1991....................Russia
A. s. Oliger, 1991: 141, f. 1-8 (Dmf).

mf selva Levi, 1991....................Guatemala to Costa Rica
A. s. Levi, 1991a: 259, f. 335-338 (Dmf).

f seminiger (L. Koch, 1878)....................Korea, Japan
Epeira semi-nigra L. Koch, 1878c: 737 (Dj).
Aranea semi-nigra Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 235.
A. s. Namkung, 1964: 37, f. 25 (Df).

f senicaudatus Simon, 1908....................Western Australia
A. senicaudata Simon, 1908d: 425 (Df).

f senicaudatus simplex Simon, 1908....................Western Australia
A. senicaudata s. Simon, 1908d: 426 (Df).

f separatus (Roewer, 1942)....................New South Wales
A. singularis Rainbow, 1900a: 490, pl. 24, f. 4 (Df; preoccupied by Banks, 1898).
Aranea separata Roewer, 1942a: 833 (replacement name).

f septemtuberculatus (Thorell, 1899)....................Cameroon
Aranea septem-tuberculata Thorell, 1899: 45 (Df).

f sericinus (Roewer, 1955)....................Portugal, Spain
Epeira sericea Franganillo, 1918b: 121 (Df; preoccupied by Latreille, 1806).
Aranea sericina Roewer, 1942a: 791 (replacement name).

f sernai Levi, 1991....................Colombia
A. s. Levi, 1991a: 214, f. 109-112 (Df).

f shunhuangensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. s. Yin et al., 1990: 18, f. 43-46 (Df).
A. s. Yin et al., 1997: 134, f. 49a-d (f).
A. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140F-H, 149A (f).

f sicki Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. s. Levi, 1991a: 250, f. 286-289 (Df).

mf simillimus Kulczyn'ski, 1911....................New Guinea
A. s. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 486, pl. 20, f. 56-58, 60-61 (Dmf).
A. s. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 199, f. 12-15, 82 (f).

f singularis (Urquhart, 1891)....................Tasmania
Epeira singulara Urquhart, 1891b: 240, f. 2 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

f sinistrellus (Roewer, 1942)....................Mexico
Aranea sinistra F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 510, pl. 48, f. 21 (Df; preoccupied by Thorell, 1873 sub Epeira).
A. sinister Petrunkevitch, 1911: 316.
Aranea sinistrella Roewer, 1942a: 852 (replacement name).
A. s. Levi, 1991a: 193, f. 5-8 (f).

f sinuosus (Rainbow, 1893)....................New South Wales
Epeira s. Rainbow, 1893b: 20, pl. 3, f. 6 (Df).

f sogdianus Charitonov, 1969....................Central Asia
A. s. Charitonov, 1969: 79, f. 2 (Df).

f spathurus (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Epeira spathura Thorell, 1890a: 173 (Df).

f speciosissimus (Roewer, 1942)....................Funafuti
Epeira speciosa Rainbow, 1897a: 120, pl. 5, f. 2 (Dj; preoccupied by Pallas, 1773).
Aranea speciosissima Roewer, 1942a: 833 (replacement name).

m speculabundus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Australia, Samoa
Epeira speculabunda L. Koch, 1871: 80, pl. 5, f. 6 (Dm).
A. s. Berland, 1929b: 64.

f sponsus (Thorell, 1887)....................India
Epeira sponsa Thorell, 1887: 186 (Df).

f squamifer (Keyserling, 1886)....................Queensland
Epeira squamifera Keyserling, 1886a: 151, pl. 12, f. 6 (Df).

mf stabilis (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Argentina
Epeira s. Keyserling, 1892: 213, pl. 10, f. 158 (Dmf).
A. s. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 317.
A. s. Levi, 1991a: 226, f. 174-178 (mf).

j stella (Karsch, 1879)....................Japan
Epeira s. Karsch, 1879g: 69 (Dj).

f stolidus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira stolida Keyserling, 1887a: 186, pl. 16, f. 3 (Df).

f strandiellus Charitonov, 1951....................Central Asia
A. s. Charitonov, 1951: 210, f. 2a-b (Df).

f striatipes (Simon, 1877)....................Philippines
Epeira s. Simon, 1877b: 76 (Df).

f strigatellus (Strand, 1908)....................East Africa
Aranea rufipalpis strigatella Strand, 1908e: 294 (Df).
Aranea strigatella Roewer, 1942a: 814.

f strupifer (Simon, 1885)....................Tropical Africa
Epeira strupifera Simon, 1885d: 368 (Df).
A. eresifrons Pocock, 1898g: 509, pl. 41, f. 3 (Df).
Aranea webensis Strand, 1908g: 395 (provisional name only).
Aranea s. Tullgren, 1910: 163, pl. 4, f. 108 (f).

mf sturmi (Hahn, 1831)....................Palearctic
Epeira sturmii Hahn, 1831a: 12, f. 8 (Dmf).
Atea s. C. L. Koch, 1837b: 3.
Epeira alpina C. L. Koch, 1844: 122, f. 924-925 (mf, lapsus for E. alsine, misidentified).
Atea agalena C. L. Koch, 1844: 137, f. 938-939 (Dmf).
Epeira agalena Westring, 1861: 53.
Epeira agalenoides Simon, 1870b: 311 (Df).
Epeira s. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 131, pl. 5, f. 5 (mf).
Epeira s. Bösenberg, 1901: 39, pl. 2, f. 26 (mf).
A. s. Lessert, 1910b: 321.
A. s. Simon, 1929: 697, 764, f. 1083-1084 (mf).
Aranea s. Wiehle, 1931: 113, f. 177-182 (mf).
Aranea s. Drensky, 1943: 245, f. 20 (mf).
Conaranea s. Archer, 1951b: 7 (Tmf from Araneus).
Atea s. Archer, 1951c: 3.
A. s. Tullgren, 1952: 175, f. 21a-c (mf).
A. s. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 141, f. 94A-B, 95A-B (mf).
Aranea s. Zamaraev, 1964: 356, f. 53-54, 55A (mf).
A. s. Tyschchenko, 1971: 196, f. 575, 586 (mf).
A. s. Miller, 1971: 210, pl. XXXIX, f. 9-10 (mf).
A. s. Loksa, 1972: 79, f. 68C-G (mf).
A. s. Levi, 1973: 490, f. 1, 7-13 (mf).
A. s. Palmgren, 1974a: 31, f. 13a-d (mf).
Atea s. Punda, 1975b: 38, f. 62-63 (f).
A. s. Xu & Wang, 1983: 32, f. 2a (f).
A. s. Roberts, 1985: 210, f. 94b (mf).
Atea s. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 80, f. 179 (mf).
Atea s. Roberts, 1995: 323, f. (mf).
A. s. Yin et al., 1997: 151, f. 66a-c (f).
Atea s. Bellmann, 1997: 112, f. (f).
Atea s. Roberts, 1998: 336, f. (mf).
A. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140I-J, 149B (f).
A. s. Aakra, 2000a: 78, f. 1-4 (f).

f suavis Rainbow, 1899....................New Hebrides
A. s. Rainbow, 1899b: 308, pl. 24, f. 2 (Df).

f subflavidus (Urquhart, 1893)....................Tasmania
Epeira sub-flavida Urquhart, 1893b: 117 (Df).

f sublutius (Urquhart, 1892)....................New Zealand
Epeira sublutia Urquhart, 1892b: 241 (Df).

f subumbrosus Roewer, 1961....................Senegal
A. s. Roewer, 1961b: 53, f. 14a-b (Df).
A. subombrosus Brignoli, 1983c: 260.

f sulfurinus (Pavesi, 1883)....................Ethiopia, East Africa
Epeira sulfurina Pavesi, 1883: 16 (Df).
Aranea sulphurina Tullgren, 1910: 167, pl. 4, f. 120 (f).

mf svanetiensis Mcheidze, 1997....................Georgia
A. s. Mcheidze, 1997: 270, f. 601-604 (Dmf).

mf sydneyicus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales, Victoria
Epeira sydneyica Keyserling, 1887a: 155, pl. 13, f. 1-2 (Dmf).

f sylvicola (Rainbow, 1897)....................New South Wales
Epeira s. Rainbow, 1897b: 518, pl. 17, f. 4 (Df).
A. s. Rainbow, 1909: 222.

m taigunensis Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. t. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 58, f. 36-38 (Dm).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 182, f. 98a-c (m).
A. taiguensis Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140J-K, 149C (m).

mf talasi Bakhvalov, 1970....................Kyrgyzstan
A. t. Bakhvalov, 1970: 51, f. 2 (Df).
A. talassi Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 43, 49-52 (f, Dm).

mf talca Levi, 1991....................Chile, Argentina
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 240, f. 245-249 (Dmf).

f talipedatus (Keyserling, 1887)....................Australia
Epeira talipedata Keyserling, 1887a: 169, pl. 14, f. 4 (Df).

f tambopata Levi, 1991....................Peru
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 222, f. 153-156 (Df).

f tamerlani (Roewer, 1942)....................Queensland
Epeira obesa Thorell, 1881: 109 (Df; preoccupied by Hentz, 1847).
Aranea t. Roewer, 1942a: 834 (replacement name).

f taperae (Mello-Leitão, 1937)....................Ecuador to Surinam
Metepeira t. Mello-Leitão, 1937a: 7, f. 8 (Df).
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 212, f. 105-108 (Tf from Metepeira).

mf tartaricus (Kroneberg, 1875)....................Central Asia to Japan
Epeira tartarica Kroneberg, 1875: 2, pl. 1, f. 1 (Df).
A. mongolicus Simon, 1895c: 335 (Dmf).
A. t. Schenkel, 1936b: 269, f. 89 (m).
A. mongolicus Ermolajev, 1937b: 603, f. 3 (mf).
A. t. Spassky & Shnitnikov, 1937: 276, f. 3 (m).
A. mongolicus Yaginuma, 1961a: 82, f. F (m).
A. t. Bakhvalov, 1974: 111, f. 87, 89-90, 96 (mf).
A. t. Feng, 1990: 60, f. 35.1-5 (f).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 191, f. 108a-c (f).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140K-L (f).

f tatianae Lessert, 1938....................Congo
A. t. Lessert, 1938: 449, f. 35-37 (Df).

f tatsulokeus Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
A. t. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 636, f. 404a-f (Df).

mf tellezi Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 291, f. 515-519 (Dmf).

mf tenancingo Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 290, f. 511-514 (Dmf).

f tenerius Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. t. Yin et al., 1990: 45, f. 111-116 (Df).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 192, f. 109a-f (f).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140M-O, 149D (f).

f tengxianensis Zhu & Zhang, 1994....................China
A. t. Zhu & Zhang, in Zhu et al, 1994: 29, f. 4A-C (Df).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 141, f. 56a-c (f).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140P-Q, 149E (f).

f tepic Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 272, f. 410-413 (Df).

f tetraspinulus (Yin et al., 1990)....................China
Pronous t. Yin et al., 1990: 7, f. 14-16 (Df).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 182, f. 99a-c (Tf from Pronous).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140R-S, 149F (f).

mf texanus (Archer, 1951)....................USA
Conepeira texana Archer, 1951b: 20, f. 48, 69 (Dmf).
A. t. Levi, 1973: 534, f. 362-374 (mf).

mf thaddeus (Hentz, 1847)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira t. Hentz, 1847: 473, pl. 31, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira baltimorensis Keyserling, 1879: 305, pl. 4, f. 8 (Df).
Epeira t. Emerton, 1884: 309, pl. 33, f. 9 (f).
Epeira t. McCook, 1894: 169, pl. 7, f. 3-5 (f, Dm).
Epeira t. Emerton, 1902: 170, f. 401 (f).
Epeira t. Emerton, 1909: 200, pl. 5, f. 2 (mf).
A. t. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 319.
A. t. Peelle & Saito, 1932: 93, f. 6 (f).
Aranea t. Comstock, 1940: 504, f. 520 (f).
Aranea t. Muma, 1943: 86, pl. XIII, f. 17 (f).
Epeira t. Kaston, 1948: 259, f. 807-809, 826-827 (m).
Neosconella t. Archer, 1951a: 38 (Tmf from Araneus).
Neosconella montana Archer, 1951a: 39, f. 41 (Dm).
A. t. Saito, 1959: 89, f. 103a-f (mf, presumably misidentified).
A. t. Levi, 1973: 543, f. 4, 415-425 (mf, S).
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 239, f. 235-239 (mf).

f thevenoti Simon, 1895....................Zanzibar
A. t. Simon, 1895a: 824 (Df).

f thorelli (Roewer, 1942)....................Myanmar
Epeira modesta Thorell, 1898: 361 (Df; preoccupied by Simon, 1890).
Aranea t. Roewer, 1942a: 821 (replacement name).

mf tiganus (Chamberlin, 1916)....................Ecuador, Peru
Aranea tigana Chamberlin, 1916: 251, pl. 19, f. 2 (Dm).
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 194, f. 9-14 (m, Df).

mf tijuca Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 250, f. 290-294 (Dmf).

m tinikdikitus Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
A. t. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 635, f. 402a-g (Dm).

mf titirus Simon, 1896....................Chile, Argentina
A. t. Simon, 1896e: 68 (Df).
A. t. Levi, 1991a: 245, f. 267-271 (f, Dm).

j toma (Strand, 1915)....................Bismarck Arch.
Aranea t. Strand, 1915d: 223, pl. 17, f. 71 (Dj).

f tonkinus Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
A. t. Simon, 1909e: 109 (Df).

mf toruaigiri Bakhvalov, 1970....................Kyrgyzstan
A. t. Bakhvalov, 1970: 51, f. 1 (Df).
A. t. Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 44-48 (f, Dm).

j transversivittiger (Strand, 1907)....................China
Aranea transversivittigera Strand, 1907k: 180 (Dj).

m transversus Rainbow, 1912....................Queensland
A. t. Rainbow, 1912a: 197, f. 10-14 (Dmf).
A. t. Davies & Gallon, 1986: 233 (Rainbow's f=Gea theridioides).

f triangulus (Fox, 1938)....................China
Aranea triangula Fox, 1938b: 368, f. 4-5 (Df).

mf tricoloratus Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988....................China
A. t. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 59, f. 39-43 (Dmf).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 193, f. 110a-e (mf).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140V-W, 144L-M, 149G (mf).

mf trifolium (Hentz, 1847)....................USA, Canada, Alaska
Epeira jaspidata Walckenaer, 1842: 59 (Df; nomen oblitum).
Epeira t. Hentz, 1847: 471, pl. 31, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira septima Hentz, 1847: 470, pl. 30, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira aureola Hentz, 1847: 471, pl. 31, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira t. Emerton, 1884: 306, pl. 33, f. 8, pl. 35, f. 13-14, 21-22 (f, Dm).
Epeira t. McCook, 1894: 145, pl. 1, f. 3-6, pl. 2, f. 3 (mf).
Epeira t. candicans McCook, 1894: 146, pl. 1, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira t. Emerton, 1902: 171, f. 402-404 (mf).
A. t. Simon, 1903c: 386.
A. septimus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 315.
A. t. candidans Petrunkevitch, 1911: 320.
Aranea gosogana Chamberlin, 1919b: 8, pl. 4, f. 6 (Df).
A. t. Comstock, 1940: 493, f. 503 (f).
A. t. Archer, 1940: 46 (S).
Aranea t. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 94 (S).
Epeira t. Kaston, 1948: 258, f. 823-825 (f).
A. jaspidatus Yaginuma, 1957a: 55, f. 16a-b (f, presumably misidentified).
A. t. Levi, 1971a: 167, f. 174-182 (mf, S).

f trigonophorus (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar
Epeira trigonophora Thorell, 1887: 191 (Df).

f trigonus (L. Koch, 1871)....................Queensland, New Guinea
Epeira trigona L. Koch, 1871: 50, pl. 4, f. 1 (Df).

mf triguttatus (Fabricius, 1793)....................Palearctic
A. triguttata Fabricius, 1793: 419 (Df).
A. agalena Walckenaer, 1802: 197 (Df).
A. drypta Walckenaer, 1802: 198 (Df).
A. myabora Walckenaer, 1802: 198 (Df).
Epeira drypta Walckenaer, 1805: 59.
Epeira agalena Walckenaer, 1805: 59.
Epeira myabora Walckenaer, 1805: 59.
Epeira aurantiaca C. L. Koch, 1836b: 134, pl. 1 (Df).
Epeira agalena Walckenaer, 1842: 36 (Dm).
Epeira triguttata Walckenaer, 1842: 39.
Atea aurantiaca C. L. Koch, 1844: 141, f. 940 (f).
Epeira signata Blackwall, 1850: 341 (Dj).
Epeira agalena Blackwall, 1864a: 334, pl. 24, f. 242 (mf).
Epeira agalena Menge, 1866: 65, pl. 10, f. 12 (mf).
Epeira youngii O. P.-Cambridge, 1871a: 461 (Dj).
Epeira camelina Simon, 1870b: 310 (Df).
Epeira triguttata Simon, 1874a: 88 (m).
Epeira triguttata Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 131, pl. 5, f. 6 (mf).
Epeira mayo McCook, 1894: 179, pl. 8, f. 11 (Df).
Epeira triguttata Becker, 1896: 27, pl. 3, f. 3 (mf).
Epeira triguttata Bösenberg, 1901: 38, pl. 2, f. 25 (mf).
Epeira triguttata O. P.-Cambridge, 1909a: 110, pl. A, f. 23-26 (mf).
A. t. Lessert, 1910b: 323.
A. t. Simon, 1929: 697, 763, f. 1081-1082 (mf).
Aranea triguttata Wiehle, 1931: 115, f. 183-187 (mf).
Aranea triguttata Drensky, 1943: 245. f. 20 (mf).
Conaranea triguttata Archer, 1951b: 7, f. 18-19, 31 (Tmf from Araneus).
Conepeira mayo Archer, 1951b: 16, f. 64 (removed f from S of A. miniatus).
A. t. Tullgren, 1952: 175, f. 22a-b (mf).
A. t. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 143, f. 94C-D, 95C (mf).
Conepeira mayo Levi & Field, 1954: 450, f. 35 (f).
Aranea triguttata Zamaraev, 1964: 357, f. 55B, 56-57 (mf).
A. t. Miller, 1971: 210, pl. XXXIX, f. 7-8 (mf).
A. t. Yaginuma, 1971: 55, f. 51 (f).
A. t. Tyschchenko, 1971: 196, f. 580 (m).
A. t. Loksa, 1972: 79, f. 68A-B, 69 (mf).
A. t. Namkung, Paik & Yoon, 1972: 93, f. 10 (f).
A. t. Levi, 1973: 492, f. 14-20 (mf, S).
A. t. Roberts, 1985: 210, f. 94c (mf).
Atea triguttata Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 80, f. 180 (mf).
Atea triguttata Roberts, 1995: 323, f. (mf).
Atea triguttata Bellmann, 1997: 112, f. (f).
Atea triguttata Roberts, 1998: 336, f. (mf).

f tschuiskii Bakhvalov, 1974....................Kyrgyzstan
A. t. Bakhvalov, 1974: 111, f. 72-74 (Df).
A. tschuiskyi Bakhvalov, 1983: 90, f. 4 (f).

mf tsuno Yaginuma, 1972....................Russia, China, Japan
A. t. Yaginuma, 1972a: 53, f. 1-8 (Dmf).
A. t. Shinkai, 1977: 327, f. 21 (m).
A. maculifrons Oliger, 1983a: 303, f. 4-8 (Dmf).
A. t. Zhou, Wang & Zhu, 1983: 154, f. 2a-d (f).
A. t. Yaginuma, 1986a: 97, f. 51.1 (mf).
A. t. Marusik, 1989b: 42 (S).
A. t. Chikuni, 1989b: 64, f. 6 (mf).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 183, f. 100a-d (f).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140T-U, X, 149H (f).

mf tsurusakii Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. viperifer Yaginuma, 1967b: 94, f. 2c-e (m, misidentified).
A. viperifer Yaginuma, 1986a: 101, f. 54.2 (mf, misidentified).
A. viperifer Chikuni, 1989a: 136, f. 7A-B, G (mf, misidentified).
A. t. Tanikawa, 2001b: 66, f. 3-4, 14-18 (Dmf).

mf tubabdominus Zhu & Zhang, 1993....................China
A. t. Zhu & Zhang, 1993: 36, f. 1-7 (Dmf).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 184, f. 101a-g (mf).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 140Y-Z, 144N-O, 149I (mf).

mf tuscarora Levi, 1973....................USA
A. t. Levi, 1973: 514, f. 204-214, 444 (Dmf).

mf ubicki Levi, 1991....................Costa Rica
A. u. Levi, 1991a: 274, f. 422-426 (Dmf).

mf unanimus (Keyserling, 1879)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Epeira unanima Keyserling, 1879: 306, pl. 4, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira biplagiata Bertkau, 1880a: 86, pl. 2, f. 30 (Dj).
Epeira unanima Keyserling, 1892: 147, pl. 7, f. 108 (f).
A. biplagiatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 282.
A. u. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 321.
Metepeira unanima Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 188, f. 16, 16a (Tf from Araneus, rejected, Dm).
A. u. Levi, 1991a: 203, f. 58-63 (mf, S).

mf uniformis (Keyserling, 1879)....................Bolivia to Argentina and Brazil
Epeira u. Keyserling, 1879: 307, pl. 4, f. 10 (Df).
Epeira lucida Keyserling, 1884b: 650, pl. 21, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira lucida Keyserling, 1892: 126, pl. 6, f. 93 (f).
Epeira u. Keyserling, 1892: 160, pl. 8, f. 118 (f).
A. candidus Simon, 1895a: 809 (Df).
Aranea vespae Strand, 1908c: 3 (Df).
A. lucidus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 300.
A. u. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
A. vespae Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324.
Neosconella candida Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 152, f. 47 (Dm).
Metepeira u. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 188 (Tf from Araneus).
Wixia lucida Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 196 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).
Cambridgepeira u. Archer, 1951b: 3 (Tf from Metepeira).
Metepeira candida Abalos & Báez, 1963: 203, f. 10-11 (Tmf from Neosconella=Araneus, rejected).
Metepeira candida Abalos, 1967: 273, f. 12E (f).
A. u. Levi, 1991a: 246, f. 272-275 (f, Sm).

f unistriatus (McCook, 1894)....................probably Brazil
Verrucosa unistriata McCook, 1894: 201, pl. 5, f. 3 (Df; N.B.: probably a Parawixia, per H. W. Levi, in litt.).
A. u. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.

m urbanus (Keyserling, 1887)....................New South Wales
Epeira urbana Keyserling, 1887a: 160, pl. 13, f. 5 (Dm).

f urquharti (Roewer, 1942)....................New South Wales
Epeira similaris Rainbow, 1895: 324, pl. 18, f. 3 (Df; preoccupied by Urquhart, 1891).
Aranea u. Roewer, 1942a: 835 (replacement name).

f ursimorphus (Strand, 1906)....................Ethiopia, East Africa
Aranea ursimorpha Strand, 1906b: 683 (Df).
Aranea ursimorpha Strand, 1908l: 35, pl. 2, f. 5 (f).

m uruapan Levi, 1991....................Mexico
A. u. Levi, 1991a: 276, f. 433-434 (Dm).

mf urubamba Levi, 1991....................Peru
A. u. Levi, 1991a: 218, f. 133-137 (Dmf).

mf usualis (Keyserling, 1887)....................Queensland, New South Wales
Epeira u. Keyserling, 1887a: 201, pl. 18, f. 2-3 (Dmf).

mf uyemurai Yaginuma, 1960....................Russia, Korea, Japan
A. u. Yaginuma, 1960: append. 3, pl. 17, f. 107, f. 101f (Df).
A. ventricosus u. Uyemura, 1961: 97, f. 7-9, 15a-h, 18.6, 19.1, 25, 26a-i, pl. 4, 6, 13 (f, Dm, reduced to subspecies).
A. u. Yaginuma, 1986a: 92, f. 48.2 (f; elevated from subspecies).
A. u. Chikuni, 1989b: 63, f. 2 (mf).
A. u. Namkung, Im & Kim, 1994: 67, f. 1-6 (mf).

mf variegatus Yaginuma, 1960....................Russia, China, Korea, Japan
A. v. Yaginuma, 1960: append. 4, pl. 19, f. 116, f. 50.4 (Df; preoccupied by Olivier, 1789 sub Aranea, but as that species is unidentifiable, Brignoli chose not to replace Yaginuma's name).
A. v. Yaginuma, 1971: 54, f. 50.4 (f).
A. v. Yin, 1978: 3, f. 5A-D (f).
A. v. Namkung & Yoon, 1980: 19, f. 2 (f).
Aranea variegata Song, 1980: 96, f. 42a-d (f).
A. v. Hu, 1984: 98, f. 94.1-3 (mf).
A. v. Zhang, 1987: 71, f. 54.1-3 (f).
A. v. Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 59, f. 44-46 (m).
A. v. Chikuni, 1989b: 66, f. 12 (mf).
A. v. Chen & Gao, 1990: 47, f. 53a-c (mf).
A. v. Yin et al., 1997: 193, f. 111a-h (mf).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 141A-C, 145A, 149J (mf).
A. variegata Hu, 2001: 446, f. 291.1-3 (mf, lapsus).

mf venatrix (C. L. Koch, 1838)....................Panama and Trinidad to Paraguay
Miranda v. C. L. Koch, 1838: 56, f. 373 (Df).
Epeira v. Walckenaer, 1842: 38.
Epeira analis C. L. Koch, 1844: 75, f. 891 (Df).
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1892: 201, pl. 9, f. 149 (f, Dm).
A. v. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 323.
A. sinuoscapus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 49, pl. 14, f. 123 (Df).
Epeira peruviana Taczanowski, 1878b: 150, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).
A. peruvianus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 309.
Metepeira peruviana Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 256 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).
Aculepeira v. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 75 (Tmf from Araneus, rejected).
Metepeira v. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 188 (Tmf from Araneus, rejected).
A. v. Levi, 1991a: 252, f. 295-302 (mf, S).

f ventricosellus (Roewer, 1942)....................Funafuti
Epeira ventricosa Rainbow, 1897b: 110 (Df; preoccupied by L. Koch, 1878).
Aranea ventricosella Roewer, 1942a: 835 (replacement name).

mf ventricosus (L. Koch, 1878)....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
Epeira ventricosa L. Koch, 1878c: 739, pl. 15, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira senta Karsch, 1879g: 70, pl. 1, f. 5 (Dm).
Epeira ventricosa Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 328, pl. 12, f. 6, 8 (mf).
A. ventricosa Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 213, f. 3, pl. 3, f. 15, pl. 11, f. 198-199 (mf).
Aranea pia Chamberlin, 1924a: 19, pl. 5, f. 36 (Df; preoccupied by Karsch, 1878).
A. v. Saito, 1933b: 54.
Aranea piata Roewer, 1942a: 820 (replacement name for Aranea pia).
A. v. Yaginuma, 1957a: 55, f. 21 (f).
Cathaistela ventricosa Archer, 1958: 16, f. 34 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. v. Saito, 1959: 97, text-f. 7.9, f. 108a-l (f).
A. v. Uyemura, 1961: 86, f. 1-7, 9-11, 14, 17a, 18.2, 19.5, 20a-f, 22b, pl. 1-4, 11 (mf).
A. v. Schenkel, 1963: 152, f. 89a-h (mf).
A. v. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 42, f. 22.1-2 (mf).
A. v. Oliger, 1981: 4, f. 2-6 (mf).
A. v. Yin, Wang & Hu, 1983: 34, f. 2C, 6A (m).
A. v. Hu, 1984: 97, f. 93 (f).
A. v. Guo, 1985: 59, f. 2-13.1-3 (mf).
A. v. Yaginuma, 1986a: 92, f. 48.1 (f).
A. v. Song, 1987: 166, f. 127 (mf).
A. v. Yoshikura, 1987: 151, f. 20.5B (f).
A. v. Zhang, 1987: 72, f. 55.1-2 (f).
A. v. Song, 1988: 128, f. 7A-B (f, S).
A. v. Chikuni, 1989b: 62, f. 1 (mf).
A. v. Yin et al., 1990: 39, f. 100-102 (m).
A. v. Feng, 1990: 59, f. 34.1-5 (mf).
A. v. Chen & Gao, 1990: 47, f. 54a-b (mf).
A. v. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 88, f. 78.1-4 (mf).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Li, 1993: 870, f. 35A-E (mf).
A. v. Zhao, 1993: 231, f. 106a-c (f).
A. v. Yin et al., 1997: 195, f. XI-XIII, 112a-f (mf).
A. v. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1710, f. 9a-b (f).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 241, f. 13B, 141D-F, 145B-C (mf).
A. v. Hu, 2001: 447, f. 292.1-4 (mf).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 194, f. 116A-E (mf).

mf ventricosus abikonus Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. a. Uyemura, 1961: 115, f. 16, 18.3, 19.3, pl. 10, 15 (Dmf).

mf ventricosus globulus Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. g. Uyemura, 1961: 112, f. 17b, 19.2, 18.4, 30 (Dmf).

f ventricosus hakonensis Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. h. Uyemura, 1961: 106, f. 9, pl. 7 (Df).

mf ventricosus ishinodai Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. i. Uyemura, 1961: 95, f. 24a-b (Dmf).

f ventricosus kishuensis Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. k. Uyemura, 1961: 93, f. 23 (Df).

f ventricosus montanioides Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. m. Uyemura, 1961: 111 (Df).

mf ventricosus montanus Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. m. Uyemura, 1961: 108, f. 28, 29a-c, pl. 4, 9 (Dmf).

f ventricosus nigelloides Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. n. Uyemura, 1961: 93 (Df).

mf ventricosus nigellus Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. n. Uyemura, 1961: 90, f. 18.1, 19.4, 21-22, pl. 5, 12 (Dmf).

f ventricosus yaginumai Uyemura, 1961....................Japan
A. v. y. Uyemura, 1961: 101 (Df).

f ventriosus (Urquhart, 1891)....................Tasmania
Epeira ventriosa Urquhart, 1891b: 237 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

f ventriosus (Urquhart, 1892)....................New Zealand
Epeira ventriosa Urquhart, 1892b: 243 (Df; N.B.: if actually congeneric with above, a new name will be needed).

f vermimaculatus Zhu & Wang, 1994....................China
A. v. Zhu & Wang, in Zhu et al, 1994: 30, f. 5A-C (Df).
A. v. Yin et al., 1997: 151, f. 67a-c (f).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141F-G, 149K (f).

f villa Levi, 1991....................Bolivia
A. v. Levi, 1991a: 249, f. 279-281 (Df).

mf vincibilis (Keyserling, 1893)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1893: 209, pl. 9, f. 154 (Df).
A. v. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324.
Metepeira v. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 188 (Tf from Araneus, rejected).
A. v. Levi, 1991a: 206, f. 64-70 (f, Dm).

mf viperifer Schenkel, 1963....................China, Japan
A. v. Schenkel, 1963: 165, f. 96a-b (Df).
A. v. Ohno & Yaginuma 1967: 37, f. 4.1-4 (mf).
A. v. Nishikawa, 1969: 58, f. 2 (mf).
A. v. Yaginuma, 1971: 129, f. 106.2-5 (mf).
A. v. Suganami, 1971: 24, f. 5-6 (f).
A. v. Shinkai, 1977: 375, f. 18 (f).
A. v. Shinkai, 1978: 91, f. 27-30 (mf).
A. v. Chikuni, 1989b: 68, f. 19 (mf).
A. v. Yin et al., 1997: 152, f. 68a-b (f).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141H, 149L (f).
A. v. Tanikawa, 2001b: 66, f. 79 (f).

f virgunculus (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Epeira virguncula Thorell, 1890a: 121 (Df).

f virgus (Fox, 1938)....................China
Aranea virga Fox, 1938b: 370, f. 2 (Df).
A. v. Yin et al., 1997: 206, f. 125 (f).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141I (f).

mf viridisomus (Gravely, 1921)....................India
Epeira viridisoma Gravely, 1921a: 415, f. 3c (Dmf).

mf viridiventris Yaginuma, 1969....................China, Japan
A. v. Yaginuma, in Ohno & Yaginuma, 1969: 21, f. 3a-f (Dmf).
A. v. Yaginuma, 1986a: 101, f. 54.1 (mf).
A. v. Chikuni, 1989b: 69, f. 24 (mf).
A. v. Yin et al., 1990: 22, f. 51-57 (mf).
A. v. Kim et al., 1995: 88, f. 1-2 (f).
A. v. Yin et al., 1997: 142, f. 57a-h (mf).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141J-K, N, 145D, 149M (mf).

f viridulus (Urquhart, 1891)....................Tasmania
Epeira viridula Urquhart, 1891b: 242 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

f v-notatus (Thorell, 1875)....................France, Algeria
Epeira v-notata Thorell, 1875c: 10 (Df).
A. sturmi v. Simon, 1929: 697, 764.

f volgeri Simon, 1897....................Zanzibar
A. v. Simon, 1897b: 474 (Df).

f vulpinus (Hahn, 1834)....................Southern Europe
Epeira vulpina Hahn, 1834: 24, f. 111 (Df).
Epeira spinivulva Dufour, 1835a: 110, pl. 5, f. 5-6 (Df).
Epeira bicolor Walckenaer, 1842: 41 (Df).

f vulvarius (Thorell, 1898)....................Myanmar
Epeira vulvaria Thorell, 1898: 360 (Df).
Aranea vulgaris Roewer, 1942a: 821 (lapsus).

m walesianus (Karsch, 1878)....................New South Wales
Epeira walesiana Karsch, 1878c: 805 (Df).

mf washingtoni Levi, 1971....................Russia, USA, Canada
A. w. Levi, 1971a: 160, f. 106, 123-130 (Dmf).

f wokamus (Strand, 1911)....................Aru Is.
Aranea wokama Strand, 1911d: 153, pl. 4, f. 7, pl. 5, f. 40 (Df).

f woodfordi Pocock, 1898....................Solomon Is.
A. w. Pocock, 1898b: 463, pl. 19, f. 3 (Df).

mf workmani (Keyserling, 1884)....................Brazil, Argentina
Epeira worckmanni Keyserling, 1884b: 649, pl. 21, f. 1 (Dm, patronym for Workman).
Epeira worckmanni Keyserling, 1892: 188, pl. 9, f. 139 (m).
Araneus worckmanni Petrunkevitch, 1911: 325.
Metepeira worckmanni Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 188 (Tm from Araneus, rejected).
A. w. Levi, 1991a: 207, f. 78-84 (m, Df).

f wulongensis Song & Zhu, 1992....................China
A. w. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 170, f. 6A-B (Df).
A. w. Song & Li, 1997: 415, f. 18A-B (f).
A. w. Yin et al., 1997: 153, f. 69a-c (f).
A. w. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141O-P (f).

m xavantina Levi, 1991....................Brazil
A. x. Levi, 1991a: 214, f. 116 (Dm).

f xianfengensis Song & Zhu, 1992....................China
A. x. Song & Zhu, 1992c: 171, f. 7A-B (Df).
A. x. Song & Li, 1997: 415, f. 19A-B (f).
A. x. Yin et al., 1997: 185, f. 102a-c (f).
A. x. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141L-M (f).

m xizangensis Hu, 2001....................China
A. x. Hu, 2001: 449, f. 293.1-5 (Dm).

m yadongensis Hu, 2001....................China
A. y. Hu, 2001: 450, f. 294.1-6 (Dm).

mf yasudai Tanikawa, 2001....................Japan
A. y. Tanikawa, 2001b: 72, f. 26-27, 36-38 (Dmf).

f yatei Berland, 1924....................New Caledonia
A. y. Berland, 1924a: 222, f. 128-130 (Df).

f yuanminensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. y. Yin et al., 1990: 26, f. 64-68 (Df).
A. y. Yin et al., 1997: 154, f. 70a-e (f).
A. y. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141R-T, 149N (f).
A. y. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 196, f. 117A-E (f).

mf yukon Levi, 1971....................Russia, Canada
A. y. Levi, 1971a: 166, f. 167-173 (Dmf).

f yunnanensis Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994....................China
A. y. Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 104, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. y. Yin et al., 1997: 198, f. 115a-e (f).
A. y. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 141Q, U-V, 149O (f).

mf yuzhongensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
A. y. Yin et al., 1990: 47, f. 117-123 (Dmf).
A. y. Yin et al., 1997: 196, f. 113a-g (mf).
A. y. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 142A-C, 145E-F, 149P (mf).

f zapallar Levi, 1991....................Chile
A. z. Levi, 1991a: 242, f. 254-257 (Df).

f zebrinus Zhu & Wang, 1994....................China
A. z. Zhu & Wang, in Zhu et al, 1994: 32, f. 7A-C (Df).
A. z. Yin et al., 1997: 186, f. 103a-c (f).
A. z. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242, f. 142D-E, 150A (f).

f zelus (Strand, 1907)....................Cameroon
Aranea zela Strand, 1907a: 533 (Df).
Aranea zela Strand, 1907n: 615 (Df).

f zuluanus (Strand, 1907)....................South Africa
Aranea zuluana Strand, 1907a: 534 (Df).
Aranea zuluana Strand, 1907n: 629 (Df).

f zygielloides Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. z. Schenkel, 1963: 169, f. 98a-d (Df).

Gen. Araniella Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942

A. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 76, type Araneus displicatus (Hentz, 1847); see Yaginuma, 1985: 127, for comments on Japanese species.

Transferred to other genera:
A. crispula (Tullgren, 1952) -- see Araneus.
A. geayi Caporiacco, 1954 -- see Eriophora.

In synonymy:
A. cossoni (Simon, 1885, T from Araneus) = A. cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757) (Blanke, 1982: 302).
A. croatica (Kulczyn'ski, 1905, T from Araneus) = A. displicata (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1974b: 296).
A. cucurbitina (Linnaeus, 1758, T from Araneus) = A. cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICNZ Direction 104).
A. displicata octopunctata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = A. displicata (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1974b: 296).

mf alpica (L. Koch, 1869)....................Europe to Azerbaijan
Epeira a. L. Koch, 1869: 173 (Dmf).
Epeira a. Kulczyn'ski, 1885: 21, pl. 9, f. 3 (m).
Epeira a. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 131, pl. 5, f. 21 (mf).
Epeira a. Bösenberg, 1901: 30, pl. 1, f. 13 (mf).
Araneus alpicus Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 238, pl. 7, f. 6-7, 21, 27, 31 (mf).
Araneus alpicus Lessert, 1910b: 320, f. 174-176 (mf).
Araneus alpicus Charitonov, 1926c: 117, pl. 5, f. 6 (f).
Araneus alpicus Simon, 1929: 695, 763, f. 1076-1077 (mf).
Aranea a. Wiehle, 1931: 110, f. 171-173 (mf).
Aranea a. Drensky, 1943: 245, f. 23 (mf).
A. a. Archer, 1951c: 3, f. 4 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus alpicus Millidge & Locket, 1952: 65, f. 7a, 8a, 9a, 10a, 11b (mf).
Araneus alpicus Tullgren, 1952: 172, f. 19a-c (mf).
Araneus alpicus Locket & Millidge, 1953: 149, f. 96C, 98D, 99B, 100A (mf).
Aranea aplica Zamaraev, 1964: 358, f. 65-66 (m, lapsus).
Araneus alpicus Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 589 (f).
Araneus alpicus Miller, 1971: 210, pl. XXXIX, f. 13 (f).
Araneus alpicus Loksa, 1972: 83, f. 72D, 74A-C (mf).
Araneus alpicus Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 68, f. 40C-D (f).
A. a. Levi, 1974b: 299, f. 38-42 (mf).
A. a. Palmgren, 1974a: 34, f. 16o-r (mf).
A. a. Blanke, 1982: 292, f. 12a-b, 13a, c, 14a-b, 15a (mf).
A. a. Roberts, 1985: 216, f. 97d (mf).
Araneus alpicus Morano & Ferrández, 1985a: 31, f. A-E (mf).
A. a. Levy, 1987: 244, f. 10-12 (m).
A. a. Ransy, 1987: 25, f. 15, 17, 19, 21-22, 24, 26 (mf).
A. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 76, f. 172 (mf).
A. a. Roberts, 1995: 329, f. (mf).
Araneus alpicus Mcheidze, 1997: 275, f. 622 (f).
A. a. Roberts, 1998: 342, f. (mf).

mf cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757)....................Palearctic
Araneus cucurbitinus Clerck, 1757: 44, pl. 2, f. 4 (Df).
Aranea c. Linnaeus, 1758: 620 (Df).
Aranea frischii Scopoli, 1763: 395 (Df).
Aranea octopunctata Linnaeus, 1767: 1030 (Df).
Aranea viridis-punctata De Geer, 1778: 233, pl. 14, f. 1-3 (Df).
Aranea depressa Razoumowsky, 1789: 245 (Df).
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1805: 63.
Epeira c. Sundevall, 1833a: 245 (Dm).
Miranda c. C. L. Koch, 1838: 53, f. 371-372 (mf).
Epeira squamosa Seidel, 1849: 110 (D).
Epeira c. Blackwall, 1864a: 342, pl. 25, f. 247 (mf).
Miranda c. Menge, 1866: 69, pl. 10, f. 14 (mf).
Epeira c. Kulczyn'ski, 1885: 21, pl. 9, f. 2 (m).
Epeira cossoni Simon, 1885g: 23 (Df).
Epeira c. Becker, 1896: 25, pl. 6, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira c. Bösenberg, 1901: 31, pl. 2, f. 15 (mf).
Epeira c. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 333, pl. 12, f. 22 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus typicus Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 232, pl. 7, f. 1, 11, 15-16, 25 (mf).
Araneus cossoni Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 235, pl. 7, f. 13 (Dm).
Araneus cucurbitinus typicus Lessert, 1910b: 318, f. 170 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Charitonov, 1926c: 116, pl. 5, f. 5 (f).
Aranea c. Reimoser, 1929c: 85, f. 3 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Simon, 1929: 695, 762, f. 1074-1075 (mf).
Aranea c. Wiehle, 1931: 106, f. 161-164 (mf).
A. c. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 76 (Tmf from Araneus).
Aranea c. Drensky, 1943: 244, f. 22 (mf).
A. c. Archer, 1951b: 4, f. 1 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus Millidge & Locket, 1952: 65, f. 7c, 8c, 10b, 11a (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Tullgren, 1952: 170, f. 16a-c (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Locket & Millidge, 1953: 144, f. 96A, 97B, 98A, 99A (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Chrysanthus, 1955a: 301, f. 1 (f).
Aranea c. Zamaraev, 1964: 357, f. 61-63 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 591 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus Miller, 1971: 210, pl. XXXIX, f. 11-12 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus Loksa, 1972: 82, f. 71A-B, 72A (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Izmailova, 1972c: 51, f. 2 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus Bakhvalov, 1974: 110, f. 63-64, 66, 69 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 65, f. 38A-D (f).
A. c. Levi, 1974b: 298, f. 22-31 (mf, S, rejected).
A. c. Palmgren, 1974a: 36, f. 16a-d (mf).
A. c. Punda, 1975b: 36, f. 56-57 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Wunderlich, 1975b: 42, f. 30 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus Blanke, 1976a: 77, f. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Blanke, 1980a: 97, f. 1, 4, 7 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Tikader & Bal, 1981: 56, f. 125-128 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus Tikader, 1982a: 236, f. 462-465 (f).
Araneus cucurbitinus Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1982: 50, f. IV.17 (f).
A. c. Blanke, 1982: 289, f. 3a-b, 5a-b, 6a-b, 8a (mf, S).
A. c. Roberts, 1985: 216, f. 97a (mf).
A. c. Ransy, 1987: 25, f. 6, 9, 12 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1989: 226, f. LXX.17 (f).
A. c. Hu & Wu, 1989: 95, f. 72.1-2 (f).
A. c. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 78, f. 175 (mf).
A. c. Roberts, 1995: 328, f. (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Mcheidze, 1997: 274, f. 619-621 (m).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 207, f. 126a-b (f).
A. c. Roberts, 1998: 340, f. (mf).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 150B-C (f).
A. c. Hu, 2001: 452, f. 295.1-2 (mf).

mf displicata (Hentz, 1847) *....................Holarctic
Epeira d. Hentz, 1847: 476, pl. 31, f. 17 (Df).
Epeira ornata Blackwall, 1850: 342 (Df).
Epeira decipiens Fitch, 1855: 219 (Df).
Epeira westringii Thorell, 1856: 106 (Dm).
Epeira westringii Westring, 1861: 49 (Df).
Epeira westringii Hansen, 1882: 21, pl. 1, f. 36 (mf).
Epeira d. Emerton, 1884: 313, pl. 34, f. 4, pl. 36, f. 20 (mf).
Epeira sexpunctata Keyserling, 1885: 530, pl. 13, f. 28 (Df).
Epeira alba Keyserling, 1885: 530, pl. 13, f. 29 (Df).
Epeira cucurbitina Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 131, pl. 5, f. 20 (f, misidentified).
Epeira sexpunctata Keyserling, 1892: 200, pl. 9, f. 148 (f).
Epeira d. Keyserling, 1893: 219, pl. 10, f. 162 (f).
Epeira cucurbitina McCook, 1894: 150, pl. 3, f. 1-3, pl. 4, f. 6 (Dmf).
Epeira westringii Bösenberg, 1901: 31, pl. 1, f. 14 (mf).
Epeira d. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 333, pl. 13, f. 3 (f).
Epeira d. Emerton, 1902: 172, f. 405 (f).
Araneus croaticus Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 233, pl. 7, f. 22, 30 (Df).
Araneus displicatus Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 237, pl. 7, f. 5, 12, 19, 24, 28 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 287.
Aranea d. Wiehle, 1931: 109, f. 167-170 (mf).
Araneus displicatus Nakatsudi, 1942b: 11, f. 3A (m).
A. d. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 76 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. displicata octopunctata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 76 (Dmf).
Aranea d. Drensky, 1943: 245, f. 23 (mf).
Aranea d. Jong, 1947: 511, f. 1-3 (f).
A. d. Archer, 1951b: 4, f. 5 (m).
Araneus displicatus Millidge & Locket, 1952: 63, f. 6a (m).
Araneus displicatus Tullgren, 1952: 172, f. 18a-c (mf).
Araneus displicatus westringi Millidge & Locket, 1952: 63, f. 5a-b, 6b-c, 11c (mf).
Araneus displicatus westringi Locket & Millidge, 1953: 149, f. 96B, 97C, 99C, 100C, E (mf).
Araneus displicatus Schenkel, 1953b: 50, f. 24a-c (m).
Aranea d. westringi Zamaraev, 1964: 358, f. 71-72 (f).
A. d. Shear, 1967: 9, f. 24-25 (m).
Araneus cucurbitinus displicatus Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 581, 590 (mf).
Araneus displicatus Loksa, 1972: 82, f. 72B-C, 73A-B (mf).
Araneus displicatus westringi Loksa, 1972: 82, f. 73C (m).
A. d. Levi, 1974b: 294, f. 1-21 (mf, S).
A. d. Palmgren, 1974a: 36, f. 16g-j (mf).
A. d. Punda, 1975b: 36, f. 58-59 (mf).
A. d. Blanke, 1982: 288, f. 1-2 (mf).
Araneus displicatus Hu, 1984: 91, f. 84 (f).
A. d. Roberts, 1985: 216, f. 97e (mf).
Araneus displicatus Guo, 1985: 53, f. 2-10.1-3 (mf).
Araneus displicatus Zhu et al., 1985: 72, f. 59a-e (mf).
Araneus displicatus Song, 1987: 162, f. 123 (mf).
A. d. Ransy, 1987: 25, f. 1-5 (mf).
Araneus displicatus Zhang, 1987: 67, f. 49.1-3 (mf).
A. d. Hu & Wu, 1989: 97, f. 72.3-4 (m).
Araneus displicatus Izmailova, 1989: 53, f. 37 (f).
Araneus displicatus Chen & Gao, 1990: 44, f. 47a-c (mf).
A. d. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 78, f. 173 (mf).
A. d. Breene et al., 1993: 107, f. 166A-C (mf).
Araneus displicatus Zhao, 1993: 229, f. 104a-e (mf).
A. d. Roberts, 1995: 329, f. (mf).
A. d. Tanikawa, 1995a: 56, f. 10-16 (mf).
A. d. Buckle & Roney, 1995: 977, f. 4-6 (mf).
A. d. Yin et al., 1997: 208, f. 127a-f (mf).
A. d. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1711, f. 10a-b (m).
A. d. Roberts, 1998: 342, f. (mf).
A. d. Kim, 1998c: 2, f. 1-7 (mf).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 150D-E, L-M, P (mf).
A. d. Hu, 2001: 453, f. 296.1-5 (mf).
A. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 197, f. 118A-E (mf).

mf inconspicua (Simon, 1874)....................Palearctic
Epeira i. Simon, 1874a: 84 (Df).
Epeira i. Bertkau, 1889: 77 (Dm).
Epeira i. Bösenberg, 1901: 29, pl. 1, f. 12 (mf).
Epeira i. Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 333, pl. 13, f. 1 (f).
Araneus inconspicuus Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 239, pl. 7, f. 8-9, 18 (mf).
Aranea i. Wiehle, 1931: 112, f. 174-176 (mf).
Aranea i. Drensky, 1943: 245, f. 23 (mf).
Araneus inconspicuus Millidge & Locket, 1952: 65, f. 7b, 8b, 9b, 10a (mf).
Araneus inconspicuus Locket & Millidge, 1953: 146, f. 97A, 98C, 99D, 100B (mf).
Aranea i. Zamaraev, 1964: 358, f. 64, 67 (f).
Araneus inconspicuus Miller, 1971: 211, pl. XXXIX, f. 14 (f).
Araneus inconspicuus Loksa, 1972: 83, f. 74D-F (mf).
Araneus inconspicuus Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 68, f. 40A-B (f).
A. i. Levi, 1974b: 298, f. 32-37 (Tmf from Araneus).
A. i. Blanke, 1982: 292, f. 12c-d, 13b, d, 14c-d, 15b (mf).
A. i. Roberts, 1985: 216, f. 97c (mf).
A. i. Ransy, 1987: 25, f. 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27 (mf).
A. i. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 76, f. 171 (mf).
A. i. Roberts, 1995: 328, f. (mf).
A. i. Yin et al., 1997: 209, f. 128a-d (f).
A. i. Roberts, 1998: 342, f. (mf).
A. i. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 150F-H, Q (f).

mf jilinensis Yin & Zhu, 1994....................China
A. j. Yin & Zhu, 1994: 1, f. 1-7 (Dmf).
A. jilingensis Yin et al., 1997: 210, f. 129a-g (mf).
A. jilingensis Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 150I-K, N-O (mf).

mf maderiana (Kulczyn'ski, 1905)....................Canary Is., Madeira
Araneus cucurbitinus m. Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 231, pl. 7, f. 3 (Dm).
Araneus maderianus Blanke, 1980a: 97, f. 3, 6, 9 (mf, elevated from subspecies of A. cucurbitina).
Araneus maderianus Blanke, 1980b: 225, f. 2b, 3a (mf).
A. m. Blanke, 1982: 289, f. 9 (mf).

mf opisthographa (Kulczyn'ski, 1905)....................Europe to Central Asia
Araneus cucurbitinus o. Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 232, pl. 7, f. 2, 20, 23, 26 (Dmf).
Araneus cucurbitinus opisthographus Lessert, 1910b: 319, f. 171-172 (mf).
Aranea cucurbitina o. Wiehle, 1931: 108, f. 165-166 (mf).
Aranea cucurbitina o. Drensky, 1943: 245, f. 22 (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus opistographus Millidge & Locket, 1952: 65, f. 7d (m).
Araneus cucurbitinus opistographus Tullgren, 1952: 172, f. 17a-c (mf).
Araneus cucurbitinus opistographus Locket & Millidge, 1953: 145, f. 98B (m).
Araneus cucurbitinus opistographus Chrysanthus, 1955a: 301, f. 1 (f).
Araneus opistographus Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 65, f. 39A-D (f, elevated from subspecies of A. cucurbitina).
A. cucurbitina Levi, 1974b: 298 (S, rejected).
A. cucurbitina opistographa Palmgren, 1974a: 36, f. 16e-f (mf).
A. o. Punda, 1975b: 36, f. 60-61 (mf).
Araneus opistographus Blanke, 1976a: 77, f. 1b, 2b, 3b, 4b (mf).
Araneus opisthographus Blanke, 1980a: 97, f. 2, 5, 8 (mf).
Araneus opisthographus Blanke, 1980b: 225, f. 2a, 3b (mf).
A. o. Blanke, 1982: 289, f. 3c-d, 5c-d, 6c-d, 8b (mf, removed from S).
A. opistographa Roberts, 1985: 216, f. 97b (mf).
A. o. Levy, 1987: 244, f. 1-9 (mf).
A. opistographa Ransy, 1987: 25, f. 7, 10, 13 (mf).
A. o. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 78, f. 176 (mf).
A. o. Roberts, 1995: 328, f. (mf).
A. o. Roberts, 1998: 341, f. (mf).

mf proxima (Kulczyn'ski, 1885)....................Holarctic
Epeira p. Kulczyn'ski, 1885: 19, pl. 9, f. 11 (Dm).
Epeira mediocris Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 322, pl. 12, f. 21 (Df).
Araneus proximus Kulczyn'ski, 1905b: 232, pl. 7, f. 4, 10, 14, 17, 29 (mf).
Araneus proximus Schenkel, 1930b: 22, f. 8 (mf).
Araneus proximus Tullgren, 1952: 172, f. 20a-c (mf).
Araneus proximus Azheganova, 1968: 78, f. 161, 170 (mf).
A. p. Palmgren, 1974a: 37, f. 16k-n (Tmf from Araneus).
A. cucurbitina Levi, 1974b: 298 (S, rejected).
Araneus proximus Wunderlich, 1975b: 40, f. 23-29 (mf).
A. p. Blanke, 1982: 289, f. 10-11 (mf, removed from S).
A. p. Ransy, 1987: 25, f. 8, 11, 14 (mf).
A. p. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 78, f. 174 (mf).
A. p. Buckle & Roney, 1995: 977, f. 1-3 (mf).
A. p. Roberts, 1998: 341, f. (mf).

f silesiaca (Fickert, 1876)....................Europe
Epeira silesiaca Fickert, 1876: 70 (Df).
A. s. Blanke, 1982: 302 (removed f from S of A. alpica; not a S of Araneus crispulus Tullgren, 1952, which is not an Araniella, contra Grasshoff, 1976: 150).

mf tbilisiensis (Mcheidze, 1997)....................Georgia
Araneus t. Mcheidze, 1997: 280, f. 642-644 (Dmf).
A. t. Mikhailov, 1998b: 18 (Tmf from Araneus).

mf yaginumai Tanikawa, 1995....................Russia, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
A. y. Tanikawa, 1995a: 52, f. 1-9 (Dmf).
A. y. Chang & Chang, 1996: 143, f. 1-4 (mf).
A. y. Kim, 1998c: 4, f. 8-13 (mf).
A. y. Marusik & Koponen, 2000: 56, f. 1-7 (mf).

Gen. Aranoethra Butler, 1873

f butleri Pocock, 1899....................West Africa
A. b. Pocock, 1899e: 860, pl. 55, f. 1 (Df).

mf cambridgei (Butler, 1873) *....................West, Central Africa
Gasteracantha (A.) c. Butler, 1873a: 175, pl. 4, f. 8 (Df).
A. c. Simon, 1907d: 304 (Dm).
A. c. Emerit, 1982c: 465, f. 5-6 (Dm; m previously placed here by Simon, 1907 belongs to Gasteracantha curvispina (Guérin, 1837).

f ungari Karsch, 1878....................West Africa
A. u. Karsch, 1878c: 322, pl. 9, f. 1 (Df; N.B.: treated as a synonym of A. cambridgei by Lessert, 1930: 661, without explanation).

Gen. Argiope Audouin, 1826

N.B.: original spelling Argyope suppressed by ICZN Opinion 1038; considered a senior synonym of Austrargiope Kishida, 1936a: 17, type Argiope plana L. Koch, 1867 [=A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775)], Chaetargiope Kishida, 1936a: 20, type Argiope picta L. Koch, 1871, Coganargiope Kishida, 1936a: 18, type Argiope amoena L. Koch, 1878 and Heterargiope Kishida, 1936a: 19, type Argiope maja Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 by Yaginuma, 1959c: 21 and of Brachygea Caporiacco, 1947a: 24, type B. platycephala Caporiacco, 1947 [=A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775)] by Levi, 1983: 258.

Transferred to other genera:
A. aequior Chamberlin, 1924 -- see Oxyopes under Oxyopidae.
A. aurea Saito, 1934 -- see Eriophora.
A. curvipes Keyserling, 1886 -- see Gea.
A. lalita Sherriffs, 1928 -- see Neogea.
A. lepida Thorell, 1898 -- see Acusilas.
A. leucopicta Urquhart, 1890 -- see Cyrtophora.
A. marxi McCook, 1894 -- see Cyrtophora.
A. sachalinensis Saito, 1934 -- see Eriophora.
A. viabilior Chamberlin, 1924 -- see Oxyopes under Oxyopidae.

In synonymy:
A. abalosi Mello-Leitão, 1942 = A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 340).
A. aetherea confusa Kulczyn'ski, 1911 = A. reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859) (Levi, 1983: 277).
A. aetherea coniuncta Kulczyn'ski, 1911 = A. reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859) (Levi, 1983: 278).
A. aetherea deusta Thorell, 1881 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Chrysanthus, 1958a: 238).
A. aetherea keyensis Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 314).
A. aetherea melanopalpis Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. aetherea tangana Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. anasuja fletcheri Hirst, 1911 = A. anasuja Thorell, 1887 (Grasshoff, 1980: 390).
A. appensa pictula Strand, 1911 = A. modesta Thorell, 1881 (Levi, 1983: 308).
A. arcuata Simon, 1884 = A. lobata (Pallas, 1772) (Levi, 1983: 284).
A. avara Thorell, 1859 = A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 340).
A. avara angulicosta Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. avara ocelligera Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. avara tristipes Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. banana Strand, 1919 = A. australis (Walckenaer, 1805) (Bjørn, 1997: 209).
A. barbipoda Strand, 1911 = A. reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859) (Levi, 1983: 277).
A. boetonica Strand, 1915 (removed from S of A. aetherea)= A. appensa (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 308, contra Chrysanthus, 1971: 10).
A. browni O. P.-Cambridge, 1877 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. bruennichi africana Strand, 1906 = A. bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) (Bjørn, 1997: 214).
A. bruennichi orientalis Strand, 1907 = A. bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) (Levi, 1983: 282).
A. carinata L. Koch, 1871 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1983: 251).
A. celebesiana Merian, 1911 = A. reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859) (Levi, 1983: 278).
A. chloreides Chrysanthus, 1961 = A. chloreis Thorell, 1877 (Levi, 1983: 292).
A. clathrata C. L. Koch, 1839 = A. australis (Walckenaer, 1805) (Bjørn, 1997: 209).
A. concinna Thorell, 1881 = A. reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859) (Levi, 1983: 276).
A. cuspidata Thorell, 1859 = A. flavipalpis (Lucas, 1858) (Edmunds, 1982: 287).
A. cuyunii Hingston, 1932 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 346).
A. davidi Schenkel, 1963 = A. amoena L. Koch, 1878 (Levi, 1983: 280).
A. doleschalli bivittigera Strand, 1911 = A. reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859) (Levi, 1983: 276).
A. dubiosa (Strand, 1911, T from Gea) = A. picta L. Koch, 1871 (Levi, 1983: 317).
A. filiargentata Hingston, 1932 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 346).
A. filinfracta Hingston, 1932 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 346).
A. friederici Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. gracilenta (Roewer, 1942, T from Singa) = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1991a: 177).
A. gracillima Roewer, 1942 = A. protensa L. Koch, 1872 (Levi, 1983: 285).
A. haynesi Hogg, 1914 = A. protensa L. Koch, 1872 (Levi, 1983: 285).
A. hirta Taczanowski, 1879 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 345).
A. indistincta Mello-Leitão, 1944 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 346).
A. kalimpongensis Sinha, 1952 = A. caesarea Thorell, 1897 (Levi, 1983: 279).
A. leopardina Pocock, 1898 = A. bougainvilla (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 1983: 312).
A. leopardina clavifemur Strand, 1914 = A. bougainvilla (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 1983: 312).
A. lihirica Strand, 1913 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 314).
A. lugubris L. Koch, 1872 = A. picta L. Koch, 1871 (Levi, 1983: 317).
A. lunata Bradley, 1876 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. maerens Kulczyn'ski, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. mindiptanensis Chrysanthus, 1961 = A. halmaherensis Strand, 1907 (Levi, 1983: 294).
A. multifasciata Thorell, 1892 = A. protensa L. Koch, 1872 (Levi, 1983: 284).
A. nigripes Simon, 1890 = A. australis (Walckenaer, 1805) (Bjørn, 1997: 209).
A. nigrovittata Thorell, 1859 = A. australis (Walckenaer, 1805) (Bjørn, 1997: 209).
A. novaepommeraniae Strand, 1915 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 314).
A. obscuripes Strand, 1906 = A. sector (Forskål, 1775) (Bjørn, 1997: 224).
A. ohsumiensis Yaginuma, 1967 = A. ocula Fox, 1938 (Levi, 1983: 272).
A. ornata lineata (Marapao, 1965) = A. aemula (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 273).
A. ornata turricula (Marapao, 1965) = A. catenulata (Doleschall, 1859) (Levi, 1983: 274).
A. pallida Rainbow, 1897 = A. protensa L. Koch, 1872 (Levi, 1983: 285).
A. panamensis (Chamberlin, 1917, T from Gea) = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Bryant, 1940: 333).
A. plagiata Karsch, 1891 = A. anasuja Thorell, 1887 (Levi, 1983: 293).
A. plana L. Koch, 1867 (removed from S of A. reinwardti) = A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775) (Chrysanthus, 1972: 156).
A. platycephala (Caporiacco, 1947) = A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775) (Levi, 1983: 286).
A. pradhani Sinha, 1952 = A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775) (Levi, 1983: 286).
A. principalis L. Koch, 1871 = A. picta L. Koch, 1871 (Chrysanthus, 1958a: 237).
A. pumila Thorell, 1890 = A. chloreis Thorell, 1877 (Levi, 1983: 292).
A. reticulata (Kishida, 1931) = A. appensa (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 308).
A. rotunda (Hogg, 1915, T from Gea) = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 314).
A. schoenigi Marapao, 1965 = A. appensa (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 308).
A. seminola Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 = A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 340).
A. shillongensis Sinha, 1951 = A. minuta Karsch, 1879 (Levi, 1983: 298).
A. sikkimensis Tikader, 1970 = A. caesarea Thorell, 1897 (Levi, 1983: 279; see also Tikader, 1982a: 125).
A. squallica Strand, 1915 (removed from S of A. picta)= A. brunnescentia Strand, 1911 (Levi, 1983: 310, contra Chrysanthus, 1971: 14).
A. stenogastra Mello-Leitão, 1945 = A. trifasciata (Forskål, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 340).
A. suavissima Gerstäcker, 1873 = A. australis (Walckenaer, 1805) (Bjørn, 1997: 209).
A. submaronica Strand, 1915 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1968a: 346, after Bonnet).
A. udjirica Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Chrysanthus, 1958a: 240).
A. undulata Thorell, 1887 (removed from S of A. luzona) = A. pulchella Thorell, 1881 (Levi, 1983: 304).
A. vanicorensis Simon, 1897 = A. bougainvilla (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 1983: 312).
A. verecunda Thorell, 1878 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. waughi Simon, 1896 = A. argentata (Fabricius, 1775) (Archer, 1963: 18, sub A. hirta).
A. wogeonicola Strand, 1913 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 314).
A. wolfi Strand, 1911 = A. aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1983: 313).
A. zabonica (Chamberlin, 1924) = A. bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) (Levi, 1983: 282).

Nomina dubia:
A. elegans Thorell, 1859: 299 (f, South Africa) -- Bjørn, 1997: 206.
A. gibberosa Caporiacco, 1947d: 158 (j, Kenya, Tanzania) -- Bjørn, 1997: 206.
A. gracilis Blackwall, 1866: 464 (j, tropical Africa) -- Bjørn, 1997: 206.
A. manicata Thorell, 1859: 300 (j, Hong Kong) -- Levi, 1983: 262.
A. papuana Workman, 1900: 129, f, New Guinea -- omitted by Roewer and Bonnet.

Nomen nudum:
A. argentata nigra Franganillo, 1926a: 52.

mf acuminata Franganillo, 1920....................Portugal
A. a. Franganillo, 1920: 138 (Dmf).

mf aemula (Walckenaer, 1842)....................India to Philippines, New Hebrides
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 118 (Df).
Epeira striata Doleschall, 1857: 415 (Df).
Epeira striata Doleschall, 1859: 30, pl. 9, f. 2 (f).
A. a. Thorell, 1877b: 364 (Dm).
A. a. Thorell, 1887: 164 (Dm).
A. trivittata Karsch, 1891: 280, pl. 10, f. 6 (Df).
Metargiope ornatus lineatus Marapao, 1965: 46, pl. 2, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. a. Shimojana, 1967: 18, f. 11 (f).
A. a. Tikader, 1970: 29, f. 17b (f).
A. a. Chrysanthus, 1971: 9, f. 1-3 (f).
A. a. Yin, 1978: 4, f. 9A-C (f).
A. a. Song, 1980: 100, f. 46a-c (f).
A. a. Tikader, 1982a: 119, f. 223-226 (f).
A. ornata lineata Brignoli, 1983c: 242.
A. a. Levi, 1983: 273, f. 9-10, 29-35 (mf, S).
A. a. Hu, 1984: 101, f. 97.1-3 (f).
A. a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 114, f. 59.6 (m).
A. a. Chikuni, 1989b: 78, f. 46 (mf).
A. aemule Feng, 1990: 62, f. 37.1-4 (f).
A. a. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 575, f. 356a-d, 357a-f (mf).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 69, f. 3a-g (mf).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 150R-S, 151A, 152L, 153F (mf).

f aemula nigripes Thorell, 1877....................Sulawesi
A. a. u. Thorell, 1877b: 364 (Df).

mf aetherea (Walckenaer, 1842)....................China to Australia
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 112 (Df).
A. regalis L. Koch, 1871: 36, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
A. variabilis Bradley, 1876a: 141, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
A. lunata Bradley, 1876a: 143, pl. 1, f. 4 (Df).
A. brownii O. P.-Cambridge, 1877a: 284 (Df).
A. verecunda Thorell, 1878b: 35 (Df).
A. a. deusta Thorell, 1881: 68 (Df).
A. verecunda Pocock, 1897c: 599, pl. 35, f. 6.
A. a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 198, pl. 12, f. 296 (f).
A. maerens Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 473, pl. 20, f. 45 (Df).
A. avara angulicosta Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
A. avara ocelligera Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
A. avara tristipes Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
A. a. melanopalpis Strand, 1911b: 204 (Df).
A. a. tangana Strand, 1911b: 204 (Df).
A. friedericii Strand, 1911b: 204 (Df).
A. wolfi Strand, 1911b: 204 (Dj).
A. udjirica Strand, 1911d: 142, pl. 5, f. 43 (Df).
A. a. keyensis Strand, 1911d: 145 (Df).
A. lihirica Strand, 1913d: 116 (Df).
A. wogeonicola Strand, 1913d: 116 (Df).
A. a. deusta Strand, 1915d: 211, pl. 13, f. 15, pl. 17, f. 61 (f).
A. novae-pommeraniae Strand, 1915d: 212, pl. 16, f. 51 (Df).
A. wolfi Strand, 1915d: 212, pl. 16, f. 55 (Df).
A. wogeonicola Strand, 1915d: 213, pl. 16, f. 56, pl. 17, f. 58 (f).
A. friedericii Strand, 1915d: 214, pl. 17, f. 62 (f).
A. lihirica Strand, 1915d: 215, pl. 13, f. 14, pl. 16, f. 52 (f).
Gea rotunda Hogg, 1915a: 444, f. 24 (Dm).
A. udjirica Roewer, 1938: 33, f. 22 (f).
A. a. Chrysanthus, 1958a: 237, f. 7-12, 20, 24 (mf, S).
A. a. Main, 1964: 102, f. D-E (f).
A. a. Chrysanthus, 1971: 10 (S A. boetonica, rejected).
A. a. Levi, 1983: 313, f. 5-6, 297-309 (mf, S).

f aetherea annulipes Thorell, 1881....................New Guinea
A. a. a. Thorell, 1881: 68 (Df).

mf aetheroides Yin et al., 1989....................China, Japan
A. aetherea Yaginuma, 1986a: 114, f. 59.5 (f, misidentified).
A. a. Yin et al., 1989: 61, f. 1A-E (Df).
A. a. Tanikawa, 1994a: 34, f. 1-7 (f, Dm).
A. a. Yin & Bao, 1995a: 127, f. 1-3 (m).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 80, f. 13a-i (mf).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 151B-D, 152M, 153G (mf).

f ahngeri Spassky, 1932....................Central Asia
A. a. Spassky, 1932a: 182, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. anhgeri Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 11 (f).

mf amoena L. Koch, 1878....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
A. a. L. Koch, 1878c: 735, pl. 15, f. 1 (Df).
A. a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 199, pl. 4, f. 19, pl. 12, f. 290 (f, Dm).
A. a. Strand, 1918: 95, pl. 2, f. 37 (f).
Coganargiope a. Kishida, 1936a: 18 (Tmf from Argiope).
Coganargiope a. Nakatsudi, 1942a: 304, f. 3-4 (f).
A. davidi Schenkel, 1963: 136, f. 80a-b (Dm).
A. a. Hikichi, 1977: 154, f. 39 (f).
A. a. Yin, 1978: 3, f. 7A-C (f).
A. a. Song, 1980: 98, f. 44a-c (f).
A. a. Wang, 1981: 99, f. 40A-C (f).
A. a. Levi, 1983: 280, f. 67-72 (mf, S).
A. a. Hu, 1984: 102, f. 98.4-5 (f).
A. a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 113, f. 59.1 (m).
A. a. Chikuni, 1989b: 79, f. 48 (mf).
A. a. Feng, 1990: 64, f. 39.1-5 (mf).
A. a. Chen & Gao, 1990: 49, f. 55a-b (mf).
A. a. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 83, f. 73.1-4 (mf).
A. a. Yin et al., 1997: 72, f. 6a-f (mf).
A. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 151E-F, 152N, 153H (mf).
A. a. Hu, 2001: 431, f. 277.1-4 (mf).

mf anasuja Thorell, 1887....................Pakistan to Maldives
A. a. Thorell, 1887: 162 (D).
A. plagiata Karsch, 1891: 279, pl. 10, f. 5 (Df).
A. plagiata Strand, 1907k: 167, f. 5 (f).
A. a. fletcheri Hirst, 1911: 385, f. 3 (Df).
A. a. Gravely, 1921a: 412, f. 3a (f).
A. a. Grasshoff, 1980: 389 (S).
A. a. Tikader, 1982a: 127, f. 239-242 (f).
A. a. Levi, 1983: 293, f. 167-172 (f, Dm, S).

m anomalopalpis Bjørn, 1997....................Congo, South Africa
A. a. Bjørn, 1997: 230, f. 79 (Dm).

mf appensa (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Hawaii, Taiwan to New Guinea
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 111 (Df).
Epeira crenulata Doleschall, 1857: 414 (Df).
Epeira crenulata Doleschall, 1859: pl. 3, f. 7 (f).
A. chrysorrhoea L. Koch, 1871: 38, pl. 3, f. 5 (Df).
A. crenulata Thorell, 1878b: 30 (Dm).
A. boetonica Strand, 1915d: 215, pl. 16, f. 53 (Dm).
Coganargiope reticulata Kishida, 1936a: 27, f. 6-11 (Dmf).
A. crenulata Roewer, 1938: 33, f. 23 (f).
Coganargiope reticulata Nakatsudi, 1943a: 154, f. 5a-b, pl. XXII, f. 1-2 (mf).
A. schoenigi Marapao, 1965: 44, pl. 1, f. 1-6 (Dmf).
A. a. Chrysanthus, 1971: 10, f. 4-8 (mf).
A. a. Levi, 1983: 308, f. 271-278 (mf, S).

mf argentata (Fabricius, 1775)....................USA to Argentina
Aranea a. Fabricius, 1775: 433 (D).
Aranea mammeata De Geer, 1778: 318, pl. 39, f. 5 (D).
Aranea mammata Olivier, 1789: 202.
Aranea a. Olivier, 1789: 234 (D)
Epeira mammata Walckenaer, 1805: 56.
Argyopes argentatus C. L. Koch, 1838: 38, f. 360 (Df).
Argyopes fenestrinus C. L. Koch, 1838: 39, f. 361 (Df).
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 115, pl. 18, f. 3 (f).
Epeira amictoria Walckenaer, 1842: 119 (Df).
Plectana sloanii Walckenaer, 1842: 200 (Df).
Epeira gracilis Keyserling, 1865: 826, pl. 19, f. 29-30 (Dm; preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1805).
A. carinata L. Koch, 1871: 29, pl. 2, f. 7 (Df).
Acrosoma sloanii Butler, 1873b: 428.
Argyopes maronicus Taczanowski, 1873: 261 (Df).
Argyopes subtilis Taczanowski, 1873: 261 (Df).
Argyopes hirtus Taczanowski, 1879: 103, pl. 1, f. 23 (Df).
Epeira gracilis Keyserling, 1893: 235, pl. 11, f. 175 (m).
A. a. McCook, 1894: 220, pl. 16, f. 1-2 (mf).
A. a. Simon, 1895a: 764, f. 840 (f).
A. waughi Simon, 1896e: 105 (Df).
A. a. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 450, pl. 42, f. 25-26 (mf).
Araneus gracilis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 294.
Micrathena sloanei Petrunkevitch, 1911: 378.
A. submaronica Strand, 1916b: 105 (Df).
Gea panamensis Chamberlin, 1917: 243, pl. 19, f. 8 (Dm).
A. a. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 241, f. 90-92 (mf).
A. argyrea Badcock, 1932: 19, f. 13 (Df).
Micrathena sloani Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 77.
A. cuyunii Hingston, 1932: 373 (Df).
A. filiargentata Hingston, 1932: 373 (Df).
A. filinfracta Hingston, 1932: 373 (Df).
A. a. Bryant, 1940: 333 (S).
Singa gracilis Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 259 (Tm from Araneus sub primary homonym by Keyserling, 1865, replaced by Aranea gracilenta in Roewer).
Aranea gracilenta Roewer, 1942a: 843 (replacement name for Epeira gracilis).
A. indistincta Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 328, f. 12 (Dm).
A. a. Abalos & Báez, 1963: 201, f. 12-15, 26-27 (mf).
A. a. Abalos, 1967: 273, f. 12G-H, J (f).
A. hirta Archer, 1963: 18 (S).
A. a. Levi, 1968a: 345, f. 42, 73, 112-136 (mf, S).
A. a. Levi, 1983: 251 (S).
A. a. Levi, 1991a: 177 (S).
A. a. Lopez, 1993: 12, f. 12-13 (m).

mf aurantia Lucas, 1833....................Canada to Costa Rica
A. a. Lucas, 1833a: 86, pl. 5, f. 1 (Df).
Nephila vestita C. L. Koch, 1838: 35, f. 358 (Df).
Epeira a. Lucas, 1840: 421.
Epeira cophinaria Walckenaer, 1842: 109 (Df).
Epeira ambitoria Walckenaer, 1842: 112 (Df).
Epeira riparia Hentz, 1847: 468, pl. 30, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira sutrix Hentz, 1847: 478, pl. 31, f. 23 (Df).
A. riparia McCook, 1882: 256.
A. riparia Emerton, 1884: 329, pl. 34, f. 19, pl. 38, f. 13-14, 19 (f, Dm).
A. riparia multiconcha Treat, 1887: 1122 (Df).
A. cophinaria Marx, 1890: 541.
A. personata O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: 110, pl. 14, f. 14 (Df).
A. cophinaria McCook, 1894: 217, pl. 15, f. 1-6, pl. 16, f. 1, 5-6 (mf).
A. a. Simon, 1895a: 765, f. 843 (m).
A. godmani O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 236, pl. 37, f. 8 (Df).
A. riparia Emerton, 1902: 194, f. 448-454 (f, Dm).
Miranda cophinaria F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 452, pl. 43, f. 4-5 (f, Dm).
A. a. Kaston, 1948: 221, f. 696, 717-721 (mf).
A. a. Cloudsley-Thompson, 1956: 74, f. 1B (f).
A. a. Levi, 1968a: 338, f. 43-57 (mf).
A. a. Breene et al., 1993: 101, f. 147A-C (mf).

f aurocincta Pocock, 1898....................Central, East, Southern Africa
A. a. Pocock, 1898g: 512, pl. 41, f. 6, pl. 42, f. 11 (Df).
A. a. Bjørn, 1997: 207, f. 6-10, 15-19 (f).

mf australis (Walckenaer, 1805)....................Central, East, Southern Africa
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1805: 56 (D).
Argyopes clathratus C. L. Koch, 1838: 40, f. 362 (Df).
Epeira australis Walckenaer, 1842: 116 (Df).
A. laeta Thorell, 1859: 300 (Df).
A. nigrovittata Thorell, 1859: 300 (Df).
Argyopes caudatus Blackwall, 1865b: 346 (Df).
A. sericea zairensis Brito Capello, 1866: 80 (Df).
A. clathrata Thorell, 1868b: 30.
A. nigrovittata Thorell, 1868b: 31.
A. suavissima Gerstäcker, 1873: 495, pl. 18, f. 10 (Df).
A. nigripes Simon, 1890a: 101 (Df).
A. suavissima Tullgren, 1910: 156, pl. 4, f. 91 (f).
A. nigrovittata Tullgren, 1910: 156, pl. 4, f. 92 (f).
A. banana Strand, 1920: 110 (Df).
A. suavissima Lessert, 1930: 629, f. 10a (f).
A. a. Bjørn, 1997: 209, f. 1, 11-12, 20-33 (N.B.: Walckenaer's 1805 citation of a pre-Linnean discussion of the f of this species regarded as a valid indication, Dm, S).

mf blanda O. P.-Cambridge, 1898....................USA to Costa Rica
A. b. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 267, pl. 37, f. 2 (Dm).
A. b. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 451, pl. 43, f. 1 (m).
A. b. Levi, 1968a: 348, f. 137-153 (m, Df).

mf boesenbergi Levi, 1983....................China, Korea, Japan
A. b. Levi, 1983: 279, f. 61-66 (Dmf).
A. b. Yaginuma, 1986a: 113, f. 59.2 (m).
A. b. Hu & Li, 1987b: 265, f. 11.1-5 (f).
A. b. Chikuni, 1989b: 79, f. 49 (mf).
A. b. Feng, 1990: 63, f. 38.1-6 (mf).
A. b. Chen & Gao, 1990: 50, f. 56a-c (f).
A. b. Namkung, Im & Kim, 1994: 69, f. 7-14 (mf).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 73, f. 7a-f (f).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 261, f. 151G-I (f).
A. b. Hu, 2001: 432, f. 278.1-2 (f).

mf bougainvilla (Walckenaer, 1847)....................New Guinea to Solomon Is.
Epeira b. Walckenaer, 1847a: 473 (Df).
A. b. L. Koch, 1871: 42.
A. vanicorensis Simon, 1898b: 272 (Df).
A. leopardina Pocock, 1898b: 461, pl. 19, f. 2 (Df).
A. leopardina clavifemur Strand, 1915d: 216 (Df).
A. b. Levi, 1983: 312, f. 286-291 (f, Dm, S).

mf bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)....................Palearctic
Aranea brünnichii Scopoli, 1772: 125 (D).
Aranea speciosa Pallas, 1773: 732 (D).
Aranea senoculata Lepechin, 1774: 316, pl. 16, f. 1 (misidentified).
Aranea fasciata Fabricius, 1775: 433 (D).
Aranea zebra Sulzer, 1776: 254, pl. 29, f. 15 (Df).
Aranea formosa Cyrillus, 1787: 7, pl. 9 (Df).
Aranea pulchra Razoumowsky, 1787: 372 (D).
Aranea caspia Gmelin, 1789: 2959 (D).
Aranea fasciata Olivier, 1789: 198 (D).
Aranea phragmitis Rossi, 1790: 128, pl. 3, f. 13, pl. 9, f. 5 (D).
Segestria pulchra Risso, 1826: 160 (D).
A. fasciata Audouin, 1826: 329 (Df).
Miranda transalpina C. L. Koch, 1835: 128, pl. 14 (Df).
Epeira speciosa Krynicki, 1837: 76.
Nephila transalpina C. L. Koch, 1838: 33, f. 356-357 (Dmf).
Epeira speciosa Eichwald, 1841: 241, pl. 37, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira fasciata Walckenaer, 1842: 104 (Dmf).
Epeira fasciata var. A. Walckenaer, 1842: 105 (f).
Nephila fasciata C. L. Koch, 1844: 159, f. 954 (f).
A. b. Thorell, 1873: 518.
A. b. Simon, 1874a: 31 (mf).
A. b. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 117, pl. 4, f. 40 (mf).
A. b. Becker, 1896: 5, pl. 1, f. 2 (mf).
A. b. Bösenberg, 1901: 20, pl. 1, f. 1 (mf).
A. brünnichii africana Strand, 1906b: 618 (Df).
A. b. orientalis Strand, 1907m: 416 (Df).
Miranda zabonica Chamberlin, 1924a: 17, pl. 4, f. 34 (Dmf).
A. b. Kolosváry, 1931: 1075, pl. 30, f. 6-9 (f).
A. b. Wiehle, 1931: 14, f. 4b, 5a, 11-17 (Dmf).
A. b. Drensky, 1943: 222, f. 3 (mf).
A. b. Bristowe, 1945: 829, f. 1-3 (f).
A. b. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 168, f. 112A-C (mf).
A. b. Cloudsley-Thompson, 1956: 74, f. 1A (f).
A. brünnichi Saito, 1959: 100, f. 117a-f (f).
A. b. Crome & Crome, 1961a: 444, f. 37-42 (f).
A. b. Crome & Crome, 1961b: 190, f. 22-26 (mf).
A. b. Azheganova, 1968: 70, f. 141-143 (mf).
A. b. Levi, 1968a: 334, f. 39-41 (m).
A. b. Tyschchenko, 1971: 190, f. 550 (m).
A. b. Miller, 1971: 201, pl. XXXVII, f. 16 (f).
A. b. Loksa, 1972: 110, f. 100B, 101A-B (mf).
A. b. Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 12-14 (f).
A. b. Yin, 1978: 3, f. 6A-C (f).
A. b. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 42, f. 23 (m).
A. b. Song, 1980: 97, f. 43a-c (f).
A. b. Wang, 1981: 98, f. 39A-C (f).
A. b. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1982: 50, f. III.21, 25 (mf).
A. b. Levi, 1983: 282, f. 81-86 (mf, S).
A. b. Hu, 1984: 103, f. 99.1-2 (f).
A. b. Roberts, 1985: 222, f. 100c (mf).
A. b. Zhu et al., 1985: 76, f. 63a-c (f).
A. b. Yaginuma, 1986a: 114, f. 69.4 (m).
A. bruennichii Zhang, 1987: 75, f. 59.1-4 (mf).
A. b. Song, 1988: 130, f. 9A-C (mf).
A. b. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1989: 225, f. LXIX.21, 25 (mf).
A. b. Chikuni, 1989b: 78, f. 47 (mf).
A. b. Hu & Wu, 1989: 98, f. 73.1-3 (mf).
A. bruennichii Feng, 1990: 65, f. 40.1-5 (mf).
A. bruennichii Chen & Gao, 1990: 50, f. 57a-b (mf).
A. b. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 82, f. 72.1-4 (mf).
A. b. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 80, f. 177 (mf).
A. b. Zhao, 1993: 234, f. 108a-c (f).
A. b. Roberts, 1995: 338, f. (mf).
A. b. Mcheidze, 1997: 252, f. 543-547 (mf).
A. b. Bjørn, 1997: 214, f. 37-42 (mf, S).
A. b. Levy, 1998a: 358, f. 179-187 (mf).
A. b. Yin et al., 1997: 75, f. 8a-f (mf).
A. b. Roberts, 1998: 350, f. (mf).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 261, f. 151J-K, 152O (mf).
A. bruennichii Hu, 2001: 433, f. 279.1-3 (mf).
A. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 199, f. 119A-F (mf).

f bruennichi nigrofasciata Franganillo, 1910....................Portugal
A. bruennuchi n. Franganillo, 1910: 7, f. 1-2 (Df).

mf brunnescantia Strand, 1911....................New Guinea, Bismarck Arch.
A. avara b. Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
A. squallica Strand, 1915d: 216, pl. 16, f. 54 (Dm).
A. b. Levi, 1983: 310, f. 279-285 (f, Sm, elevated from subspecies).

f buehleri Schenkel, 1944....................Timor
A. bühleri Schenkel, 1944: 184, f. 7a-c (Df).
A. b. Levi, 1983: 276, f. 42-46 (f).

f bullocki Rainbow, 1908....................New South Wales
A. bullockii Rainbow, 1908: 46, f. 3 (Df).
A. b. Levi, 1983: 288, f. 120-123 (f).

f caesarea Thorell, 1897....................India, Myanmar, China
A. c. Thorell, 1897b: 7 (Df).
A. kalimpongensis Sinha, 1952: 77, f. 3a-c (Df).
A. sikkimensis Tikader, 1970: 28, f. 18a-b (Df).
A. kalimpongensis Tikader, 1982a: 125, f. 235-238 (f, S).
A. c. Levi, 1983: 279, f. 56-60 (f, S).
A. c. Yin et al., 1989: 62, f. 2A-C (f).
A. caesares Yin et al., 1997: 71, f. 5a-f (f).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 261, f. 151L-N, 153I (f).

f caledonia Levi, 1983....................New Caledonia, New Hebrides
A. c. Levi, 1983: 302, f. 217-221 (Df).

m cameloides Zhu & Song, 1994....................China
A. c. Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 33, f. 8A-C (Dm).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 82, f. 14a-c (m).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 261, f. 152P, 153J (m).

mf catenulata (Doleschall, 1859)....................India to Philippines, New Guinea
Epeira c. Doleschall, 1859: 30, pl. 9, f. 1 (Df).
A. opulenta Thorell, 1859: 299 (Df).
Epeira stellata Stoliczka, 1869: 234, pl. 28, f. 6 (Df).
A. pelewensis Keyserling, 1886a: 136, pl. 11, f. 2 (Df).
A. c. Kolosváry, 1931: 1071, pl. 30, f. 5 (f).
A. c. Chrysanthus, 1958a: 240, f. 13-18, 22 (mf).
Metargiope ornatus turricula Marapao, 1965: 47, pl. 3, f. 5-11 (Dmf).
A. c. Yin, 1978: 4, f. 10A-C (f).
A. c. Song, 1980: 101, f. 47a-c (f).
A. c. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 35, f. 56-58 (f).
A. c. Tikader, 1982a: 121, f. 227-230 (f).
A. ornata turricula Brignoli, 1983c: 243.
A. c. Levi, 1983: 274, f. 36-41 (mf, S).
A. c. Hu, 1984: 103, f. 98.1-3 (f).
A. c. Feng, 1990: 66, f. 41.1-6 (mf).
A. c. Amalin, Barrion & Rueda, 1992: 37, f. 1a-e, 2a-c (mf).
A. c. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 570, f. 353a-e, 354a-c (mf).
A. c. Yin et al., 1997: 70, f. 4a-h (mf).
A. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 261, f. 151O-P, 152Q, 153K (mf).

f chloreis Thorell, 1877....................Sumatra to New Guinea
A. c. Thorell, 1877b: 368 (Df).
A. pumila Thorell, 1890a: 99 (Df).
A. chloreides Chrysanthus, 1961b: 197, f. 5-8 (Df).
A. pumila Chrysanthus, 1961b: 197, f. 10-11 (f).
A. c. Levi, 1983: 292, f. 141-151 (f, S).

f comorica Bjørn, 1997....................Comoro Is.
A. c. Bjørn, 1997: 229, f. 74-78 (Df).

f coquereli (Vinson, 1863)....................Zanzibar, Madagascar
Epeira coquerelii Vinson, 1863: 201, 312, pl. 8, f. 1 (Df).
A. c. Karsch, 1879a: 339.
A. c. Bjørn, 1997: 217, f. 43-48 (f).

f dietrichae Levi, 1983....................Western Australia, Northern Australia
A. d. Levi, 1983: 290, f. 136-140 (Df).

mf doboensis Strand, 1911....................Indonesia, New Guinea
A. d. Strand, 1911d: 144, pl. 4, f. 6 (Df).
A. ocyaloides Chrysanthus, 1971: 14, f. 13-16 (f, misidentified).
A. d. Levi, 1983: 290, f. 1-2, 130-135 (mf).

f extensa Rainbow, 1897....................New South Wales
A. e. Rainbow, 1897b: 519, pl. 17, f. 5 (Df).

mf flavipalpis (Lucas, 1858)....................Africa
Epeira f. Lucas, 1858: 427 (Df).
A. cuspidata Thorell, 1859: 300 (Df).
A. flavipalpis Brito Capello, 1866: 83, pl. 2, f. 2 (Df).
A. pechuelii Karsch, 1879a: 340 (Df).
A. f. Thorell, 1899: 39 (Dm).
A. pechueli preussi Strand, 1906h: 53 (Df).
A. cuspidata Lessert, 1930: 630, f. 10 (f).
A. f. Caporiacco, 1941b: 72, f. 24a-b (m).
A. f. Edmunds, 1982: 287, f. 5-21 (mf, S).
A. f. Bjørn, 1997: 218, f. 49-53 (mf).

mf florida Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944....................USA
A. f. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 95, f. 93-97 (Df).
A. f. Levi, 1968a: 344, f. 92-111 (f, Dm).

f halmaherensis Strand, 1907....................Moluccas to New Guinea
A. h. Strand, 1907k: 171, f. 4 (Df).
A. mindiptanensis Chrysanthus, 1961b: 195, f. 1-4 (Df).
A. h. Levi, 1983: 294, f. 173-177 (f, S).

f intricata Simon, 1877....................Philippines
A. i. Simon, 1877b: 75 (Df).
A. i. Levi, 1983: 304, f. 233-237 (f).

m jinghongensis Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994....................China
A. j. Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 105, f. 6-9 (Dm).
A. j. Yin et al., 1997: 82, f. 15a-d (m).
A. j. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 260, f. 152R (m).

mf katherina Levi, 1983....................Northern Australia
A. k. Levi, 1983: 300, f. 211-216 (Dmf).

mf keyserlingi Karsch, 1878....................Queensland, New South Wales, Lord Howe Is.
A. aetherea Keyserling, 1865: 803, pl. 19, f. 1, 2 (f, misidentified).
A. keyserlingii Karsch, 1878c: 789 (Df).
A. k. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 199, pl. 11, f. 230 (Df).
A. k. Levi, 1983: 296, f. 194-199 (f, Dm).
A. k. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 33 (mf).

f kochi Levi, 1983....................Queensland
A. k. Levi, 1983: 298, f. 200-204 (Df, possible m-f. 193).

mf levii Bjørn, 1997....................Kenya, Tanzania
A. l. Bjørn, 1997: 232, f. 13b, 86-92 (Dmf).

mf lobata (Pallas, 1772) *....................Old World
Aranea l. Pallas, 1772: 46, pl. 3, f. 14-15 (Df).
Aranea l. Fabricius, 1781: 536 (D).
Aranea argentea Gmelin, 1789: 2954 (D).
Aranea sericea Olivier, 1789: 198 (D).
Aranea l. Olivier, 1789: 232 (D).
Epeira sericea Latreille, 1806: 107 (D).
Epeira sericea Hahn, 1821: 1, pl. 28, f. a (Df).
Segestria dentata Risso, 1826: 161 (D).
Epeira margaritacea Risso, 1826: 170 (D).
A. sericea Audouin, 1826: 334, pl. 2, f. 6 (f).
A. splendida Audouin, 1826: 335, pl. 2, f. 7 (Df).
Argyopes praelautus C. L. Koch, 1838: 36, f. 359 (Df).
Argyopes sericea Eichwald, 1841: 241, pl. 37, f. 4 (f).
Epeira splendida Walckenaer, 1842: 117 (D).
Epeira dentata Walckenaer, 1842: 118 (Df).
Argyopes impudicus L. Koch, 1867c: 857 (Dm).
Argiope l. Thorell, 1873: 520.
A. l. Simon, 1874a: 29, pl. 1, f. 1 (mf).
A. arcuata Simon, 1884q: 343 (Df).
A. l. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 117, pl. 4, f. 41 (mf).
A. arcuata Pocock, 1900a: 220, f. 70 (f).
A. l. Kolosváry, 1938b: 22, f. 1-5 (f; N.B.: names four additional "forms", without diagnoses).
A. l. Drensky, 1943: 222, f. 3 (m).
A. l. Denis, 1947a: 44, pl. II, f. 5 (f).
A. l. Levi, 1968a: 336, f. 25-38 (mf).
A. l. Loksa, 1972: 110, f. 100A, 101C-D (mf).
A. l. Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 8-10 (mf).
A. arcuata Tikader, 1982a: 115, f. 215-218 (f).
A. l. Levi, 1983: 284, f. 87-97 (mf, S).
A. l. Hu, 1984: 104, f. 100.1-3 (f).
A. l. Hu & Wu, 1989: 98, f. 74.1-3, 75.1-3 (mf).
A. l. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 80, f. 178 (mf).
A. l. Bjørn, 1997: 221, f. 54-61 (mf).
A. l. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 374, f. 13 (m).
A. l. Levy, 1998a: 350, f. 151-164 (mf).
A. l. Yin et al., 1997: 84, f. 16a-f (mf).

f lobata retracta Franganillo, 1918....................Spain
A. l. r. Franganillo, 1918b: 122 (Df).

mf luzona (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Philippines
Epeira l. Walckenaer, 1842: 109 (Df).
A. l. Simon, 1877b: 74.
A. l. Levi, 1983: 304, f. 227-232 (f, Dm).
A. l. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 573, f. 355a-g (f).

f macrochoera Thorell, 1891....................Nicobar Is., China
A. m. Thorell, 1891: 50 (Df).
A. m. Levi, 1983: 272, f. 19-23 (f).
A. m. Yin et al., 1989: 63, f. 3A-C (f).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 68, f. 2a-f (f).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 261, f. 151Q-S, 153L (f).

mf madang Levi, 1984....................New Guinea
A. m. Levi, 1984: 249, f. 1-7 (Dmf).

mf magnifica L. Koch, 1871....................Queensland to Solomon Is.
A. m. L. Koch, 1871: 27, pl. 2, f. 6 (Df).
A. m. Levi, 1983: 280, f. 73-80 (mf, removed from S of A. aemula).

f maja Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Japan
A. m. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 201, f. 1 (Df).
A. m. Levi, 1983: 262 ("probably Nephila clavata L. Koch").

mf mangal Koh, 1991....................Singapore
A. m. Koh, 1991: 171, f. 1-8 (Dmf).

f manila Levi, 1983....................Philippines
A. m. Levi, 1983: 272, f. 24-28 (Df).

f mascordi Levi, 1983....................Queensland
A. m. Levi, 1983: 296, f. 188-192 (Df, possible m-f. 193).

mf minuta Karsch, 1879....................Bangladesh, East Asia
A. m. Karsch, 1879g: 67 (Dj).
A. m. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 194, pl. 1, f. 16, pl. 11, f. 218, 222 (Dmf).
A. m. Saito, 1933b: 51, pl. 3, f. 36.
Coganargiope m. Nakatsudi, 1942a: 305, f. 5-7 (f).
A. shillongensis Sinha, 1952: 75, f. 1a-c (Df).
A. m. Saito, 1959: 100, text-f. 7.3, f. 116a-c (f).
A. m. Hikichi, 1977: 154, f. 40 (f).
A. m. Yin, 1978: 4, f. 8A-C (f).
A. m. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 43, f. 24.1-2 (mf).
A. m. Song, 1980: 99, f.45a-c (f).
A. m. Wang, 1981: 100, f. 41A-C (f).
A. shillongensis Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 36, f. 59-61 (f).
A. shillongensis Tikader, 1982a: 117, f. 219-222 (f).
A. m. Levi, 1983: 298, f. 205-210 (mf, S).
A. m. Hu, 1984: 105, f. 101 (f).
A. m. Guo, 1985: 61, f. 2-15.1-3 (f).
A. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 113, f. 59.3 (mf).
A. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 79, f. 50 (mf).
A. m. Feng, 1990: 67, f. 42.1-4 (mf).
A. m. Chen & Gao, 1990: 51, f. 58a-c (mf).
A. m. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 84, f. 74.1-3 (mf).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Li, 1993: 871, f. 36A-C (mf).
A. m. Okuma et al., 1993: 19, f. 14 (f).
A. m. Yin et al., 1997: 77, f. 10a-f (mf).
A. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 261, f. 151T-U, 153A (mf).

f modesta Thorell, 1881....................Borneo to Australia
A. m. Thorell, 1881: 75 (Df).
A. crenulata pictula Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
A. m. Schenkel, 1944: 182, f. 6a-c (f).
A. m. Levi, 1983: 308, f. 263-270 (f, S).

f niasensis Strand, 1907....................Indonesia
A. n. Strand, 1907k: 162, f. 1-3 (Df).
A. n. Levi, 1983: 294, f. 178-182 (f).

mf ocula Fox, 1938....................China, Taiwan, Japan
A. o. Fox, 1938b: 364, f. 6 (Df).
A. ohsumiensis Yaginuma, 1967a: 50, 59, f. 1.1-9 (Dmf).
A. ohsumiensis Yaginuma, 1971: 128, f. 107.12-17 (mf).
A. o. Levi, 1983: 272, f. 14-18 (f, Sm).
A. o. Yaginuma, 1986a: 115, f. 59.7 (mf).
A. o. Feng, 1990: 68, f. 43.1-3 (f).
A. o. Chen & Gao, 1990: 51, f. 59 (f).
A. o. Yin et al., 1997: 67, f. 1a-e (f).
A. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 151W-X (f).

mf ocyaloides L. Koch, 1871....................Queensland
A. o. L. Koch, 1871: 30, pl. 2, f. 8 (Df).
A. o. Levi, 1983: 288, f. 124-129 (f, Dm).

f pentagona L. Koch, 1871....................Fiji
A. p. L. Koch, 1871: 39, pl. 3, f. 6 (Df).
A. p. Levi, 1983: 313, f. 292-296 (f).

f perforata Schenkel, 1963....................China
A. p. Schenkel, 1963: 135, f. 79a-b (Df).
A. p. Levi, 1983: 293, f. 162-166 (f).
A. p. Wang, 1988: 101, f. 1-3 (Dm).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 78, f. 11a-i (mf).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 151V, Y-Z, 153B, M (mf).

mf picta L. Koch, 1871....................Moluccas to Australia
A. p. L. Koch, 1871: 33, pl. 3, f. 3 (Df).
A. gorgonea L. Koch, 1871: 35 (Df).
A. principalis L. Koch, 1872a: 207, pl. 18, f. 5 (Df).
A. lugubris L. Koch, 1872a: 209, pl. 18, f. 6-7 (Dmf).
A. p. principalis Thorell, 1881: 65.
A. p. Kulczyn'ski, 1910: 391, pl. 17, f. 2 (f).
Gea dubiosa Strand, 1911d: 146, pl. 4, f. 11 (Df).
Chaetargiope p. Kishida, 1936a: 21 (Tf from Argiope).
A. p. Roewer, 1938: 31, f. 20 (f).
A. principalis Roewer, 1938: 32, f. 21 (f).
A. p. Chrysanthus, 1958a: 237, f. 1-6, 19, 21, 23 (f, Dm, S).
A. p. Chrysanthus, 1971: 14 (S A. squallica, rejected).
A. p. Levi, 1983: 317, f. 7-8, 310-316 (mf, S).

f ponape Levi, 1983....................Caroline Is.
A. p. Levi, 1983: 320, f. 329-333 (Df).

f possoica Merian, 1911....................Sulawesi
A. celebesiana p. Merian, 1911: 205 (Df).
A. p. Levi, 1983: 293, f. 157-161 (f, elevated from subspecies).

mf probata Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
A. p. Rainbow, 1916a: 91, pl. 21, f. 13 (Dmf).
A. p. Levi, 1983: 286, f. 107-111 (mf).

mf protensa L. Koch, 1872....................New Guinea, Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand
A. p. L. Koch, 1872a: 211, pl. 18, F. 8 (Df).
A. syrmatica L. Koch, 1872a: 213, pl. 18, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira attenuata Urquhart, 1885: 33, pl. 9, f. 1 (Df).
Arachnura longicauda Urquhart, 1885: 34, pl. 9, f. 2, 10 (Df).
A. multifasciata Thorell, 1892a: 226 (Dj).
A. pallida Rainbow, 1897b: 521, pl. 17, f. 6 (Df).
A. gracilis Rainbow, 1897b: 522, pl. 17, f. 7 (Df; preoccupied by Blackwall, 1866 sub Argyopes).
A. haynesi Hogg, 1914b: 73, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
A. gracillima Roewer, 1955c: 742 (replacement name for A. gracilis).
A. p. Main, 1964: 102, f. F-H (f).
A. p. Chrysanthus, 1971: 15, f. 17-19 (f).
A. p. Levi, 1983: 284, f. 98-106 (f, Dm, S).

mf pulchella Thorell, 1881....................India to China and Java
A. p. Thorell, 1881: 74 (Df).
A. undulata Thorell, 1887: 154 (Df).
A. p. Thorell, 1887: 158 (Dm).
A. undulata Thorell, 1895: 161 (Dm).
A. p. Gravely, 1921a: 412, f. 3b (f).
A. p. Dyal, 1935: 190, pl. 11, f. 8 (f).
A. p. Tikader, 1970: 27, f. 17a (f).
A. p. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 37, f. 62-64 (f).
A. p. Tikader, 1982a: 129, f. 243-246 (f).
A. p. Levi, 1983: 304, f. 238-250 (mf, S).
A. p. Yin et al., 1989: 64, f. 4A-F (mf).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 85, f. 17a-i (mf).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 152A-C, 153C, N (mf).

mf pulchelloides Yin et al., 1989....................China
A. p. Yin et al., 1989: 64, f. 5A-G (Dmf).
A. p. Chen & Gao, 1990: 52, f. 60a-g (mf).
A. p. Yin et al., 1997: 86, f. 18a-i (mf).
A. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 152D-F, 153D, O (mf).

mf radon Levi, 1983....................Northern Australia
A. r. Levi, 1983: 318, f. 317-323 (Dmf).

mf ranomafanensis Bjørn, 1997....................Madagascar
A. r. Bjørn, 1997: 235, f. 93-98 (Dmf).

mf reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859)....................Malaysia to New Guinea
Epeira trifasciata Doleschall, 1857: 416, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df, preoccupied).
Epeira reinwardtii Doleschall, 1859: 31, pl. 15, f. 5 (Df).
A. doleschallii Thorell, 1873: 520 (replacement name).
A. concinna Thorell, 1881: 71 (Df).
A. fasciata Keyserling, 1886a: 133 (Df).
A. r. Simon, 1895a: 765, f. 841-842.
A. r. Workman, 1896: 29, pl. 29 (f).
A. doleschallii bivittigera Strand, 1911d: 141 (Df).
A. barbipoda Strand, 1911d: 144, pl. 5, f. 44 (Dj).
A. celebesiana Merian, 1911: 203, pl. 9, f. 1-3 (Df).
A. aetherea confusa Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 475 (D).
A. aetherea coniuncta Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 475 (D).
A. r. Roewer, 1938: 35, f. 24 (f).
A. r. Chrysanthus, 1971: 15, f. 20-22 (f).
A. r. Chrysanthus, 1972: 156, f. 1-4 (Dm).
A. r. Levi, 1983: 276, f. 47-55 (mf, S).

f reinwardti sumatrana (Hasselt, 1882)....................Sumatra
A. doleschallii s. Hasselt, 1882: 18 (Df).

m sapoa Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
A. s. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 577, f. 358a-e (Dm).

mf savignyi Levi, 1968....................Costa Rica to Bolivia
A. s. Levi, 1968a: 350, f. 154-169 (Dmf).

mf sector (Forskål, 1775)....................North Africa, Middle East, Cape Verde Is.
Aranea s. Forskål, 1776: 7, pl. 25, f. C (Df).
Plectana s. Walckenaer, 1842: 200.
Argyopes clarkii Blackwall, 1865a: 98 (Df).
Argyopes sericea caboverdiana Brito Capello, 1866: 80 (Df).
A. lordii O. P.-Cambridge, 1870e: 820, pl. 50, f. 1 (Df).
A. fissiloba L. Koch, 1875b: 15, pl. 2, f. 1 (Df).
A. clarki Simon, 1890a: 101.
A. lordii Simon, 1894a: 760, f. 836-837.
A. clarki Pocock, 1903g: 188, pl. 14, f. 3 (f, Dm).
A. obscuripes Strand, 1906b: 618 (Df).
A. s. Simon, 1909c: 39.
A. clarki Denis, 1947a: 43, pl. II, f. 4 (f).
A. s. Bjørn, 1997: 224, f. 2, 14a-c, 62-67 (mf, S).
A. clarki Levy, 1998a: 354, f. 165-168 (mf).

f takum Chrysanthus, 1971....................New Guinea
A. t. Chrysanthus, 1971: 17, f. 23-25 (Df).
A. t. Levi, 1983: 296, f. 183-187 (f).

f tapinolobata Bjørn, 1997....................Senegal
A. t. Bjørn, 1997: 231, f. 80-85 (Df).

f taprobanica Thorell, 1887....................Sri Lanka
A. t. Thorell, 1887: 164 (Df).
A. t. Levi, 1983: 302, f. 222-226 (f).

f thai Levi, 1983....................Thailand
A. t. Levi, 1983: 292, f. 152-156 (Df).

mf trifasciata (Forskål, 1775)....................Cosmopolitan
Aranea t. Forskål, 1775: 86 (D).
Aranea t. Forskål, 1776: 7, pl. 24, f. E (Df).
Aranea fastuosa Olivier, 1789: 202 (D).
A. aurelia Audouin, 1826: 331, pl. 2, f. 5 (Dmf).
Epeira webbii Lucas, 1838: 38, pl. 6, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira nephoda Walckenaer, 1842: 74 (Df).
Epeira aurelia Walckenaer, 1842: 107.
Epeira latreillana Walckenaer, 1842: 108 (Df).
Epeira mauricia Walckenaer, 1842: 108 (Df).
Epeira fastuosa Walckenaer, 1842: 109 (Dm).
Epeira argyraspides Walckenaer, 1842: 110 (Df).
Epeira fasciata Hentz, 1847: 468, pl. 30, f. 8 (Df).
Epeira flavipes Nicolet, 1849: 493 (Df).
A. avara Thorell, 1859: 299 (Df).
Epeira latreilla Vinson, 1863: 194, 311 (D).
Epeira mauritia Vinson, 1863: 194, 311, pl. 8, f. 2 (f).
Nephila aurelia Blackwall, 1867b: 210.
A. plana L. Koch, 1867b: 181 (Df).
A. plana L. Koch, 1871: 31, pl. 3, f. 1 (f).
A. t. Thorell, 1873: 519.
A. sticticalis O. P.-Cambridge, 1876b: 576 (Df).
Argyopes indecissa Holmberg, 1876: 19 (Df).
A. hentzi Thorell, 1878b: 295.
A. fasciata McCook, 1882: 256.
A. mauricia Hasselt, 1882: 18.
A. transversa Emerton, 1884: 330, pl. 34, f. 20, pl. 28, f. 15-18 (Dmf).
A. t. Keyserling, 1886a: 133, pl. 10, f. 5 (m).
A. argyraspis McCook, 1894: 219, pl. 15, f. 7-12, pl. 16, f. 3, 4 (Dmf).
A. avara McCook, 1894: 222, pl. 14, f. 1 (f).
A. avara Simon, 1900a: 476 (Dm).
A. transversa Emerton, 1902: 197, f. 455-458 (mf).
Metargiope t. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 451, pl. 43, f. 2-3 (mf).
A. fastuosa Banks, 1909b: 161.
Metargiope t. Tullgren, 1910: 156, pl. 4, f. 93 (f).
A. t. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 239, f. 87-89 (mf).
A. simplex Badcock, 1932: 17, f. 12 (Df).
Metargyope t. Lawrence, 1936: 152.
Austrargiope plana Kishida, 1936a: 17 (Tmf from Argiope).
A. abalosi Mello-Leitão, 1942b: 399 (Df).
A. seminola Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 96, f. 98-102 (Dmf).
A. stenogastra Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 235 (Df).
A. t. Kaston, 1948: 222, f. 697-699, 722-723 (mf).
Brachygea platycephala Caporiacco, 1947a: 24 (Dm).
Brachygea platycephala Caporiacco, 1948a: 653, f. 61 (m).
A. pradhani Sinha, 1952: 76, f. 2a-c (Df).
A. t. Bücherl, 1959: 297, f. 22 (f).
A. t. Main, 1964: 102, f. A-C (f).
A. t. Shear, 1967: 9, f. 22-23 (m).
A. t. Hickman, 1967: 59, f. 103 (f).
A. t. Levi, 1968a: 340, f. 58-72, 74-91 (mf, S).
A. avara Chrysanthus, 1971: 12, f. 9-12 (f).
A. t. Chrysanthus, 1972: 156 (S).
A. pradhani Tikader, 1982a: 123, f. 231-234 (f).
A. t. Levi, 1983: 286, f. 11, 112-119 (mf, S).
A. t. Roberts, 1983: 250, f. 124-132 (mf).
A. t. Feng, 1990: 69, f. 44.1-4 (f).
A. t. Breene et al., 1993: 101, f. 148A-C (mf).
A. t. Bjørn, 1997: 226, f. 5, 68-73 (mf).
A. t. Levy, 1998a: 355, f. 169-178 (mf).
A. t. Yin et al., 1997: 76, f. 8a-c (f).
A. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 152G-H, 154A (f).

?? trifasciata deserticola Simon, 1906....................Sudan
A. t. d. Simon, 1906a: 1162 (D; N.B.: omitted by Roewer)

f trifasciata kauaiensis Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
A. avara k. Simon, 1900a: 477 (Df).

f truk Levi, 1983....................Caroline Is.
A. t. Levi, 1983: 320, f. 324-328 (Df).

mf versicolor (Doleschall, 1859)....................China to Java
Epeira v. Doleschall, 1859: 31, pl. 9, f. 10 (Df).
A. succincta L. Koch, 1871: 35 (Df).
A. v. Thorell, 1890a: 95 (Dm).
A. v. Workman, 1896: 28, pl. 28 (f).
A. succincta Pocock, 1897c: 598, pl. 25, f. 7 (f).
A. v. Levi, 1983: 305, f. 3-4, 251-262 (mf).
A. v. Yin et al., 1989: 65, f. 6A-F (mf).
A. v. Chen & Gao, 1990: 53, f. 61a-e (mf).
A. v. Yin et al., 1997: 88, f. 19a-i (mf).
A. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 152I-K, 153E, 154B (mf).

Gen. Arkys Walckenaer, 1837

N.B.: transferred here from the Tetragnathidae by Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 404, there from the Mimetidae by Davies, 1988b: 282, contra Heimer, 1984a: 156; considered a senior synonym of Archemorus Simon, 1893 by Heimer, 1984a: 156; Arcys is an unjustified emendation.

In synonymy:
A. clavatus Keyserling, 1884 = A. walckenaeri Simon, 1879 (Heimer, 1984a: 175).
A. perlatus Simon, 1889 = A. brevipalpus Karsch, 1878 (Heimer, 1984a: 160).

m alatus Keyserling, 1890....................Queensland, New South Wales
A. a. Keyserling, 1890: 257, pl. 23, f. 8 (Dm).
A. a. Heimer, 1984a: 159, f. 1-2 (m).

mf brevipalpus Karsch, 1878....................New Caledonia
A. b. Karsch, 1878c: 802 (Dm).
A. perlatus Simon, 1889c: 240 (Dj).
A. perlatus Simon, 1895a: 898, f. 966 (Df).
A. perlatus Berland, 1924a: 223, f. 131-134 (f, Dm).
A. b. Heimer, 1984a: 160, f. 3 (m, S).

mf bulburinensis Heimer, 1984....................Queensland, New South Wales
A. b. Heimer, 1984a: 162, f. 4-6 (Dmf).

f cicatricosus (Rainbow, 1920)....................Lord Howe Is.
Archemorus c. Rainbow, 1920b: 250, pl. 29, f. 58 (Df).

mf cornutus L. Koch, 1872....................New Guinea, Queensland
A. c. L. Koch, 1872a: 218, pl. 19, f. 2 (Df).
A. c. Keyserling, 1890: 256, pl. 23, f. 7 (Dm).
A. c. Heimer, 1984a: 164, f. 7-9 (mf).
A. c. Davies, 1988b: 282, f. 9 (mf).

j coronatus (Balogh, 1978)....................New Guinea
Archemorus c. Balogh, 1978: 19, f. 14-15, 32, 54 (Dj).

f curtulus (Simon, 1903)....................Eastern Australia
Archemorus c. Simon, 1903d: 27 (Df).

f dilatatus (Balogh, 1978)....................Queensland
Archemorus d. Balogh, 1978: 13, f. 5-6, 26, 46, 60 (Df).

f furcatus (Balogh, 1978)....................Queensland
Archemorus f. Balogh, 1978: 11, f. 1-2, 23, 38, 62 (Df).

mf gracilis Heimer, 1984....................Queensland
A. g. Heimer, 1984a: 166, f. 10-11 (Dmf).

f grandis (Balogh, 1978)....................New Caledonia
Archemorus g. Balogh, 1978: 22, f. 16, 34, 36, 56 (Df).

mf hickmani Heimer, 1984....................Tasmania
A. h. Heimer, 1984a: 167, f. 12-13 (Dmf).

f kaszabi (Balogh, 1978)....................New Guinea
Archemorus k. Balogh, 1978: 19, f. 11-12, 29, 55, 59 (Df).

mf lancearius Walckenaer, 1837 *....................New Guinea to New South Wales
A. l. Walckenaer, 1837: 497 (Df).
A. l. L. Koch, 1872a: 216, pl. 19, f. 1 (f).
A. l. Karsch, 1878c: 785 (Dm).
A. l. Keyserling, 1890: 258, pl. 23, f. 9 (m).
A. l. Heimer, 1984a: 170, f. 14-16 (mf).

f latissimus (Balogh, 1982)....................Queensland
Archemorus l. Balogh, 1982: 21, f. 13-16 (Df).

f montanus (Balogh, 1978)....................New Guinea
Archemorus m. Balogh, 1978: 23, f. 17-18, 48, 57 (Df).

f multituberculatus (Balogh, 1982)....................Queensland
Archemorus m. Balogh, 1982: 20, f. 9-12 (Df).

m nimdol Chrysanthus, 1971....................New Guinea
A. n. Chrysanthus, 1971: 40, f. 79-81 (Dm).
A. n. Heimer, 1984a: 170, f. 17 (m).

mf nitidiceps Simon, 1908....................Western Australia
A. n. Simon, 1908d: 429 (Dj).
A. n. Main, 1982d: 425, f. 1-4 (Dmf).

mf occidentalis (Reimoser, 1936)....................Buru Is.
Archemorus o. Reimoser, 1936: 409, f. 2-3 (Dmf).
Archemorus o. Balogh, 1978: 14, f. 28, 51, 63 (f).
A. o. Heimer, 1984a: 171, f. 18 (f).

f roosdorpi (Chrysanthus, 1971)....................New Guinea
Archemorus r. Chrysanthus, 1971: 38, f. 74-77 (Df).
Archemorus r. Balogh, 1978: 15, f. 8, 27, 50, 64 (f).
A. r. Heimer, 1984a: 171, f. 19 (f).

f semicirculatus (Balogh, 1982)....................Queensland
Archemorus s. Balogh, 1982: 17, f. 1-4 (Df).

f sibil (Chrysanthus, 1971)....................New Guinea
Archemorus s. Chrysanthus, 1971: 37, f. 71-73 (Df).
Archemorus s. Balogh, 1978: 17, f. 7, 43-45, 65 (f).
A. s. Heimer, 1984a: 172, f. 20 (f).

mf simsoni (Simon, 1893)....................Tasmania
Archemorus s. Simon, 1893d: 328 (Df).
Archemorus s. Simon, 1895a: 901, f. 967 (f).
A. s. Heimer, 1984a: 172, f. 21-22 (mf).

f soosi (Balogh, 1982)....................New Guinea
Archemorus s. Balogh, 1982: 18, f. 5-8 (Df).

f toxopeusi (Reimoser, 1936)....................Buru Is.
Archemorus t. Reimoser, 1936: 410, f. 4 (Df).

m transversus (Balogh, 1978)....................New South Wales
Archemorus t. Balogh, 1978: 12, f. 3, 24, 39 (Dm).

f tuberculatus (Balogh, 1978)....................Queensland
Archemorus t. Balogh, 1978: 17, f. 9-10, 30, 40-42, 66 (Df).

mf varians (Balogh, 1978)....................New Caledonia
Archemorus v. Balogh, 1978: 24, f. 19, 21-22, 35, 49, 58 (Df).
A. v. Heimer, 1984a: 175, f. 26 (m).

f vicarius (Balogh, 1978)....................New Caledonia
Archemorus v. Balogh, 1978: 14, f. 4, 25, 47, 61 (Df).

mf walckenaeri Simon, 1879....................Australia, Tasmania
A. w. Simon, 1879b: 57 (Df).
A. clavatus Keyserling, 1890: 259, pl. 24, f. 1-2 (Dmf).
A. clavatus Butler, 1933: 280, pl. 17, f. 4.
A. clavatus Heimer, 1982: 44, f. 12 (m).
A. w. Heimer, 1984a: 175, f. 23-25 (mf, S).

Gen. Artonis Simon, 1895

N.B.: transferred here from the Theridiidae by Levi & Levi, 1964a: 211.

f bituberculata (Thorell, 1895) *....................Myanmar
Anania b. Thorell, 1895: 148 (Df).
A. b. Simon, 1895a: 922.
A. b. Levi & Levi, 1962: 65, f. 324 (f).
A. b. Levi, 1964a: 211, f. 7-11 (f).

f gallana (Pavesi, 1895)....................Ethiopia
Anania g. Pavesi, 1895a: 500 (Df).
A. g. Simon, 1895a: 922.

Gen. Aspidolasius Simon, 1887

f bifurcatus Simon, 1897....................Brazil
A. b. Simon, 1897b: 471 (Df).

f branicki (Taczanowski, 1879) *....................Peru
Inca branickii Taczanowski, 1879: 105, pl. 1, f. 24 (Df).
A. b. Simon, 1895a: 870.

f smaragdus Mello-Leitão, 1948....................Guyana
A. s. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 159 (Df).

Gen. Augusta O. P.-Cambridge, 1877

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 by Emerit, 1974: 32.

mf glyphica (Guérin, 1839) *....................Madagascar
Gasteracantha g. Guérin, 1839: 110 (Df).
Augusta papilionacea O. P.-Cambridge, 1877c: 37, pl. 7, f. 6 (Df).
A. g. Emerit, 1974: 33, f. 3A-B, 4A-F, 5A-C, 6B (Tf from Gasteracantha, Dm).
A. g. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 372, f. 4 (m).

Gen. Austracantha Dahl, 1914

N.B.: described as a subgenus of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833; elevated to genus by Emerit, 1974: 29.

mf minax (Thorell, 1859) *....................Australia, Tasmania
Gasteracantha m. Thorell, 1859: 303 (Df).
Gasteracantha flavomaculata Keyserling, 1865: 801, pl. 19, f. 8-9 (Df).
Actinacantha maculata Karsch, 1878c: 800 (D).
Isacantha m. Keyserling, 1886a: 94, pl. 7, f. 4 (Dm).
Gasteracantha m. Dahl, 1914: 251, f. 5 (f).
Gasteracantha m. Butler, 1933: 279, pl. 17, f. 9.
Gasteracantha m. Mascord, 1966: 44, f. 1-5 (mf).
Gasteracantha m. Dondale, 1966: 1174, f. 4F-I (mf).
Gasteracantha m. Hickman, 1967: 68, f. 122-123 (mf).
Gasteracantha m. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 31 (mf).

f minax astrigera (L. Koch, 1871)....................Australia
Gasteracantha a. L. Koch, 1871: 14, pl. 1, f. 9 (Df).
Gasteracantha a. Dahl, 1914: 251.
Gasteracantha m. a. Hogg, 1914b: 79 (reduced to subspecies).

f minax hermitis (Hogg, 1914)....................Montebello Is.
Gasteracantha m. h. Hogg, 1914b: 80, pl. 1, f. 6 (Df).

?? minax leonhardii (Strand, 1913)....................Australia
Gasteracantha m. l. Strand, 1913c: 609 (D).

f minax lugubris (L. Koch, 1871)....................Australia
Gasteracantha lugubris L. Koch, 1871: 12, pl. 1, f. 8 (Df).
Gasteracantha m. l. Hogg, 1914b: 79 (reduced to supspecies).

Gen. Bertrana Keyserling, 1884

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Diotherisoma Caporiacco, 1947a: 25, type D. strandi Caporiacco, 1947 by Levi, in Coddington, 1986: 6.

Transferred to other genera:
B. errans (Roewer, 1942) -- see Metazygia.
B. erratica (Keyserling, 1883) -- see Metazygia.
B. farri Archer, 1958 -- see Lewisepeira.

In synonymy:
B. flavosellata Simon, 1893 = B. elinguis (Keyserling, 1883) (Levi, 1989: 88).
B. hieroglyphica Petrunkevitch, 1925 = B. striolata Keyserling, 1884 (Levi, 1989: 84).
B. strandi (Caporiacco, 1947) = B. striolata Keyserling, 1884 (Levi, 1989: 84).

f abbreviata (Keyserling, 1879)....................Colombia
Singa a. Keyserling, 1879: 301, pl. 4, f. 5 (Df).
Singa a. Keyserling, 1893: 287, pl. 15, f. 212 (f).
Araneus abbreviatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 276.
Singa a. Levi, 1972a: 230 (considered as Theridiosomatidae incertae sedis).
B. a. Levi, 1989: 91, f. 31-34 (Tf from Singa).

f arena Levi, 1989....................Costa Rica
B. a. Levi, 1989: 93, f. 44-46 (Df).

f benuta Levi, 1994....................Colombia
B. b. Levi, 1994: 230, f. 1-6 (Df).

f elinguis (Keyserling, 1883)....................Ecuador, Peru, Brazil
Epeira e. Keyserling, 1883a: 198, pl. 15, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira e. Keyserling, 1892: 151, pl. 8, f. 111 (f).
B. flavosellata Simon, 1893d: 326 (Df).
Araneus e. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 291.
B. e. Levi, 1989: 88, f. 25-30 (Tf from Araneus, S).

mf laselva Levi, 1989....................Costa Rica
B. l. Levi, 1989: 91, f. 35-40 (Dmf).

f nancho Levi, 1989....................Peru
B. n. Levi, 1989: 92, f. 41-43 (Df).

mf planada Levi, 1989....................Colombia, Ecuador
B. p. Levi, 1989: 94, f. 47-50 (Dmf).

f poa Levi, 1994....................Ecuador
B. p. Levi, 1994: 232, f. 7-11 (Df).

mf rufostriata Simon, 1893....................Venezuela, Brazil
B. r. Simon, 1893d: 325 (Df).
B. r. Levi, 1989: 87, f. 19-24 (f, Dm).

mf striolata Keyserling, 1884 *....................Costa Rica to Argentina
B. s. Keyserling, 1884b: 654, pl. 21, f. 6 (Df).
B. s. Keyserling, 1893: 310, pl. 16, f. 229 (f).
B. hieroglyphica Petrunkevitch, 1925a: 113, f. 22-28 (Dm).
Diotherisoma strandi Caporiacco, 1947a: 25 (Df).
Diotherisoma strandi Caporiacco, 1948a: 664, f. 74 (f).
B. hieroglyphica Chickering, 1963d: 129, f. 1-4 (m, Df).
B. s. Levi, 1989: 84, f. 11-18 (f, Sm).

m urahua Levi, 1994....................Ecuador
B. u. Levi, 1994: 232, f. 12-14 (Dm).

mf vella Levi, 1989....................Panama, Colombia
B. v. Levi, 1989: 96, f. 51-55 (Dmf).

Gen. Caerostris Thorell, 1868

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Trichocharis Simon, 1895 by Grasshoff, 1984: 727.

Transferred to other genera:
C. basilissa (Thorell, 1899) -- see Megaraneus.
C. bhabanii Tikader, 1970 -- see Poltys.

In synonymy:
C. albescens Pocock, 1899 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 746, sub C. vinsoni).
C. albescens flavicomis Simon, 1903 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 747, sub C. vinsoni).
C. albiceps O. P.-Cambridge, 1890 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 746, sub C. vinsoni).
C. albopubescens Strand, 1906 = C. mitralis (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1984: 743).
C. amanica Strand, 1907 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 747, 762, sub C. vinsoni).
C. avernalis Butler, 1878 = C. mitralis (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1984: 743).
C. bankana Strand, 1915 = C. extrusa Butler, 1882 (Grasshoff, 1984: 752).
C. bimaculata Strand, 1907 = C. corticosa Pocock, 1902 (Grasshoff, 1984: 751).
C. columnifer Pocock, 1902 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 747, sub C. vinsoni).
C. darlingi Pocock, 1902 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 747, sub C. vinsoni).
C. excellens Butler, 1882 = C. cowani Butler, 1882 (Grasshoff, 1984: 755).
C. femoralis Thorell, 1899 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. hnatiukae Roberts, 1983 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 737).
C. insularis Strand, 1913 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. keyserlingi Thorell, 1868 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. kibonotensis Tullgren, 1910 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. mimica Strand, 1906 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. mitralis humilis Thorell, 1868 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. mitralis turrigera Thorell, 1868 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. petersi Karsch, 1878 = C. mitralis (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1984: 743).
C. retorta Butler, 1882 = C. mitralis (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1984: 743).
C. rugosa Karsch, 1878 = C. mitralis (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1984: 743).
C. schubotzi Strand, 1913 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. simata Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 746, sub C. vinsoni).
C. stygiana Butler, 1879 = C. mitralis (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1984: 743).
C. subsimata Strand, 1906 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 747, sub C. vinsoni).
C. tuberculosa (Vinson, 1863) = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).
C. turriger Pocock, 1899 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1984: 746, sub C. vinsoni).
C. vinsoni Thorell, 1868 = C. vicina (Blackwall, 1866) (Levi, 1996b: 93).
C. voeltzkowi Strand, 1916 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 737).
C. wahlbergi Thorell, 1868 = C. sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793) (Grasshoff, 1984: 736).

Nomina dubia:
C. junior Strand, 1913a: 382 (m, Central Africa) -- Grasshoff, 1984: 763.
C. rutenbergi Karsch, 1881h: 191, pl. 12, f. A (j, Madagascar) -- Grasshoff, 1984: 763.
C. subamanica Caporiacco, 1940c: 829, f. 33 (j, Ethiopia) -- Grasshoff, 1984: 763.

f corticosa Pocock, 1902....................South Africa
C. c. Pocock, 1902b: 326, f. C (Df).
C. bimaculata Strand, 1907a: 535 (Df).
C. bimaculata Strand, 1907n: 636 (Df).
C. c. Grasshoff, 1984: 751, f. 26-27 (f, S).

f cowani Butler, 1882....................Madagascar
C. c. Butler, 1882a: 103, pl. 6, f. 4 (Df).
C. excellens Butler, 1882a: 105, pl. 6, f. 5 (Df).
C. c. Grasshoff, 1984: 755, f. 34-36 (f, S).

f ecclesiigera Butler, 1882....................Madagascar
C. e. Butler, 1882a: 102, pl. 6, f. 1-2 (Df).
C. e. Grasshoff, 1984: 754, f. 31-33 (f).

f extrusa Butler, 1882....................Madagascar
C. e. Butler, 1882a: 100, pl. 6, f. 3 (Df).
C. bankana Strand, 1915d: 225 (Df).
C. e. Grasshoff, 1984: 752, f. 28-30 (f, S).

f hirsuta (Simon, 1895)....................Madagascar
Trichocharis h. Simon, 1895a: 835 (Df).
C. h. Grasshoff, 1984: 756, f. 4, 39 (f).

f indica Strand, 1915....................Myanmar
C. paradoxa Pocock, 1900a: 231, f. 77 (f, misidentified).
C. i. Strand, 1915d: 226 (Df).
C. i. Grasshoff, 1984: 760, f. 41 (f).

f mayottensis Grasshoff, 1984....................Comoro Is.
C. m. Grasshoff, 1984: 756, f. 37-38 (Df).

mf mitralis (Vinson, 1863) *....................Central Africa, Madagascar
Epeira paradoxa Doleschall, 1859: 37, pl. 9, f. 11, pl. 10, f. 8 (Df; preoccupied by Lucas, 1846).
Epeira m. Vinson, 1863: 230, 314, pl. 9, f. 2-4 (Df).
C. avernalis Butler, 1878b: 799, f. 1-3 (Df).
C. rugosa Karsch, 1878a: 323, pl. 1, f. 8 (Df).
C. petersii Karsch, 1878a: 324, pl. 1, f. 7 (Df).
C. stygiana Butler, 1879a: 731, pl. 58, f. 4 (Df).
C. paradoxa Butler, 1879a: 732, pl. 57, f. 5 (f).
C. retorta Butler, 1882a: 101, pl. 6, f. 6 (Df).
C. petersi Simon, 1895a: 831, f. 874 (f).
C. avernalis Simon, 1895a: 831, f. 880.
C. m. Simon, 1895a: 834.
C. paradoxa Workman, 1896: 25, pl. 25 (f).
C. m. Simon, 1902b: 215, f. C.
C. albopubescens Strand, 1906b: 688 (Df).
C. m. Grasshoff, 1984: 743, f. 10, 13, 19-21, 45 (mf, S).

mf sexcuspidata (Fabricius, 1793)....................Africa, Madagascar, Comoro Is., Aldabra
Aranea s. Fabricius 1793: 427 (Df).
Epeira imperialis Walckenaer, 1805: 67.
Gasteracantha s. C. L. Koch, 1837a: 36, f. 271 (f).
Epeira imperialis Walckenaer, 1842: 147, pl. 18, f. 1 (Df).
Eurysoma s. C. L. Koch, 1850: 9.
Epeira tuberculosa Vinson, 1863: 228, 314, pl. 14, f. 2 (Df).
C. mitralis humilis Thorell, 1868b: 4 (Df).
C. mitralis turrigera Thorell, 1868b: 4 (Df).
C. wahlbergii Thorell, 1868b: 7 (Df).
C. keyserlingii Thorell, 1868b: 7 (Df).
C. rutenbergi Lenz, 1886: 384 (f, misidentified).
C. tuberculosa Lenz, 1886: 384.
C. s. Simon, 1895a: 831, f. 876-879, 881-882 (f, Dm).
C. femoralis Thorell, 1899: 63 (Df).
C. argostictus Pocock, 1899e: 855, pl. 55, f. 5 (Df).
C. mimicus Strand, 1906b: 624 (Df).
C. tuberculosa Strand, 1908f: 470.
C. s. Tullgren, 1910: 167, pl. 4, f. 121 (f).
C. kibonotensis Tullgren, 1910: 168, pl. 4, f. 122 (Dmf).
C. schubotzi Strand, 1913a: 383 (Df).
C. insularis Strand, 1913a: 384 (Df).
C. tuberculosa Strand, 1916b: 62.
C. voeltzkowi Strand, 1916d: 119 (Df).
C. hnatiukae Roberts, 1983: 280, f. 215-221 (Dm).
C. s. Grasshoff, 1984: 736, f. 8-9, 11, 14-18, 46-47 (mf, S).

f sumatrana Strand, 1915....................India to China, Borneo
C. paradoxa Simon, 1895a: 831, f. 875 (misidentified).
C. s. Strand, 1915d: 225 (Df).
C. paradoxa Tikader, 1982a: 132, f. 247-250 (f).
C. s. Grasshoff, 1984: 758, f. 5, 40, 48 (f).
C. paradoxa Yin et al., 1997: 212, f. 130a-c (f).
C. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 154C-E (f).

mf vicina (Blackwall, 1866)....................Central, Southern Africa
Eurysoma v. Blackwall, 1866: 465 (Df).
C. vinsonii Thorell, 1868b: 8 (Df).
C. albiceps O. P.-Cambridge, 1890b: 628, pl. 53, f. 8 (Df).
C. simata Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895: 46, pl. 2, f. 27 (Df).
C. nodulosa Pocock, 1898g: 514, pl. 41, f. 7 (Dmf).
C. turriger Pocock, 1899e: 837, pl. 57, f. 15 (Df; preoccupied by C. mitralis turrigera Thorell, 1868).
C. albescens Pocock, 1899e: 856, pl. 57, f. 16 (Df).
C. darlingi Pocock, 1902b: 327, f. D (Df).
C. columnifer Pocock, 1902b: 328 (replacement name for C. turrigera).
C. albescens Simon, 1902b: 215, f. A-B.
C. albescens flavicomis Simon, 1903e: 90 (Df).
C. subsimata Strand, 1906h: 64 (Df).
C. amanica Strand, 1907a: 536 (Df).
C. amanica Strand, 1907n: 638 (Df).
C. simata Strand, 1907n: 641.
C. vinsoni Grasshoff, 1984: 746, f. 1-3, 6-7, 12, 22-25, 43-44 (mf, S).
C. v. Levi, 1996b: 93 (Tf from Paraplectana, Sm).

Gen. Cardimia Mello-Leitão, 1940

C. Mello-Leitão, 1940a: 61, type C. eximia Mello-Leitão, 1940.

f eximia Mello-Leitão, 1940 *....................Brazil
C. e. Mello-Leitão, 1940a: 61, f. 7a-b (Df).

Gen. Carepalxis L. Koch, 1872

Transferred to other genera:
C. bispinosa Mello-Leitão, 1945 -- see Ocrepeira.
C. normalis Keyserling, 1892 -- see Scoloderus.

In synonymy:
C. eremita Archer, 1965 = C. salobrensis Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1992a: 259).
C. furcula Keyserling, 1886 = C. tuberculata Keyserling, 1886 (Simon, 1896a: 347, omitted by Roewer)
C. gibbosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 = C. salobrensis Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1992a: 259).
C. rotunda O. P.-Cambridge, 1896 = C. salobrensis Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1992a: 259).
C. vianai Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1948 = C. camelus Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1992a: 255).

f beelzebub (Hasselt, 1873)....................Victoria
Epeira b. Hasselt, 1873: 240, pl. 12, f. A-C (Df).
C. b. Rainbow, 1911: 197.

f bilobata Keyserling, 1886....................Queensland
C. b. Keyserling, 1886a: 118, pl. 9, f. 4 (Df).

f camelus Simon, 1895....................Paraguay, Argentina
C. c. Simon, 1895g: 157 (Df).
C. vianai Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1948: 16, f. 22-25 (Df).
C. c. Levi, 1992a: 255, f. 1-5 (f, S).

f coronata (Rainbow, 1896)....................New South Wales
Epeira c. Rainbow, 1896b: 629, pl. 49, f. 1 (Df).
C. c. Rainbow, 1911: 197.

f lichensis Rainbow, 1916....................Queensland
C. l. Rainbow, 1916a: 115, pl. 22, f. 40-42 (Df).

f montifera L. Koch, 1872 *....................Queensland
C. m. L. Koch, 1872a: 123, pl. 10, f. 1 (Df).

f perpera (Petrunkevitch, 1911)....................Mexico
Epeira perplexa Banks, 1898b: 251, pl. 15, f. 1 (Df; preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1842).
Araneus perperus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 309 (replacement name).
C. p. Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).
C. p. Levi, 1992a: 258, f. 6-10 (f).

f poweri Rainbow, 1916....................New South Wales
C. p. Rainbow, 1916b: 61, f. 4 (Df).

f salobrensis Simon, 1895....................Jamaica, Mexico to Brazil
C. s. Simon, 1895g: 157 (Df).
C. gibbosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 48, pl. 4, f. 10 (Dj).
C. gibbosa Keyserling, 1892: 54, pl. 2, f. 43 (j).
C. rotunda O. P.-Cambridge, 1896a: 224, pl. 27, f. 7 (Df).
C. eremita Archer, 1965b: 131, f. 2-3 (Df).
C. s. Levi, 1992a: 259, f. 11-17 (f, S).

f suberosa Thorell, 1881....................New Guinea
C. s. Thorell, 1881: 48 (Df).

f tricuspidata Chrysanthus, 1961....................New Guinea
C. t. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 205, f. 50-53 (Df).

mf tuberculata Keyserling, 1886....................Queensland, New South Wales
C. t. Keyserling, 1886a: 119, pl. 9, f. 5 (Df).
C. furcula Keyserling, 1886a: 121, pl. 9, f. 6 (Dj).
C. t. Simon, 1896a: 347 (Dm, S).
C. t. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 22 (f).

Gen. Celaenia Thorell, 1868

In synonymy:
C. kinbergi Thorell, 1868 = C. excavata (L. Koch, 1867) (Hickman, 1971: 75, who erroneously gave the younger name priority).

mf atkinsoni (O. P-Cambridge, 1879)....................Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand
Thlaosoma atkinsonii O. P.-Cambridge, 1879d: 699, pl. 52, f. 7 (Df).
C. a. Dalmas, 1917a: 388.
C. a. Guerin, 1987: 181, f. 1-2 (Dm).

f calotoides Rainbow, 1908....................New South Wales
C. c. Rainbow, 1908: 48, f. 4-5 (Df).

mf distincta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1869)....................New South Wales, Tasmania
Thlaosoma distinctum O. P.-Cambridge, 1869a: 274, pl. 9, f. 36-38 (Df).
C. d. L. Koch, 1872a: 238.
C. d. Rainbow, 1902c: 488, pl. 18, f. 4 (f).
C. d. Hickman, 1971: 79, f. 6-7 (Dm).

f dubia (O. P.-Cambridge, 1869)....................New South Wales, Victoria
Thlaosoma dubium O. P.-Cambridge, 1869a: 272, pl. 9, f. 25-35 (Df).
C. d. L. Koch, 1872a: 236.

mf excavata (L. Koch, 1867) *....................Australia, Tasmania
Cyrtogaster e. L. Koch, 1867b: 175 (D).
C. kinbergii Thorell, 1868b: 2 (Df).
C. e. L. Koch, 1872a: 234, pl. 20, f. 1 (Df).
C. e. Karsch, 1878c: 784 (Dm).
C. e. Simon, 1895a: 895, f. 959, 963 (f).
C. e. Butler, 1933: 280, pl. 17, f. 7.
C. e. Dunn & Dunn, 1946: 87, f. 1-2 (m).
C. e. Hickman, 1967: 66, f. 118-121 (mf).
C. kingbergi Hickman, 1971: 75, f. 1-5 (m, S, erroneously used younger name).
C. kinbergii Davies, 1988b: 316, f. 35 (f, Dm).
C. e. Levi, 1996a: 194, f. 24-32 (mf).

f hectori (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879)....................New Zealand
Thlaosoma h. O. P.-Cambridge, 1879d: 700, pl. 52, f. 8 (Df).
C. h. Dalmas, 1917a: 388.

mf olivacea (Urquhart, 1885)....................New Zealand
Thlaosoma o. Urquhart, 1885: 39, pl. 9, f. 4 (Df).
Thlaosoma o. Urquhart, 1887: 95 (Dm).
C. o. Dalmas, 1917a: 388.

f penna (Urquhart, 1887)....................New Zealand
Thlaosoma pennum Urquhart, 1887: 94, pl. 8, f. 4 (Df).
C. p. Dalmas, 1917a: 388.
C. p. Forster & Gray, 1979: 1066, f. 56.

f tuberosa (Urquhart, 1889)....................New Zealand
Thlaosoma t. Urquhart, 1889a: 149 (Df).
C. t. Dalmas, 1917a: 388.

f tumidosa Urquhart, 1891....................Tasmania
C. t. Urquhart, 1891b: 251 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

f voraginosa Urquhart, 1891....................Tasmania
C. v. Urquhart, 1891b: 249, f. 5 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

Gen. Cercidia Thorell, 1869

Transferred to other genera:
C. albostriata (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Alpaida.
C. funebris Keyserling, 1892 -- see Hypsosinga.
C. octomaculata Mello-Leitão, 1945 -- see Alpaida.
C. versicolor Keyserling, 1877 -- see Alpaida.

In synonymy:
C. ochracea (Grube, 1861, T from Araneus) = C. prominens (Westring, 1851) (Wesolowska, 1988b: 409).

mf levii Marusik, 1985....................Kazakhstan
C. l. Marusik, 1985a: 117, f. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 (Dmf).

mf prominens (Westring, 1851) *....................Holarctic
Epeira p. Westring, 1851: 35 (Dm).
Epeira bella Meade, 1861: 21 (Dmf).
Singa p. Westring, 1861: 63 (f).
Singa scutifera Westring, 1861: 66 (Df).
Epeira ochracea Grube, 1861: 163 (Df).
Epeira bella Blackwall, 1864a: 343, pl. 25, f. 248 (mf).
Atea spinosa Ohlert, 1865: 9 (Df).
Cercis p. Menge, 1866: 80, pl. 13, f. 21 (mf).
Miranda carinata Giebel, 1869c: 301 (Df).
C. p. Thorell, 1869: 49, 58.
C. p. Thorell, 1870a: 30.
C. p. Becker, 1896: 49, pl. 10, f. 4 (mf).
C. p. Bösenberg, 1901: 53, pl. 4, f. 47 (mf).
Araneus p. Bryant, 1908: 58.
Araneus p. Simon, 1929: 707, 767, f. 1104-1105 (mf).
C. p. Wiehle, 1931: 25, f. 10, 30-32 (mf).
C. p. Drensky, 1943: 226, f. 7 (mf).
C. p. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 159, f. 106A-E (mf).
C. p. Beer, 1964: 529, f. 12-13 (f).
C. p. Zamaraev, 1964: 351, f. 9 (mf).
C. p. Azheganova, 1968: 80, f. 164, 182-183 (mf).
C. p. Miller, 1971: 204, pl. XXXVII, f. 21, pl. XXXVIII, f. 1 (m).
C. p. Loksa, 1972: 105, f. 95A-C (mf).
C. p. Palmgren, 1974a: 7, f. 2a-c (mf).
C. p. Levi, 1975b: 113, f. 47-57 (mf).
C. p. Roth, 1985: B6-6, f. 55-56, 83 (mf).
C. p. Marusik, 1985a: 115, f. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 (mf).
C. p. Roberts, 1985: 220, f. 99b (mf).
C. p. Wesolowska, 1988b: 409, f. 18-19 (f, S).
C. p. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 80, f. 181 (mf).
C. p. Roberts, 1995: 327, f. (mf).
C. p. Roberts, 1998: 339, f. (mf).
C. p. Hutchinson, Paquin & Dupérré, 2000: 40, f. 1-3 (mf).

mf punctigera Simon, 1889....................India
C. p. Simon, 1889i: 341 (Dmf).
Araneus cribratus Simon, 1895a: 822 (replacement name, needed in Araneus).

Gen. Chaetacis Simon, 1895

Transferred to other genera:
C. rouxi Mello-Leitão, 1939 -- see Micrathena.

In synonymy:
C. aculeata Chickering, 1960 = C. aureola (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 610).
C. affinis (C. L. Koch, 1839) = C. aureola (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 610).
C. conspicua (Mello-Leitão, 1929, T from Micrathena) = C. picta (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 609).
C. dentata Chickering, 1960 = C. aureola (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 610).
C. evansi Chickering, 1960 = C. picta (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 609).
C. hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1932 = C. aureola (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 610).
C. minima Mello-Leitão, 1948 = C. abrahami Mello-Leitão, 1948 (Levi, 1985: 608).
C. rugosa Chickering, 1960 = C. picta (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 609).
C. tuberculata Chickering, 1960 = C. abrahami Mello-Leitão, 1948 (Levi, 1985: 608).

f abrahami Mello-Leitão, 1948....................Colombia to Brazil
C. a. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 162 (Df).
C. minima Mello-Leitão, 1948: 163 (Df).
C. tuberculata Chickering, 1960a: 472, f. 20-24 (Df).
C. a. Levi, 1985: 608, f. 827-832 (f, S).

mf aureola (C. L. Koch, 1836) *....................Surinam to Paraguay
Acrosoma aureolum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 60, f. 213 (Df).
Acrosoma affine C. L. Koch, 1839a: 131, f. 525 (Df).
Plectana affinis Walckenaer, 1842: 182.
Plectana a. Walckenaer, 1842: 189.
C. affinis Simon, 1895a: 863.
Micrathena a. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 366.
C. a. Reimoser, 1917: 156.
C. hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 96, f. 7 (Df).
C. aculeata Chickering, 1960a: 466, f. 1-5 (Df).
C. dentata Chickering, 1960a: 468, f. 6-11 (Dm).
C. a. Levi, 1985: 610, f. 844-852, pl. 3 (f, Sm).

f carimagua Levi, 1985....................Colombia, Venezuela
C. c. Levi, 1985: 603, f. 798-802 (Df).

mf cornuta (Taczanowski, 1873)....................Colombia to Brazil
Acrosoma c. Taczanowski, 1873: 268, pl. 5, f. 22 (Df).
C. c. Simon, 1895a: 854, f. 920-921 (f).
C. c. Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 379, f. 36 (f).
C. c. Levi, 1985: 604, f. 803-811 (f, Dm).

mf cucharas Levi, 1985....................Peru
C. c. Levi, 1985: 606, f. 812-820 (Dmf).

f incisa (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Brazil
Plectana i. Walckenaer, 1842: 195 (Df).
Acrosoma incisum Butler, 1873b: 427.
Micrathena i. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 372.
C. i. Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 97 (N.B.: omitted by Levi, 1985).

mf necopinata (Chickering, 1960)....................Peru
Micrathena n. Chickering, 1960d: 84, f. 71-73 (Dm).
C. n. Levi, 1985: 612, f. 853-861 (Tm from Micrathena, Df).

f osa Levi, 1985....................Costa Rica
C. o. Levi, 1985: 603, f. 792-797 (Df).

mf picta (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Guyana to Paraguay
Acrosoma pictum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 61, f. 214 (Df).
Plectana p. Walckenaer, 1842: 190.
Micrathena p. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 375.
C. p. Reimoser, 1917: 157.
Micrathena conspicuum Mello-Leitão, 1929c: 110, f. 21 (Df).
C. evansi Chickering, 1960a: 469, f. 12-16 (Dm).
C. rugosa Chickering, 1960a: 471, f. 17-19 (Df).
C. p. Levi, 1985: 609, f. 833-843 (f, Sm).

f woytkowskii Levi, 1985....................Peru
C. w. Levi, 1985: 608, f. 821-826 (Df).

Gen. Chorizopes O. P.-Cambridge, 1870

N.B.: original spelling is Chorizoopes but Thorell's (1873: 600) emendation is now protected by usage; transferred here from the Theridiidae by Levi & Levi, 1962: 18.

In synonymy:
C. nanshanensis (Yin et al., 1990, T from Araneus) = C. bengalensis Tikader, 1975 (Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262).

Nomen nudum:
C. quadrificus Kishida (Yaginuma, in Brignoli, 1983c: 252).

f anjanes Tikader, 1965....................India
C. a. Tikader, 1965b: 94, f. 2a-d (Df).
C. a. Tikader, 1982a: 162, f. 308-311 (f).

mf antongilensis Emerit, 1997....................Madagascar
C. a. Emerit, 1997: 44, f. 1-3 (Dmf).

mf bengalensis Tikader, 1975....................India, China
C. b. Tikader, 1975b: 148, f. 8-11 (Dmf).
C. b. Tikader, 1982a: 160, f. 302-307 (mf).
C. b. Hu & Li, 1987a: 330, f. 11.1-3 (f).
Araneus nanshanensis Yin et al., 1990: 50, f. 124-128 (Df).
C. b. Yin et al., 1997: 214, f. 131a-f (f).
C. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 154F-G, 155D (f, S).
C. b. Hu, 2001: 454, f. 297.1-3 (f).

mf calciope (Simon, 1895)....................India
Araneus c. Simon, 1895a: 822 (Df).
C. c. Tikader, 1982a: 164, f. 312-315 (Tmf from Araneus).

f congener O. P.-Cambridge, 1885....................India
Chorizoopes c. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 53 (Df).

f dicavus Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. d. Yin et al., 1990: 52, f. 129-132 (Df).
C. d. Yin et al., 1997: 215, f. 136a-d (f; N.B.: not f. 132)
C. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 154H-I, 155E (f).

mf frontalis O. P.-Cambridge, 1870 *....................Sri Lanka to Sumatra
Chorizoopes f. O. P.-Cambridge, 1870d: 738, pl. 44, f. 6 (Df).
C. f. Simon, 1895a: 922, f. 988-990.
C. f. Levi, 1964a: 212, f. 12-20 (f, Dm).

f goosus Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. g. Yin et al., 1990: 53, f. 133-136 (Df).
C. g. Yin et al., 1997: 215, f. 133a-d (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 154J-K, 155F (f).

f khanjanes Tikader, 1965....................India, China
C. k. Tikader, 1965b: 95, f. 3a-c (Df).
C. k. Tikader, 1982a: 159, f. 297-301 (f).
C. k. Yin, Wang & Xie, 1994: 5, f. 1-8 (f).
C. k. Yin et al., 1997: 216, f. 134a-h (f).
C. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 154L-N, 155G (f).

f khedaensis Reddy & Patel, 1993....................India
C. k. Reddy & Patel, 1993b: 54, f. 6-11 (Df).

mf madagascariensis Emerit, 1997....................Madagascar
C. m. Emerit, 1997: 47, f. 4-5 (Dmf).

f mucronatus Simon, 1895....................Sri Lanka
C. m. Simon, 1895a: 922 (Df).

mf nipponicus Yaginuma, 1963....................China, Japan
C. n. Yaginuma, 1963c: 9, f. 1-9 (Dmf).
C. n. Yaginuma, 1986a: 122, f. 64.7 (mf).
C. n. Chikuni, 1989b: 85, f. 69 (mf).
C. n. Yin et al., 1990: 55, f. 140-141 (f).
C. n. Yin et al., 1997: 217, f. 135a-g (mf).
C. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 262, f. 154O-P, X, 155H (mf).

f orientalis Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
C. frontalis o. Simon, 1909e: 119 (Df).
C. o. Levi, 1964a: 214, f. 21-26 (f, elevated from subspecies).

f pateli Reddy & Patel, 1993....................India
C. p. Reddy & Patel, 1993b: 53, f. 1-5 (Df).

f shimenensis Yin & Peng, 1994....................China
C. s. Yin & Peng, in Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 107, f. 14-17 (Df).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997: 218, f. 132a-d (f; N.B.: not f. 136)
C. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 154Q-R, 155I (f).

f stoliczkae O. P.-Cambridge, 1885....................India
Chorizoopes s. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 52 (Df).

f tikaderi Sadana & Kaur, 1974....................India
C. t. Sadana & Kaur, 1974a: 162, f. 1-3 (Df).

f trimamillatus Schenkel, 1963....................China
C. t. Schenkel, 1963: 181, f. 104a-h (Df).
C. t. Yin et al., 1997: 219, f. 137a-g (f).
C. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 154S, 155J-K (f).

mf tumens Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. t. Yin et al., 1990: 56, f. 142-147 (Dmf).
C. t. Yin et al., 1997: 220, f. 138a-f (mf).
C. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 154T-U, 155A-B, L (mf).

f wulingensis Yin, Wang & Xie, 1994....................China
C. khanjanes Yin et al., 1990: 55, f. 137-139 (f, misidentified).
C. w. Yin, Wang & Xie, 1994: 5, f. 9-15 (Df).
C. w. Yin et al., 1997: 221, f. 139a-g (f).
C. w. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 154V-W, 155M (f).

m zepherus Zhu & Song, 1994....................China
C. z. Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 34, f. 9A-C (Dm; N.B.: spelled zephenus in species heading, zopherus in figure legend, as above in English abstract).
C. z. Yin et al., 1997: 222, f. 140a-c (m).
C. z. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155C, N (m).

Gen. Cladomelea Simon, 1895

Transferred to other genera:
C. mundhva Tikader, 1963 -- see Ordgarius.

mf akermani Hewitt, 1923....................South Africa
C. a. Hewitt, 1923: 63, f. 4-5 (Df).
C. a. Leroy, Jocqué, & Leroy, 1998: 1, f. 1-7 (f, Dm).

f longipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877) *....................Congo
Cyrtarachne l. O. P.-Cambridge, 1877b: 559, pl. 56, f. 1 (Df).
C. l. Simon, 1895a: 883, f. 949-950 (f).

f ornata Hirst, 1907....................Central Africa
C. o. Hirst, 1907b: 36, f. 4 (Df).

Gen. Cnodalia Thorell, 1890

f harpax Thorell, 1890 *....................Sumatra
C. h. Thorell, 1890a: 116 (Df).

Gen. Coelossia Simon, 1895

f aciculata Simon, 1895 *....................Sierra Leone
C. a. Simon, 1895a: 888 (Df).

f trituberculata Simon, 1903....................Mauritius, Madagascar
C. t. Simon, 1903b: 139 (Df).

Gen. Colaranea Court & Forster, 1988

C. Court & Forster, 1988: 76, type Araneus viriditas (Urquhart, 1886).

In synonymy:
C. discolora (Urquhart, 1887, T from Araneus) = C. viriditas (Urquhart, 1887) (Court & Forster, 1988: 77).
C. flavomaculata (Urquhart, 1890, T from Araneus) = C. viriditas (Urquhart, 1887) (Court & Forster, 1988: 77).
C. galbana (Urquhart, 1891, T from Araneus) = C. viriditas (Urquhart, 1887) (Court & Forster, 1988: 77).
C. viriditas hastata (Urquhart, 1887, T from Araneus) = C. verutum (Urquhart, 1887) (Court & Forster, 1988: 78).
C. viriditas lineola (Urquhart, 1887, T from Araneus) = C. verutum (Urquhart, 1887) (Court & Forster, 1988: 78).
C. viriditas veruina (Urquhart, 1887, T from Araneus) = C. verutum (Urquhart, 1887) (Court & Forster, 1988: 78).

mf brunnea Court & Forster, 1988....................New Zealand
C. b. Court & Forster, 1988: 81, f. 350, 430-434 (Dmf).

mf melanoviridis Court & Forster, 1988....................New Zealand
C. m. Court & Forster, 1988: 81, f. 349, 429, 435-436 (Dmf).

mf verutum (Urquhart, 1887)....................New Zealand
Epeira v. Urquhart, 1887: 87, 89 (Dmf).
Epeira v. veruina Urquhart, 1887: 88 (Df).
Epeira v. hastatum Urquhart, 1887: 89, pl. 8, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira v. lineola Urquhart, 1887: 89 (Dm).
Araneus verutus Bryant, 1935c: 61, pl. 9, f. 10-11 (f).
Aranea viriditas hastata Roewer, 1942a: 835.
Aranea viriditas lineola Roewer, 1942a: 835.
Aranea viriditas veruina Roewer, 1942a: 835.
C. v. Court & Forster, 1988: 78, f. 348, 417-426 (removed mf from S of C. viriditas, S).

mf viriditas (Urquhart, 1887) *....................New Zealand
Epeira v. Urquhart, 1887: 85 (Df).
Epeira discolora Urquhart, 1887: 86 (Dmf).
Epeira flavomaculata Urquhart, 1890c: 239 (Df).
Epeira galbana Urquhart, 1891a: 163 (Df).
Araneus v. Dalmas, 1917a: 387, f. 54 (f).
C. v. Court & Forster, 1988: 77, f. 347, 401-410 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

Gen. Collina Urquhart, 1891

f glabicira Urquhart, 1891 *....................Tasmania
C. g. Urquhart, 1891b: 247, f. 4 (Df; omitted by Bonnet).

Gen. Colphepeira Archer, 1941

C. Archer, 1941b: 12, type Araneus catawba (Banks, 1911); transferred here from the Theridiosomatidae by Levi, 1978a: 420.

mf catawba (Banks, 1911) *....................USA, Mexico
Epeira c. Banks, 1911: 450, pl. 34, f. 4 (Df).
C. c. Archer, 1941b: 13, pl. I, f. 3-4, pl. II, f. 1-3 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).
C. c. Archer, 1953: 22, f. 32-34 (mf).
C. c. Levi, 1978a: 422, f. 1-15 (mf).
C. c. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 57 (m).

Gen. Cryptaranea Court & Forster, 1988

C. Court & Forster, 1988: 82, type Araneus invisibilis (Urquhart, 1891).

In synonymy:
C. mundania (Urquhart, 1893, T from Araneus) = C. venustula (Urquhart, 1891) (Sirvid & Vink, 2000: 49, sub C. munda).
C. mundania inversa (Urquhart, 1893, T from Araneus) = C. venustula (Urquhart, 1891) (Sirvid & Vink, 2000: 49, sub C. munda).
C. nigrohastula (Urquhart, 1891, T from Araneus) = C. atrihastula (Urquhart, 1891) (Court & Forster, 1988: 90).

mf albolineata (Urquhart, 1893)....................New Zealand
Epeira albo-lineata Urquhart, 1893a: 178 (Df).
C. a. Court & Forster, 1988: 87, f. 358, 458-469 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

mf atrihastula (Urquhart, 1891)....................New Zealand
Epeira atri-hastula Urquhart, 1891a: 162, pl. 21, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira nigro-hastula Urquhart, 1891a: 159, pl. 21, f. 13 (Dmf).
C. a. Court & Forster, 1988: 90, f. 357, 483-489 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

mf invisibilis (Urquhart, 1892) *....................New Zealand
Epeira i. Urquhart, 1892b: 239 (Dmf).
C. i. Court & Forster, 1988: 83, f. 360, 437, 439-445 (Tmf from Araneus).

mf stewartensis Court & Forster, 1988....................New Zealand
C. s. Court & Forster, 1988: 89, f. 355, 478-482 (Dmf).

mf subalpina Court & Forster, 1988....................New Zealand
C. s. Court & Forster, 1988: 89, f. 354, 472-477 (Dmf).

mf subcompta (Urquhart, 1887)....................New Zealand
Epeira sub-compta Urquhart, 1887: 83, pl. 7, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira peronginia Urquhart, 1894: 215 (Df).
C. s. Court & Forster, 1988: 94, f. 356, 492-497 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

mf venustula (Urquhart, 1891)....................New Zealand
Epeira v. Urquhart, 1891a: 165, pl. 21, f. 12 (Df, primary junior homonym of E. v. Keyserling, 1880).
Epeira munda Urquhart, 1893a: 177 (Df; preoccupied by C. L. Koch, 1836).
Epeira munda inversa Urquhart, 1893a: 178 (Df).
Araneus venustulus Dalmas, 1917a: 386, f. 53 (f).
Aranea mundania Roewer, 1942a: 830 (replacement name).
Aranea mundania inversa Roewer, 1942a: 830.
C. v. Court & Forster, 1988: 85, f. 362, 446-457, 471 (removed f from S of Araneus viriditas, Dm).
C. v. Sirvid & Vink, 2000: 49 (S).

Gen. Cyclosa Menge, 1866

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Parazygia Caporiacco, 1955, type P. accentonotata Caporiacco, 1955 [=C. caroli (Hentz, 1850)] by Levi, 1977a: 73.

Transferred to other genera:
C. bicauda Saito, 1933 -- see Cyrtophora.
C. bifurca (McCook, 1887) -- see Allocyclosa.
C. bifurcata Paik, 1942 -- see Cyrtophora.
C. furcata O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 -- see Allocyclosa.
C. minuscula Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
C. moraballii (Hingston, 1932) -- see Parawixia.
C. oliverioi Soares & Camargo, 1948 -- see Alpaida.
C. paranensis Mello-Leitão, 1937 -- see Mecynometa under Tetragnathidae.
C. silvestris (Bryant, 1942) -- see Metazygia.
C. spinosa Saito, 1933 -- see Arachnura.
C. tuberculata (Hingston, 1932) -- see Parawixia.
C. v-notata Petrunkevitch, 1925 -- see Argyrodes under Theridiidae.

In synonymy:
C. accentonotata (Caporiacco, 1955) = C. tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 338, contra Levi, 1977a: 83).
C. brevis Bryant, 1940 = C. diversa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894) (Levi, 1999: 369).
C. clara O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 = C. triquetra Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1999: 352).
C. conica canadensis Blackwall, 1846 = C. conica (Pallas, 1772) (Levi, 1977a: 78).
C. cuadrituberosa Franganillo, 1936 = C. walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1999: 360, after Levi, 1977a: 85).
C. culta O. P.-Cambridge, 1893 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. elongata Franganillo, 1930 = C. caroli (Hentz, 1850) (Franganillo, 1936c: 83).
C. filiobliqua Hingston, 1932 = C. tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 338).
C. filisinuosa Hingston, 1932 = C. fililineata Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 330).
C. fissicauda Simon, 1889 = C. quinqueguttata (Thorell, 1881) (Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 55).
C. fusiformis (Taczanowski, 1878) = C. bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1999: 365).
C. globulifaciens Hingston, 1932 = C. bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1999: 365).
C. glomosa (Walckenaer, 1842) = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1842) (McCook, 1888a: 79, omitted by Roewer).
C. hybophora (Thorell, 1887) = C. quinqueguttata (Thorell, 1881) (Roberts, 1983: 261).
C. index O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. kiangsica Schenkel, 1963 = C. argenteoalba Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 (Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263).
C. lacerta O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 = C. caroli (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1977a: 82).
C. longispina (Saito, 1933, T from Argyrodes) = C. mulmeinensis (Thorell, 1887) (Yaginuma, 1963d: 21).
C. moesta (Blackwall, 1865) = C. insulana (Costa, 1834) (Berland, 1936: 87, omitted by Roewer).
C. nanna Ivie & Barrows, 1935 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. scelesta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894, removed from S of C. diversa) = C. bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1999: 365).
C. strandjae Drensky, 1915 = C. conica (Pallas, 1772) (Deltshev & Blagoev, 2001: 110).
C. sumaqkay Archer, 1971 = C. tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932 (Levi, 1999: 338).
C. trifida F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = C. walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1977a: 84).
C. tuberculifera O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1999: 356, after Levi, 1977a: 80).
C. vanbruyseli (Becker, 1879, T from Singa) = C. turbinata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1972a: 231).
C. velata Chrysanthus, 1961 = C. albopunctata Kulczyn'ski, 1901 (Chrysanthus, 1971: 25).

Nomina dubia:
C. convexisterna Caporiacco, 1947a: 25, 1948a: 656, f. 63 (j, Guyana) -- Levi, 1999: 310 (as juvenile of Mecynometa).
C. tremula Hingston, 1932: 370 (m, Guyana) -- Levi, 1999: 338.
C. tricauda Saito, 1933b: 53, pl. 3, f. 38 (f, Taiwan) -- Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 51 (but see Lee, 1966: 52, f. 17c-d, f, Taiwan).
C. tricolorata Brignoli, 1983c: 266 (replacement name for C. tricolor Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 202, f, Brazil, preoccupied by Leardi, 1902) -- Levi, 1999: 299.

Homonyms replaced:
C. tricolor Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see C. tricolorata.
C. trituberculata Berland, 1913 -- see C. berlandi.

f alayoni Levi, 1999....................Cuba
C. a. Levi, 1999: 374, f. 421-424 (Df).

f alba Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 62, f. 198-201 (Df).

mf albisternis Simon, 1887....................India, Andaman Is., Hawaii
C. a. Simon, 1888a: 285 (Dmf).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 32, f. 56-60 (mf).

mf albopunctata Kulczyn'ski, 1901....................Africa, New Guinea, New Caledonia
C. a. Kulczyn'ski, 1901a: 27, pl. 2, f. 23-24 (Dm).
Cyclosa velata Chrysanthus, 1961b: 201, f. 28, 30-33 (Dmf).
C. a. Chrysanthus, 1971: 25, f. 123-125 (m, S).
C. vellata Bigot, 1992: 116, f. 1c-e (mf).

mf algerica Simon, 1885....................Mediterranean
C. a. Simon, 1885g: 21 (Df).
C. a. Simon, 1929: 711, 768, f. 1109-1111 (f, Dm).
C. a. Levi, 1977a: 79, f. 34-37 (mf).

mf andinas Levi, 1999....................Colombia, Ecuador
C. a. Levi, 1999: 331, f. 108-116 (Dmf).

mf angusta Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 26, f. 35-38 (Df).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1997a: 29, f. 1-6 (Dm).

f argentata Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan
C. a. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 59, f. 10-12 (Df).
C. a. Yin et al., 1997: 228, f. 141a-c (f).
C. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155O-P, 160C (f).

mf argenteoalba Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 202, pl. 4, f. 38, pl. 15, f. 419 (Df).
C. kiangsica Schenkel, 1963: 139, f. 81 (Df).
C. kiangsica Yin, 1978: 7, f. 18A-D (f).
C. kiangsica Song, 1980: 110, f. 55a-d (f).
C. kingsica Wang, 1981: 101, f. 42A-C (f, lapsus).
C. a. Hu, 1984: 106, f. 102.1 (f).
C. kiangsica Hu, 1984: 107, f. 102.2 (f).
C. kiangsica Guo, 1985: 61, f. 2-16.1-2 (f).
C. a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.2 (mf).
C. a. Song, 1987: 168, f. 128 (mf).
C. a. Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 73 (mf).
C. a. Feng, 1990: 70, f. 45.1-3 (mf).
C. argenteoalbe Chen & Gao, 1990: 54, f. 62a-c (mf).
C. a. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 92, f. 83.1-4 (mf).
C. kiangsica Chen & Zhang, 1991: 99, f. 91.1-4 (f).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 65, f. 211-221 (mf).
C. a. Zhao, 1993: 236, f. 109a-b (mf).
C. a. Yin et al., 1997: 256, f. 167a-i (mf).
C. a. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1711, f. 11a-d (mf).
C. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155Q-R, 158I, 160H (mf, S).

mf atrata Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Japan
C. a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 204, pl. 4, f. 28, pl. 15, f. 417 (Df).
C. a. Strand, 1918: 95, pl. 2, f. 17 (f).
C. a. Saito, 1934b: 318, pl. 14, f. 21 (f).
C. a. Matsuyama, 1957: 9, f. 1-15 (mf).
C. a. Saito, 1959: 97, f. 109a-e (f).
C. a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.3 (mf).
C. a. Feng, 1990: 71, f. 46.1-3 (f).
C. otrata Chen & Gao, 1990: 58, f. 69a-b (f).
C. a. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 95, f. 87.1-3 (f).
C. a. Tanikawa, 1992b: 45, f. 109-118 (mf).
C. a. Yin et al., 1997: 228, f. 142a-g (mf).
C. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155S-T (f).

f baakea Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. b. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 605, f. 380a-f (Df).

f bacilliformis Simon, 1908....................Western Australia
C. b. Simon, 1908d: 423 (Df).

f baloghi Kolosváry, 1934....................Hungary
C. b. Kolosváry, 1934b: 12, f. 2 (Df).
C. b. Kolosváry, 1938e: 14, f. d-e (f).

f banawensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. b. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 592, f. 369a-h (Df).

mf berlandi Levi, 1999....................USA, Hispaniola to Ecuador
C. trituberculata Berland, 1913b: 91, pl. 9, f. 36-41 (Dmf).
C. b. Levi, 1999: 358, f. 322-332 (replacement name for C. trituberculata Berland, preoccupied in this genus by Lucas, 1846)

mf bianchoria Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. ginnaga Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 63b (mf, misidentified).
C. b. Yin et al., 1990: 59, f. 148-155 (Dmf).
C. b. Song, Zhu & Li, 1993: 872, f. 37A-B (f).
C. b. Yin et al., 1997: 229, f. 143a-i (mf).
C. b. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1712, f. 12a-b (m).
C. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155U, 158J, 160I (mf).

mf bifida (Doleschall, 1859)....................India to Philippines, New Guinea
Epeira b. Doleschall, 1859: 38, pl. 2, f. 8 (Df).
Epeira macrura Thorell, 1877b: 402 (Df).
C. b. Simon, 1895a: 779, f. 852.
Epeira b. Workman, 1896: 33, pl. 33 (f, Dm).
C. macrura Strand, 1911d: 149.
C. b. Tikader, 1966b: 14, f. 31-34 (f).
C. b. Chrysanthus, 1971: 21, f. 34-36 (f).
C. b. Tikader, 1982a: 185, f. 351-355 (f).
C. b. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 608, f. 381a-g (f).

mf bifurcata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Costa Rica, Hispaniola to Argentina
Epeira b. Walckenaer, 1842: 145 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1864: 142, pl. 6, f. 22-23 (f).
Epeira fusiformis Taczanowski, 1878b: 173, pl. 2, f. 22 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1892: 97, pl. 5, f. 72 (f).
Turckheimia scelesta O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 268, pl. 39, f. 10 (Df).
Cyrtophora fusiformis Banks, 1898b: 256.
C. fusiformis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 497.
C. globulifaciens Hingston, 1932: 369 (Df).
C. b. Levi, 1999: 365, f. 26, 368-377 (mf, S).

f bituberculata Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh
C. b. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 46, f. 1-6 (Df).

f bulleri (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea
Epeira b. Thorell, 1881: 119 (Df).
C. b. Simon, 1895a: 780.

f cajamarca Levi, 1999....................Peru
C. c. Levi, 1999: 344, f. 232-235 (Df).

f caligata (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Epeira c. Thorell, 1890a: 176 (Df).
C. c. Roewer, 1942a: 756.

f camargoi Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. c. Levi, 1999: 343, f. 212-217 (Df).

mf camelodes (Thorell, 1878)....................New Guinea
Epeira c. Thorell, 1878b: 78 (Df).
C. c. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 479 (Dm).
C. c. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 201, f. 16-18, 81 (f).
C. c. Chrysanthus, 1971: 22, f. 37-39, 116 (m).
C. c. Tanikawa, 1992b: 51, f. 143-145 (f).

mf caroli (Hentz, 1850)....................USA, West Indies to Bolivia
Epeira c. Hentz, 1850: 24, pl. 3, f. 15 (Df).
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1864: 137, pl. 6, f. 17-19 (f).
C. lacerta O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 50 (Dm).
Epeira lacerta Keyserling, 1893: 275, pl. 14, f. 204 (m).
Epeira c. McCook, 1894: 277, pl. 17, f. 7-8 (f, Dm).
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1893: 272, pl. 14, f. 202 (mf).
C. c. Simon, 1897d: 873.
C. lacerta F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 491, pl. 47, f. 3 (m).
C. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 494, pl. 47, f. 4 (f).
C. c. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 316, f. 190-191 (f).
C. elongata Franganillo, 1930: 24 (D; N.B.: omitted by Roewer and Brignoli).
C. c. Franganillo, 1936c: 83 (S).
C. c. Bryant, 1940: 336, f. 114 (f).
C. c. Levi, 1977a: 82, f. 51-63 (mf, S).
C. c. Levi, 1999: 336, f. 162-180 (mf).

f centrifaciens Hingston, 1927....................Myanmar
C. c. Hingston, 1927: 290 (Df).

f centrodes (Thorell, 1887)....................India to Singapore
Epeira porcula Hasselt, 1882: 22, pl. 4, f. 6 (f, misidentified).
Epeira c. Thorell, 1887: 209 (Df).
Epeira c. Workman, 1896: 35, pl. 35 (f).
Araneus c. Simon, 1899a: 91.
C. c. Tikader, 1977a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).

m cephalodina Song & Liu, 1996....................China
C. c. Song & Liu, in Song et al., 1996: 105, f. 1A-E (Dm).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 158K-L, 160K (m).

f circumlucens Simon, 1907....................Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé
C. c. Simon, 1907d: 286 (Df).

f concolor Caporiacco, 1933....................Libya
C. c. Caporiacco, 1933: 324, f. 6 (Df).

mf confraga (Thorell, 1892)....................India, Bangladesh to Malaysia
Epeira c. Thorell, 1892a: 239 (Df).
Epeira c. Workman, 1896: 34, pl. 34 (f).
C. c. Simon, 1909e: 104.
C. c. Dyal, 1935: 191, pl. 11, f. 9, pl. 16, f. 117-119 (f, Dm).
C. c. Tikader, 1982a: 193, f. 372-376 (f).
C. c. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 46, f. 27-33 (f).

mf confusa Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. c. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 209, pl. 15, f. 418 (Dm).
C. insulana Chikuni, 1989b: 84, f. 68 (m, misidentified).
C. c. Tanikawa, 1992b: 34, f. 65-80 (m, Df).
C. c. Kim & Kim, 1996: 45, f. 1-5 (f).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997: 236, f. 149a-k (mf).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156A-B, 158M-N, 160L (mf).

mf conica (Pallas, 1772) *....................Holarctic
Aranea c. Pallas, 1772: 48, pl. 1, f. 16 (Df).
Aranea triquetra Sulzer, 1776: 254, pl. 30, f. 2 (Df).
Aranea c. De Geer, 1778: 231, pl. 13, f. 16-20 (f).
Aranea c. Olivier, 1789: 203 (D).
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1802: 202.
Epeira c. Dufour, 1824: 207, pl. 10, f. 3 (Dm).
Epeira c. Hahn, 1834: 45, f. 130 (mf).
Singa c. C. L. Koch, 1837b: 6.
Singa c. C. L. Koch, 1844: 145, f. 943-945 (mf).
Epeira canadensis Blackwall, 1846a: 81 (Df).
Epeira c. Blackwall, 1864a: 362, pl. 27, f. 261 (mf).
C. c. Menge, 1866: 74, pl. 12, f. 18 (mf).
Cyrtophora c. Thorell, 1870a: 18.
C. c. O. P.-Cambridge, 1881a: 246, pl. 4, f. 6 (mf).
Cyrtophora c. Hansen, 1882: 22, pl. 1, f. 37 (mf).
C. c. Emerton, 1884: 321, pl. 34, f. 3, pl. 38, f. 11 (mf).
C. c. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 127, pl. 4, f. 42 (mf).
C. c. Keyserling, 1893: 276, pl. 14, f. 205 (mf).
C. c. Becker, 1896: 7, pl. 2, f. 1 (mf).
C. c. Bösenberg, 1901: 41, pl. 3, f. 29 (mf).
C. c. Emerton, 1902: 183, f. 428-429 (mf).
C. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 493, pl. 46, f. 19-20 (mf).
C. c. Kulczyn'ski, 1907: 574, pl. 21, f. 12-13 (f).
C. strandjae Drensky, 1915: 143, 174, pl. 1, f. 1 (Dj, see Dimitrov, 1999: 23, f. 1).
C. c. Simon, 1929: 710, 767, f. 1106-1108 (mf).
C. c. canadensis Simon, 1929: 768.
C. c. Reimoser, 1930b: 14, f. 4 (mf).
C. c. Wiehle, 1931: 18, f. 8, 17-21 (mf).
C. c. Drensky, 1943: 225, f. 5 (mf).
C. c. Kaston, 1948: 236, f. 711-713 (m).
C. c. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 166, f. 111A-D (mf).
C. c. Zamaraev, 1964: 352, f. 18 (f).
C. c. Azheganova, 1968: 82, f. 165, 173, 188 (mf).
C. c. Miller, 1971: 202, pl. XXXVII, f. 17-18 (mf).
C. c. Loksa, 1972: 109, f. 99A-B (mf).
C. c. Palmgren, 1974a: 7, f. 2d-g (mf).
C. c. Punda, 1975b: 40, f. 64, 66-67 (f).
C. c. Levi, 1977a: 78, f. 1-19 (mf, S).
C. c. Roberts, 1985: 222, f. 100b (mf).
C. c. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 82, f. 182 (mf).
C. c. Roberts, 1995: 336, f. (mf).
C. c. Mcheidze, 1997: 255, f. 554-557 (mf).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997: 258, f. 169a-e (mf).
C. c. Roberts, 1998: 349, f. (mf).
C. c. Levi, 1999: 320, f. 42-48 (mf).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156C, 158O, 160M (mf).
C. c. Deltshev & Blagoev, 2001: 110 (S).

f conica albifoliata Strand, 1907....................France
C. c. a. Strand, 1907e: 233 (Df).
C. c. rubricauda Simon, 1929: 710, 768 (Df).

f conica defoliata Strand, 1907....................Central Europe
C. c. d. Strand, 1907e: 233 (Df).
C. c. triangulifera Simon, 1929: 710, 768 (Df).

f conica dimidiata Simon, 1929....................France
C. c. d. Simon, 1929: 711, 768 (Df).

f conica leucomelas Strand, 1907....................Central Europe
C. c. l. Strand, 1907e: 232 (Df).

f conica pyrenaica Strand, 1907....................France
C. c. p. Strand, 1907e: 233 (Df).

f conica zamezai Franganillo, 1909....................Portugal
C. c. z. Franganillo, 1909: 186 (Df).
C. c. z. Franganillo, 1910: 9, f. 3-4 (f).

f conigera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico to Honduras
C. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 494, pl. 47, f. 5 (Df).
C. c. Levi, 1999: 322, f. 57-61 (f, removed from S of C. caroli, contra Levi, 1977a: 83).

f coylei Levi, 1999....................Mexico, Guatemala
C. c. Levi, 1999: 324, f. 62-66 (Df).

mf cucurbitoria (Yin et al., 1990)....................China
Eustala c. Yin et al., 1990: 65, f. 163-168 (Df).
C. c. Yin & Gong, 1996: 74, f. 9-11 (Tf from Eustala, Dm).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997: 231, f. 144a-h (mf).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156D-E, 158P-Q, 160N (mf).

f cucurbitula Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
C. c. Simon, 1900a: 482 (Df).

f curiraba Levi, 1999....................Bolivia
C. c. Levi, 1999: 346, f. 240-243 (Df).

f cylindrata Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China
C. c. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 11, f. 1-3 (Df).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997: 232, f. 145a-c (f).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156F-G, 160O (f).

f cylindrifaciens Hingston, 1927....................Myanmar
C. c. Hingston, 1927: 291 (Df).

f damingensis Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995....................China
C. d. Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995: 23, f. 1-5 (Df).
C. d. Yin et al., 1997: 259, f. 170a-e (f).
C. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156H-I, 160P (f).

mf deserticola Levy, 1998....................Egypt, Israel
C. d. Levy, 1998a: 320, f. 33-46 (Dmf).

mf dianasilvae Levi, 1999....................Ecuador, Peru
C. d. Levi, 1999: 343, f. 223-231 (Dmf).

mf diversa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894)....................Mexico, Cuba to Argentina
Turckheimia d. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894a: 136, pl. 16, f. 11 (Df).
C. d. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 10 (f).
C. brevis Bryant, 1940: 335, f. 110 (Dm).
C. brevis Alayón, 1993d: 2, f. 1A-D (Df; N.B.: a misidentified Wagneriana, per Levi, 1999: 310).
C. d. Alayón, 1993d: 4, f. 2A-D (f).
C. d. Levi, 1999: 369, f. 391-412 (f, Sm).

mf dives Simon, 1877....................China, Philippines
C. d. Simon, 1877b: 71 (Dm).
C. d. Tanikawa, 1992b: 32, f. 63-64 (m).
C. d. Zhu et al, 1994: 35, f. 10A-H (m, Df).
C. d. Yin et al., 1997: 237, f. 150a-h (mf).
C. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156J-K, 158R, 160Q (mf).

f donking Levi, 1999....................Bolivia
C. d. Levi, 1999: 341, f. 195-198 (Df).

f dosbukolea Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. d. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 601, f. 377a-i (Df).

f durango Levi, 1999....................Mexico
C. d. Levi, 1999: 325, f. 71-76 (Df).

f elongata Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh
C. e. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 49, f. 7-13 (Df).

m espumoso Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. e. Levi, 1999: 355, f. 298-303 (Dm).

mf fililineata Hingston, 1932....................Panama to Argentina
C. sericaria Simon, 1895a: 782 (nomen nudum)
C. f. Hingston, 1932: 371 (Df).
C. filisinuosa Hingston, 1932: 372 (Dm).
C. f. Levi, 1999: 330, f. 36-37, 96-107 (f, Sm).

f formosa Karsch, 1879....................West Africa
C. f. Karsch, 1879e: 835 (Df).
Salassina f. Pocock, 1898g: 513.

f formosana Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan
C. f. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 57, f. 6-9 (Df).
C. f. Yin et al., 1997: 238, f. 151a-d (f).
C. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156L-M, 160R (f).

mf fuliginata (L. Koch, 1871)....................New South Wales, Victoria
Epeira fuliginata L. Koch, 1872a: 106, pl. 8, f. 7 (Df).
C. f. Dondale, 1966: 1162, f. 3G-J (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

mf ginnaga Yaginuma, 1959....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. g. Yaginuma, 1959b: 12, f. 8-13 (Df).
C. g. Yaginuma, 1960: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. g. Lee, 1966: 52, f. 17g-i (f).
C. g. Yaginuma, 1971: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. g. Hu, 1984: 107, f. 103.1-2 (f).
C. g. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.1 (f).
C. g. Zhang & Zhu, 1987: 33, f. 1A-B (Dm).
C. g. Zhang, 1987: 77, f. 60.1-4 (mf).
C. ginnaga Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 63a (mf, not f. 63b).
C. g. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 97, f. 90.1-3 (f).
C. g. Tanikawa, 1992b: 71, f. 232-246 (mf).
C. g. Yin et al., 1997: 233, f. 146a-c (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156N-O, 160S (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 200, f. 120A-C (f).

m groppalii Pesarini, 1998....................Balearic Is.
C. g. Pesarini, in Groppali, Guerci & Pesarini, 1998: 71, f. 2b, 3, 5 (Dm).

f gulinensis Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995....................China
C. g. Xie, Yin & Kim, 1995: 24, f. 6-12 (Df).
C. g. Yin et al., 1997: 244, f. 156a-g (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156P-Q, 161A (f).

f haiti Levi, 1999....................Hispaniola, Jamaica, Mona Is.
C. h. Levi, 1999: 365, f. 363-367 (Df).

mf hamulata Tanikawa, 1992....................Russia, Japan
C. atrata Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 76 (mf, misidentified).
C. h. Tanikawa, 1992b: 47, f. 119-129 (Dmf).

mf hexatuberculata Tikader, 1982....................India
C. h. Tikader, 1982a: 197, f. 382-387 (Dmf).

m hova Strand, 1907....................Madagascar
C. h. Strand, 1907d: 730 (Dm).
C. h. Strand, 1907o: 47 (Dm).

mf huila Levi, 1999....................Colombia
C. h. Levi, 1999: 336, f. 154-161 (Dmf).

f imias Levi, 1999....................Cuba
C. i. Levi, 1999: 322, f. 49-52 (Df).

mf inca Levi, 1999....................Colombia to Argentina
C. i. Levi, 1999: 326, f. 86-95 (Dmf).

mf informis Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China
C. i. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 12, f. 4-11 (Dmf).
C. i. Yin et al., 1997: 239, f. 152a-h (mf).
C. i. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156R-S, 158S, 161B (mf).

mf insulana (Costa, 1834)....................Mediterranean to Philippines, Australia
Epeira i. Costa, 1834: 65 (Df).
Epeira anseripes Walckenaer, 1842: 146 (Df).
Epeira trituberculata Lucas, 1846: 248, pl. 15, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira moesta Blackwall, 1865a: 94 (Dm).
Singa trituberculata Canestrini & Pavesi, 1868: 790.
Cyrtophora argentea Ausserer, 1871b: 821, pl. 5, f. 8 (Dj).
C. trituberculata Simon, 1874a: 43.
Cyrtophora melanura Simon, 1877b: 72, pl. 3, f. 9 (Df).
C. propinqua Simon, 1882b: 230 (Dmf).
C. i. Thorell, 1892b: 232.
Cyrtophora interalbicans Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895: 42, pl. 2, f. 23 (Df).
Epeira i. Workman, 1896: 36, pl. 36 (mf).
C. i. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 205, pl. 4, f. 22, pl. 11, f. 243-244, pl. 15, f. 396 (Dmf).
C. i. Strand, 1918: 95, pl. 2, f. 6-7 (f).
C. i. Berland, 1936: 87 (S).
C. i. Roewer, 1938: 37, f. 25 (f).
C. i. Nakatsudi, 1942a: 306, f. 23-25 (f).
C. i. Saito, 1959: 99, f. 113a-d (f).
C. i. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 199, f. 19-27, 80 (mf).
C. i. Tikader, 1966b: 14, f. 35-38 (f).
C. i. Levi, 1977a: 74, f. 24-29 (mf).
C. i. Locket, 1980: 123, f. 29-31 (f).
C. i. Tikader, 1982a: 201, f. 394-398 (f).
C. i. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.6 (mf).
C. i. Tanikawa, 1992b: 32, f. 61-62 (m).
C. i. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 598, f. 374a-f, 375a-g (mf).
C. i. Groppali, Guerci & Pesarini, 1998: 73, f. 2, 4, 6 (m).

f ipilea Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. i. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 591, f. 368a-g (Df).

f jalapa Levi, 1999....................Mexico
C. j. Levi, 1999: 322, f. 53-56 (Df).

mf japonica Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. j. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 211, f. 2 (Df).
C. j. Saito, 1939: 12, f. 2(5) (f).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1958f: 71, f. 3-4 (f).
C. j. Saito, 1959: 98, f. 112a-d (f).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1960: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. j. Paik, 1962: 75, f. 3 (f).
C. insulana Lee, 1966: 51, f. 16i-j (f, misidentified).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1971: 67, f. 63 (f).
C. insulana Hu, 1984: 107, f. 104.1-2 (f, misidentified).
C. j. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.5 (mf).
C. j. Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 74 (mf).
C. insulana Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 64a, c (mf, misidentified, not f. 64b).
C. j. Chen & Gao, 1990: 56, f. 65a-b (mf).
C. insulana Chen & Zhang, 1991: 96, f. 88.1-2 (f, misidentified).
C. j. Tanikawa, 1992b: 38, f. 81-96 (mf).
C. j. Yin et al., 1997: 241, f. 153a-l (mf).
C. j. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 264, f. 156T-U, 159A-B, 161C (mf).

mf jose Levi, 1999....................Costa Rica
C. j. Levi, 1999: 368, f. 378-386 (Dmf).

f kashmirica Caporiacco, 1934....................Karakorum
C. k. Caporiacco, 1934a: 152 (Df).

mf kibonotensis Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa
C. k. Tullgren, 1910: 158, pl. 4, f. 98 (Dmf).

f koi Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan
C. k. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 62, f. 22-25 (Df).
C. k. Yin et al., 1997: 260, f. 171a-d (f).
C. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 156V-W, 161D (f).

m krusa Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. k. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 596, f. 373a-h (Dm).

mf kumadai Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan
C. ginnaga Chikuni, 1989b: 86, f. 75 (mf, misidentified).
C. k. Tanikawa, 1992b: 74, f. 247-256 (Dmf).

mf laticauda Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. l. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 209, pl. 15, f. 414 (Df).
C. l. Saito 1939: 12, f. 2.6 (Dm).
C. l. Saito, 1959: 98, f. 110a-b (m).
C. l. Namkung, 1964: 38, f. 28 (f).
C. l. Lee, 1966: 52, f. 17e-f (m).
C. l. Hu, 1984: 108, f. 105.1-3 (mf).
C. l. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.3 (mf).
C. l. Chikuni, 1989b: 87, f. 77 (f only; m=C. monticola).
C. l. Tanikawa, 1992b: 20, f. 12-21 (mf).
C. l. Yin et al., 1997: 245, f. 157a-g (mf).
C. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 156X-Y, 159C, 161E (mf).

f lawrencei Caporiacco, 1949....................Kenya
C. l. Caporiacco, 1949a: 409, f. 52 (Df).

f libertad Levi, 1999....................Ecuador, Peru
C. l. Levi, 1999: 344, f. 236-239 (Df).

mf litoralis (L. Koch, 1867)....................Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti
Epeira l. L. Koch, 1867b: 180 (Dm).
Epeira l. L. Koch, 1872a: 117, pl. 9, f. 5 (m).
Epeira strangulata L. Koch, 1872a: 118, pl. 9, f. 6 (Df).
C. strangulata Simon, 1885a: 37.
C. l. Berland, 1929b: 62.

mf longicauda (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Colombia to Argentina
Singa l. Taczanowski, 1878b: 145 (Df).
Araneus longicaudus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 300.
C. l. Levi, 1999: 332, f. 117-126 (Tf from Singa, Dm).

mf machadinho Levi, 1999....................Brazil, Argentina
C. m. Levi, 1999: 351, f. 265-274 (Dmf).

mf maderiana Kulczyn'ski, 1899....................Madeira, Canary Is.
C. m. Kulczyn'ski, 1899: 390, pl. 7, f. 67-68, 71-73 (Df).
C. m. Wunderlich, 1987a: 134, f. 360-361 (Dm).

mf maritima Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan
C. camelodes Shinkai, 1977: 328, f. 13-14 (mf, misidentified).
C. camelodes Yaginuma, 1986a: 120, f. 63.6 (mf, misidentified).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1992b: 50, f. 131-142 (Dmf).

f mavaca Levi, 1999....................Colombia, Venezuela
C. m. Levi, 1999: 342, f. 208-211 (Df).

m meruensis Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa
C. m. Tullgren, 1910: 158, pl. 4, f. 97 (Dm).

f micula (Thorell, 1892)....................India, Singapore
Epeira m. Thorell, 1892a: 245 (Df).
Epeira m. Workman, 1896: 40, pl. 40 (f).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 203, f. 37-38 (f).

m minora Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China
C. m. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 13, f. 12-16 (Dm).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997: 261, f. 172a-e (m).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 159D-E, 161F (m).

f mocoa Levi, 1999....................Colombia
C. m. Levi, 1999: 324, f. 67-70 (Df).

f mohini Dyal, 1935....................India
C. m. Dyal, 1935: 192 (Df).

mf monteverde Levi, 1999....................Costa Rica, Panama
C. m. Levi, 1999: 355, f. 304-313 (Dmf).

mf monticola Bösenberg & Strand, 1906....................Russia, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. m. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 210, pl. 15, f. 413 (Df).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.4 (f).
C. laticauda Zhang, 1987: 78, f. 61.1-2 (f, misidentified).
C. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 87, f. 78 (f).
C. laticauda Chikuni, 1989b: 87, f. 77 (misidentified, m only).
C. laticauda Chen & Gao, 1990: 56, f. 66a-c (mf, misidentified).
C. m. Chen & Gao, 1990: 57, f. 67 (f).
C. laticauda Feng, 1990: 73, f. 48.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
C. laticauda Chen & Zhang, 1991: 97, f. 89.1-3 (mf, misidentified).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1992b: 24, f. 23-34 (f, Dm).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997: 246, f. 158a-j (mf).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157A, 159F-G, 161G (mf).

f moonduensis Tikader, 1963....................India
C. m. Tikader, 1963b: 46, f. 5a-b (Df).
C. m. Patel, 1975b: 165, f. 3d (f).
C. m. Tikader, 1982a: 191, f. 376-371 (f).

mf morretes Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. m. Levi, 1999: 350, f. 256-264 (Dmf).

mf mulmeinensis (Thorell, 1887)....................Africa to Japan, Philippines
Epeira m. Thorell, 1887: 221 (Df).
Epeira m. Thorell, 1895: 192 (Dm).
Epeira m. Workman, 1896: 37, pl. 37 (mf).
C. m. Simon, 1909e: 104.
Argyrodes longispinus Saito, 1933b: 45, pl. 3, f. 26 (Df).
Argyrodes longispinus Saito, 1959: 69, f. 62a-e (f).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 203, f. 34-36 (f).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1963d: 21, f. 1 (f, S).
C. m. Lee, 1966: 49, f. 16c-e (f).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1967b: 95, f. 2u (f).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1971: 23, f. 120-122 (m).
C. m. Tikader, 1982a: 187, f. 356-360 (f).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.5 (f).
C. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 85, f. 71 (f).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1990b: 5, f. 16-32 (mf, S).
C. m. Koh, 1991: 176, f. 9-12 (f).
C. m. Tanikawa, 1992b: 54, f. 149-165 (mf).
C. m. Okuma et al., 1993: 27, f. 23A-B (f).
C. m. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 370a-g, 371a-e (f).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997: 253, f. 164a-j (mf).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157B-C, 159H (mf).

mf neilensis Tikader, 1977....................Andaman Is.
C. n. Tikader, 1977a: 179, f. 11A-D (Dmf).
C. n. Tikader, 1982a: 199, f. 388-393 (mf).

mf nevada Levi, 1999....................Colombia
C. n. Levi, 1999: 333, f. 34-35, 127-137 (Dmf).

mf nigra Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. n. Yin et al., 1990: 62, f. 156-162 (Dmf).
C. n. Yin et al., 1997: 234, f. 147a-g (mf).
C. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157D-E, 159I, 161J (mf).

f nodosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Costa Rica
Turckheimia n. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 47, pl. 4, f. 11 (Dj).
C. n. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 11 (Df).
C. n. Levi, 1999: 374, f. 425-429 (f).

mf norihisai Tanikawa, 1992....................China, Japan
C. n. Tanikawa, 1992b: 41, f. 99-107 (Dmf).
C. n. Yin et al., 1997: 242, f. 154a-f (f).
C. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157F-H, 160I (f).

mf oatesi (Thorell, 1892)....................Andaman Is.
Epeira oatesii Thorell, 1892b: 228 (Dmf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 62, f. 202-210 (mf).

mf octotuberculata Karsch, 1879....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. o. Karsch, 1879g: 74, pl. 1, f. 8 (Dm).
C. o. Simon, 1895a: 779, f. 850.
C. o. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 208, pl. 15, f. 412 (m, Df).
C. o. Saito, 1939: 12, f. 2(7) (f).
C. ocutotuberculata Nakatsudi, 1942a: 306, f. 26 (f).
C. o. Saito, 1959: 98, f. 111a-b (f).
C. o. Lee, 1966: 51, f. 17a-b (f).
C. o. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 44, f. 25.1-2 (mf).
C. octotubenculata Hu, 1984: 109, f. 106.1-3 (f).
C. o. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.1 (mf).
C. o. Chikuni, 1989b: 84, f. 67 (mf).
C. o. Feng, 1990: 74, f. 49.1-5 (mf).
C. o. Chen & Gao, 1990: 57, f. 68a-c (mf).
C. o. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 94, f. 85.1-3, 86 (mf).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 16, f. 1-10 (mf).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997: 247, f. 159a-h (mf).
C. o. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1713, f. 13a-c (m).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157I-J, 159J, M, 161J (mf).

mf oculata (Walckenaer, 1802)....................Palearctic
Aranea o. Walckenaer, 1802: 428 (Df).
Epeira o. Walckenaer, 1805: 64.
Epeira o. Walckenaer, 1842: 144 (Dm).
Cyrtophora o. Simon, 1864: 262.
Singa o. L. Koch, 1870: 4.
Singa tuberculata Reinhard, 1874: 217.
C. o. Simon, 1874a: 41.
C. o. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 128, pl. 4, f. 43 (mf).
C. o. Becker, 1896: 10, pl. 1, f. 3 (mf).
Cyrtophora o. Bösenberg, 1901: 41, pl. 3, f. 30 (mf).
C. o. Wiehle, 1931: 20, f. 22-25 (mf).
C. o. Schenkel, 1936b: 123, f. 43 (j).
C. o. Drensky, 1943: 224, f. 4 (mf).
C. o. Zamaraev, 1964: 353, f. 19-20 (f).
C. o. Azheganova, 1968: 84, f. 166, 189-190 (mf).
C. o. Miller, 1971: 202, pl. XXXVII, f. 19-20 (f).
C. o. Loksa, 1972: 109, f. 99C-D (mf).
C. o. Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 32-35 (mf).
C. o. Levi, 1977a: 64, f. 21-23 (mf).
C. o. Hu & Wu, 1989: 100, f. 76.1-3 (f).
C. o. Izmailova, 1989: 62, f. 44 (m).
C. o. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 82, f. 183 (mf).
C. o. Roberts, 1995: 337, f. (mf).
C. o. Mcheidze, 1997: 254, f. 549-551 (mf).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997: 249, f. 160a-e (f).
C. o. Roberts, 1998: 349, f. (mf).
C. o. Groppali, Guerci & Pesarini, 1998: 73, f. 1, 3, 7 (m).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157K-L, 161K (f).

f ojeda Levi, 1999....................Curaçao
C. o. Levi, 1999: 372, f. 413-416 (Df).

mf okumae Tanikawa, 1992....................Korea, Japan
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 68, f. 222-230 (Dmf).
C. o. Kim & Yoo, 1996: 30, f. 1-6 (f).

f olivenca Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. o. Levi, 1999: 354, f. 294-297 (Df).

f olorina Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
C. o. Simon, 1900a: 481, pl. 16, f. 5 (Df).

mf omonaga Tanikawa, 1992....................Korea, Taiwan, Japan
C. insulana Chikuni, 1989b: 84, f. 68 (f, misidentified).
C. insulana Chen & Gao, 1990: 55, f. 64b (mf, misidentified, not f. 64a, c).
C. japonica Feng, 1990: 72, f. 47.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 30, f. 44-55 (Dmf).
C. o. Kim, 1995a: 80, f. 1-6 (f).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997: 243, f. 155a-k (mf).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157M, 159K-L, 161L (mf).

mf onoi Tanikawa, 1992....................China, Japan
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992b: 28, f. 39-42 (Df).
C. o. Tanikawa, 1992d: 199, f. 1-6 (Dm).
C. o. Yin et al., 1997: 249, f. 161a-k (mf).
C. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157N-P, 159N-O, 161M (mf).

f oseret Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. o. Levi, 1999: 341, f. 199-203 (Df).

m otsomarka Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. o. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 601, f. 376a-f (Dm).

mf pantanal Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. p. Levi, 1999: 348, f. 248-255 (Dmf).

f parangmulmeinensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 594, f. 372a-j (Df).

m parangtarugoa Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 603, f. 378a-f (Dm).

f paupercula Simon, 1893....................Borneo
C. p. Simon, 1893f: 322 (Df).

mf pedropalo Levi, 1999....................Colombia
C. p. Levi, 1999: 334, f. 138-145 (Dmf).

f pellaxoides Roewer, 1955....................Singapore
Epeira pellax Thorell, 1892a: 243 (Df; preoccupied by O. P.-Cambridge, 1885).
C. p. Roewer, 1955c: 757 (replacement name).

f pentatuberculata Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995....................China
C. p. Yin, Zhu & Wang, 1995: 14, f. 17-23 (Df).
C. p. Yin et al., 1997: 251, f. 152a-g (f).
C. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157Q-S, 161N (f).

f perkinsi Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
C. p. Simon, 1900a: 479 (Df).

m picchu Levi, 1999....................Peru
C. p. Levi, 1999: 348, f. 244-247 (Dm).

mf pichilinque Levi, 1999....................Mexico
C. p. Levi, 1999: 363, f. 344-353 (Dmf).

jj pseudoculata Schenkel, 1936....................China
C. p. Schenkel, 1936b: 124, f. 44 (Dj).

f psylla (Thorell, 1887)....................Myanmar, Japan
Epeira p. Thorell, 1887: 214 (Df).
Aranea p. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 236, pl. 15, f. 402 (f).
C. p. Yaginuma, 1987b: 387 (Tf from Araneus).
C. p. Tanikawa, 1992b: 53, f. 146-148 (f).

f punctata Keyserling, 1879....................Brazil
C. p. Keyserling, 1879: 312, pl. 4, f. 14 (Df).
C. p. Keyserling, 1893: 271, pl. 14, f. 201 (f).
C. p. Levi, 1999: 376, f. 433-434 (f; N.B.: probably misplaced in this genus).

f pusilla Simon, 1880....................New Caledonia
C. p. Simon, 1880i: 168 (Df).

mf quavansea Roberts, 1983....................Aldabra
C. q. Roberts, 1983: 258, f. 139-154 (Dmf).

mf quinqueguttata (Thorell, 1881)....................India, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Taiwan
Epeira quinque-guttata Thorell, 1881: 113 (Dm).
Epeira hybophora Thorell, 1887: 217 (Df).
C. fissicauda Simon, 1889i: 338 (Dj).
C. fissicauda Tikader, 1982a: 189, f. 361-366 (f).
C. q. Roberts, 1983: 261 (S).
C. q. Tanikawa, 1992b: 61, f. 190-197 (mf).
C. q. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 55, f. 2-5 (m, S).
C. q. Yin et al., 1997: 254, f. 165a-f (mf).
C. q. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 271, f. 157T-U, 159P, 161O (mf).

f rainbowi Roewer, 1955....................Australia
Epeira pallida Rainbow, 1897b: 514, pl. 17, f. 1 (Df; preoccupied by Walckenaer, 1805).
C. r. Roewer, 1955c: 758 (replacement name).

m rhombocephala (Thorell, 1881)....................Queensland
Epeira r. Thorell, 1891: 98 (Dm).
C. r. Simon, 1895a: 780.

mf rubronigra Caporiacco, 1947....................Costa Rica to Brazil
C. r. Caporiacco, 1947a: 24 (Dm).
C. nigrorubra Caporiacco, 1948a: 655, f. 62 (m; lapsus).
C. r. Levi, 1999: 325, f. 77-85 (m, Df).

mf sachikoae Tanikawa, 1992....................Japan
C. s. Tanikawa, 1992b: 60, f. 182-189 (Dmf).

f saismarka Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. s. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 605, f. 379a-h (Df).

mf sanctibenedicti (Vinson, 1863)....................Madagascar, Réunion
Epeira sancti-benedicti Vinson, 1863: 204, 312, pl. 14, f. 3 (Df).
C. s. Lopez, 1990: 18, f. 7 (Dm).

mf santafe Levi, 1999....................Colombia
C. s. Levi, 1999: 334, f. 146-153 (Dmf).

mf sedeculata Karsch, 1879....................China, Korea, Japan
C. s. Karsch, 1879g: 74, pl. 1, f. 9 (Dmf).
C. s. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 207, pl. 15, f. 416 (mf).
C. sediculata Saito, 1939: 13, f. 2(8) (f).
C. s. Yin, 1978: 7, f. 19A-C (f).
C. s. Song, 1980: 112, f. 56a-c (f).
Cyclasa s. Wang, 1981: 101, f. 43A-C (f).
C. s. Hu, 1984: 110, f. 107.1-3 (f).
C. s. Guo, 1985: 63, f. 2-18.1-3 (mf).
C. s. Zhu et al., 1985: 77, f. 64a-c (f).
C. s. Yaginuma, 1986a: 119, f. 63.2 (mf).
C. s. Chikuni, 1989b: 85, f. 70 (mf).
C. s. Feng, 1990: 75, f. 50.1-4 (mf).
C. s. Chen & Gao, 1990: 58, f. 70a-b (mf).
C. s. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 93, f. 84.1-3 (mf).
C. s. Tanikawa, 1992b: 77, f. 258-264 (mf).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997: 262, f. 173a-f (mf).
C. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 157V-W, 160A, 161P (mf).

mf senticauda Zhu & Wang, 1994....................China
C. s. Zhu & Wang, in Zhu et al, 1994: 36, f. 11A-G (Dmf).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997: 235, f. 148a-h (mf).
C. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 157X, 158A, 160B, 162A (mf).

mf serena Levi, 1999....................Chile, Argentina
C. s. Levi, 1999: 364, f. 354-362 (Dmf).

f seriata (Thorell, 1881)....................Java
Epeira s. Thorell, 1881: 121 (Df).
C. c. Roewer, 1942a: 757.

mf shinoharai Tanikawa & Ono, 1993....................Taiwan
C. s. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 60, f. 13-21 (Dmf).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997: 263, f. 174a-i (mf).
C. shinohariai Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 158B-C, 160C-D, 162B (mf).

mf sierrae Simon, 1870....................Europe to Georgia
C. sierae Simon, 1870b: 305, pl. 3, f. 3 (Df; spelled sierrae in legend).
Epeira incongrua O. P.-Cambridge, 1872a: 299 (Dmf).
C. s. Simon, 1874a: 40.
C. caudata L. Koch, 1876b: 287 (Dmf).
C. s. Kulczyn'ski, 1907: 574, pl. 21, f. 8-10 (mf).
C. s. Drensky, 1943: 225, f. 5 (f).
C. s. Brignoli, 1967f: 130, f. 1-5 (mf).
C. s. Levi, 1977a: 79, f. 30-33 (mf).
C. s. Levy, 1998a: 318, f. 24-32 (mf).

f simoni Tikader, 1982....................India
C. s. Tikader, 1982a: 203, f. 399-403 (Df).

f simplicicauda Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
C. s. Simon, 1900a: 479, pl. 16, f. 4 (Df).

f simplicicauda rufescens Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
C. s. r. Simon, 1900a: 480 (Df).

mf spirifera Simon, 1889....................India
C. s. Simon, 1889i: 337 (Dmf).
C. s. Tikader, 1982a: 195, f. 377-381 (f).

f strandi Kolosváry, 1934....................Balkans
C. s. Kolosváry, 1934b: 12, f. 1 (Df).

f tamanaco Levi, 1999....................Trinidad
C. t. Levi, 1999: 374, f. 417-420 (Df).

mf tapetifaciens Hingston, 1932....................Panama to Argentina
C. t. Hingston, 1932: 370 (Df).
C. filiobliqua Hingston, 1932: 371 (Dm).
Parazygia accentonotata Caporiacco, 1955: 345, f. 30a-b (Dm).
C. sumaqkay Archer, 1971: 159, f. 7 (Df).
C. t. Levi, 1999: 338, f. 23-25, 27-30, 181-194 (f, Sm).

f tardipes (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira t. Thorell, 1895: 193 (Df).
C. t. Reimoser, 1927a: 47.

f tardipes ignava (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira t. i. Thorell, 1895: 193 (Df).

mf tauraai Berland, 1933....................Marquesas Is.
C. t. Berland, 1933b: 67, f. 53-54 (Df).
C. t. Berland, 1935: 59, f. 47-48 (Dm).

m teresa Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. t. Levi, 1999: 343, f. 218-222 (Dm).

f tricolor (Leardi, 1902)....................Philippines
Epeira (C.) t. Leardi, 1902b: 120 (Df).

mf trilobata (Urquhart, 1885)....................Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand
Arachnura t. Urquhart, 1885: 37, pl. 9, f. 1, pl. 10, f. 9, 11 (Dmf).
Epeira anseripes Keyserling, 1887a: 174, pl. 15, f. 1-2 (mf, misidentified).
C. t. Dalmas, 1917a: 377.
C. t. Hickman, 1967: 60, f. 106-107 (mf).
C. t. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 26 (mf).

f tripartita Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa
C. t. Tullgren, 1910: 159, pl. 4, f. 99 (Df).

mf triquetra Simon, 1895....................Mexico, West Indies to Peru
C. t. Simon, 1895a: 779, f. 851 (Df).
C. clara O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 248, pl. 31, f. 8 (Df).
C. clara F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 497, pl. 47, f. 13 (f).
C. t. Levi, 1999: 352, f. 275-283 (f, Dm, S).

f tropica Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh
C. t. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 50, f. 14-19 (Df).

f tuberascens Simon, 1906....................India
C. t. Simon, 1906c: 310 (Df).

mf turbinata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA to Panama, West Indies, Galapagos Is., Hawaii
Epeira t. Walckenaer, 1842: 140 (Df).
Epeira glomosa Walckenaer, 1842: 143 (Df).
Epeira caudata Hentz, 1850: 23, pl. 3, f. 14 (Df).
Singa vanbruyssellii Becker, 1879a: 78, pl. 1, f. 4-6 (Dm).
Cyrtophora t. McCook, 1888a: 79 (S).
C. index O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 5, pl. 6, f. 6 (Df).
Singa van-bruysselii Keyserling, 1892: 288, pl. 15, f. 213 (m).
C. culta O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: 112, pl. 14, f. 12 (Dm).
C. caudata Keyserling, 1893: 279, pl. 14, f. 206 (f, Dm).
C. t. McCook, 1894: 224, pl. 17, f. 5-6 (mf).
C. tuberculifera O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 269, pl. 36, f. 10 (Dm).
C. tuberculifera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 493, pl. 47, f. 1 (m).
C. culta F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 493, pl. 47, f. 2 (m).
C. index F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 12 (f).
Araneus glomosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 294.
Araneus van bruysseli Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
C. nanna Ivie & Barrows, 1935: 18, pl. 7, f. 52-53 (Dmf).
Singa van-bruyselli Archer, 1941b: 17, pl. I, f. 5 (Df).
Singa vanbrusselli Kraus, 1955b: 26, f. 70-71 (m).
C. t. Levi, 1972a: 231 (S).
C. t. Levi, 1977a: 80, f. 20, 38-50 (mf, S).
C. t. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 61 (m).
C. t. Breene et al., 1993: 105, f. 159A-C (mf).
C. t. Levi, 1999: 356, f. 314-321 (mf, S).

f turvo Levi, 1999....................Brazil
C. t. Levi, 1999: 342, f. 204-207 (Df).

mf vallata (Keyserling, 1886)....................Korea, Taiwan, Japan to Australia
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1886a: 149, pl. 12, f. 5 (Df).
C. v. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 203, pl. 15, f. 411 (f, Dm).
C. v. Chrysanthus, 1971: 23, f. 40-41, 117-119 (mf).
C. v. Yaginuma, 1986a: 121, f. 64.4 (mf).
C. v. Chikuni, 1989b: 85, f. 72 (f).
C. v. Tanikawa, 1990b: 2, f. 1-15 (mf).
C. v. Tanikawa, 1992b: 57, f. 166-180 (mf).
C. v. Yin et al., 1997: 255, f. 166a-i (mf).
C. v. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 158D-E, 160E-F, 162C (mf).

f vicente Levi, 1999....................Brazil, Argentina
C. v. Levi, 1999: 369, f. 387-390 (Df).

mf vieirae Levi, 1999....................Peru, Brazil
C. v. Levi, 1999: 354, f. 284-293 (Dmf).

mf walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................USA to Guyana, West Indies
Turckheimia walckenaerii O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 47, pl. 8, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira w. Keyserling, 1892: 98, pl. 5, f. 85 (f, Dm).
C. w. McCook, 1894: 226, pl. 17, f. 1-2 (mf).
C. trifida F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 495, pl. 47, f. 7 (Df).
C. w. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 496, pl. 47, f. 9 (f).
C. w. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 315, f. 188-189 (f).
C. cuadrituberosa Franganillo, 1936c: 84 (Dj; N.B.: "nicht zu deuten!" per Roewer, 1955c: 1454, sub C. quadrituberosa).
C. oculata Bryant, 1945a: 367 (S, rejected).
C. w. Levi, 1977a: 84, f. 64-77 (mf, removed from S, S).
C. w. Levi, 1999: 360, f. 38, 333-343 (mf, S).

f xanthomelas Simon, 1900....................Hawaii
C. x. Simon, 1900a: 480, pl. 16, f. 3 (Df).

f yaginumai Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998....................Bangladesh
C. y. Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1998a: 51, f. 20-26 (Df).

f zhangmuensis Hu & Li, 1987....................China
C. z. Hu & Li, 1987b: 265, f. 12.1-5 (Df).
C. z. Yin et al., 1997: 252, f. 163a-e (f).
C. z. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 158F-H (f).
C. z. Hu, 2001: 456, f. 298.1-3 (f).

Gen. Cyphalonotus Simon, 1895

j assuliformis Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
C. a. Simon, 1909e: 117 (Dj).

f benoiti Archer, 1965....................Congo
C. b. Archer, 1965a: 80, f. 1-2 (Df).

f columnifer Simon, 1903....................Madagascar
C. c. Simon, 1903b: 140 (Df).

f elongatus Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994....................China
C. e. Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 106, f. 10-13 (Df).
C. e. Yin et al., 1997: 266, f. 177a-d (f).
C. e. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 162D-F (f).

mf larvatus (Simon, 1881) *....................Congo, East Africa
Poltys larvata Simon, 1881e: 5 (Df).
C. l. Simon, 1895a: 889, 893, f. 954 (f).
C. l. Pavesi, 1897b: 166 (Dm).
C. l. Tullgren, 1910: 172, pl. 4, f. 126 (mf).
C. l. Lessert, 1930: 665, f. 35 (f).
C. l. Archer, 1951b: 28, f. 2 (m).
C. l. Archer, 1965a: 82, f. 3-4 (mf).

f sumatranus Simon, 1899....................Sumatra
C. s. Simon, 1899a: 96 (Df).

Gen. Cyrtarachne Thorell, 1868

Transferred to other genera:
C. setosa Keyserling, 1886 -- see Poecilopachys.

In synonymy:
C. induta Yaginuma, 1960 = C. yunoharuensis Strand, 1918 (Tanikawa, 2001c: 87).
C. nigra Yaginuma, 1960 = C. nagasakiensis Strand, 1918 (Tanikawa, 2001c: 88).

f avimerdaria Tikader, 1963....................India
C. a. Tikader, 1963a: 269, f. 1a-c (Df).
C. a. Tikader, 1982a: 154, f. 289-292 (f).

f bengalensis Tikader, 1961....................India, China
C. b. Tikader, 1961a: 550, f. 3a-c (Df).
C. b. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 28, f. 37-38 (f).
C. b. Tikader, 1982a: 141, f. 262-265 (f).

f bicolor Thorell, 1898....................Myanmar
C. b. Thorell, 1898: 369 (Df).

f bigibbosa Simon, 1907....................São Tomé, Bioko
C. b. Simon, 1907d: 303 (Df).

f bilunulata Thorell, 1899....................Cameroon
C. b. Thorell, 1899: 62 (Df).

f biswamoyi Tikader, 1961....................India
C. b. Tikader, 1961a: 554, f. 5a-c (Df).
C. b. Tikader, 1982a: 140, f. 258-261 (f).

mf bufo (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906)....................China, Korea, Japan
Poecilopachys b. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 241, pl. 3, f. 12, pl. 11, f. 219 (Df).
C. b. Yaginuma, 1958d: 265, f. C (Tf from Poecilopachys).
C. b. Namkung & Kim, 1985: 23, f. 1 (f).
C. b. Yaginuma, 1986a: 109, f. 58.2 (m).
C. b. Chikuni, 1989b: 82, f. 56 (mf).
C. b. Feng, 1990: 76, f. 51.1-4 (f).
C. b. Chen & Gao, 1990: 59, f. 71 (f).
C. b. Yin et al., 1997: 268, f. 178a-d (f).
C. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 162G-H, 163G (f).

f cingulata Thorell, 1895....................Myanmar
C. c. Thorell, 1895: 202 (Df).
C. c. Pocock, 1900a: 229, f. 75 (f).

f conica O. P.-Cambridge, 1901....................Malaysia
C. c. O. P.-Cambridge, 1901: 13, pl. 5, f. 1 (Df).

m dimidiata Thorell, 1895....................Myanmar
C. d. Thorell, 1895: 204 (Dm).

f fangchengensis Yin & Zhao, 1994....................China
C. f. Yin & Zhao, 1994: 1, f. 1-5 (Df).
C. f. Yin et al., 1997: 269, f. 179a-e (f).
C. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 162I-J, 163H (f).

mf finniganae Lessert, 1936....................Mozambique
C. finnigani Lessert, 1936: 249, f. 43-45 (Dmf).

f flavopicta Thorell, 1899....................Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea
C. f. Thorell, 1899: 61 (Df).

f friederici Strand, 1911....................New Guinea
C. friedericii Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
C. f. Strand, 1915d: 236, pl. 18, f. 85 (f).
C. f. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 209, f. 60-62, 79 (f).

f gibbifera Simon, 1899....................Sumatra
C. g. Simon, 1899a: 92 (Df).

f gilva Yin & Zhao, 1994....................China
C. gilvus Yin & Zhao, 1994: 3, f. 6-10 (Df).
C. gilvus Yin et al., 1997: 270, f. 180a-f (f).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 272, f. 162K-L, 163I (f).

f gravelyi Tikader, 1961....................India
C. g. Tikader, 1961a: 553, f. 4a-c (Df).
C. g. Tikader, 1982a: 147, f. 274-276 (f).

f grubei (Keyserling, 1864) *....................Mauritius
Cyrtogaster grubii Keyserling, 1864: 81, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
C. g. Thorell, 1868b: 10.
C. g. Emerit, 2000: 150, f. 6-7 (f).

j guttigera Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
C. g. Simon, 1909e: 114 (Dj).

j heminaria Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
C. h. Simon, 1909e: 114 (Dj).

f histrionica Thorell, 1898....................Myanmar
C. h. Thorell, 1898: 370 (Df).

f hubeiensis Yin & Zhao, 1994....................China
C. h. Yin & Zhao, 1994: 3, f. 11-16 (Df).
C. h. Yin et al., 1997: 271, f. 181a-f (f).
C. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 162M-N, 163J (f).

j ignava Thorell, 1895....................Myanmar
C. i. Thorell, 1895: 203 (Dj).

mf inaequalis Thorell, 1895....................India to Japan
C. i. Thorell, 1895: 201 (Df).
C. i. Tikader, 1961a: 548, f. 1a-c (f).
C. inaquolis Yin, 1978: 8, f. 20A-C (f).
C. i. Song, 1980: 113, f. 57a-c (f).
C. inequalis Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 29, f. 39-40 (f).
C. inequalis Tikader, 1982a: 143, f. 266-269 (f).
C. i. Hu, 1984: 113, f. 111.1-3 (f).
C. i. Yaginuma, 1986a: 109, f. 58.1 (m).
C. i. Chikuni, 1989b: 82, f. 57 (mf).
C. i. Feng, 1990: 77, f. 52.1-7 (mf).
C. i. Yin et al., 1997: 272, f. 182a-e (mf).
C. i. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 162O, 163A, K (mf).

f invenusta Thorell, 1891....................Nicobar Is.
C. i. Thorell, 1891: 55 (Df).

mf ixoides (Simon, 1870)....................Mediterranean to Georgia, Madagascar
Peltosoma i. Simon, 1870b: 315, pl. 3, f. 8 (Df).
Peltosoma tuberculiferum Simon, 1870b: 316, pl. 3, f. 6-7 (Df).
Peniza europaea Ausserer, 1871b: 818, pl. 5, f. 4-7 (Df).
C. tuberculiferum Berland, 1926: 177, f. 4-5 (f, Dm).
C. tuberculiferum Berland, 1927b: 10, f. 1 (mf).
C. i. Simon, 1929: 714, 771.
C. ixodoides Brignoli, 1967f: 134, f. 6 (f).
C. ixodoides Emerit, 1977: 24, f. 1-2 (Dm).
C. ixodoides Levy, 1998a: 314, f. 1-11 (mf).
C. ixodoides Emerit, 2000: 148, f. 3-5 (f).

f lactea Pocock, 1898....................East Africa
C. l. Pocock, 1898e: 446, pl. 13, f. 8 (Df).

f laevis Thorell, 1877....................Sumatra, Flores, Sulawesi
C. l. Thorell, 1877b: 361 (Df).

f latifrons Hogg, 1900....................Victoria
C. l. Hogg, 1900: 102, pl. 15, f. 3 (Df).

f latifrons atuberculata Hogg, 1900....................Victoria
C. l. a. Hogg, 1900: 102, pl. 15, f. 4 (Df).

f lepida Thorell, 1890....................Sumatra
C. l. Thorell, 1890a: 80 (Df).

f madagascariensis Emerit, 2000....................Madagascar
C. m. Emerit, 2000: 147, f. 1-2 (Df).

f melanoleuca Ono, 1995....................Thailand
C. m. Ono, 1995c: 160, f. 4-6, 24 (Df).

f melanosticta Thorell, 1895....................Myanmar
C. m. Thorell, 1895: 206 (Df).

m menghaiensis Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994....................China
C. m. Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 108, f. 18-21 (Dm).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997: 273, f. 184a-d (m).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 163B-C, M (m).

mf nagasakiensis Strand, 1918....................China, Korea, Japan
C. n. Strand, 1918: 81, pl. 1, f. 15-17 (Df).
C. niger Yaginuma, 1960: append. 5, pl. 26, f. 151, f. 101K (Df).
C. n. Jo, 1981: 77, f. 1-7 (mf).
C. bengalensis Hu & Li, 1987b: 267, f. 13.1-4 (f, misidentified).
C. n. Chikuni, 1989b: 82, f. 59 (f).
C. n. Feng, 1990: 79, f. 54.1-3 (f).
C. n. Chen & Gao, 1990: 60, f. 72a-b (mf).
C. n. Yin et al., 1997: 274, f. 185a-e (mf).
C. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 162R-S, 163D, N (mf).
C. n. Hu, 2001: 457, f. 299.1-3 (f).
C. n. Tanikawa, 2001c: 88, f. 3-4 (S).

f nodosa Thorell, 1899....................Cameroon, Bioko
C. n. Thorell, 1899: 62 (Df).

j pallida O. P.-Cambridge, 1885....................Yarkand
C. p. O. P.-Cambridge, 1885b: 55 (Dj).

f perspicillata (Doleschall, 1859)....................Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Java, New Guinea
Epeira p. Doleschall, 1859: 41, pl. 9, f. 9 (Df).
C. p. Hasselt, 1882: 16, pl. 1, f. 4-5 (f).

f perspicillata possoica Merian, 1911....................Sulawesi
C. p. p. Merian, 1911: 242 (Df).

f promilai Tikader, 1963....................India
C. p. Tikader, 1963a: 274, f. 4j-l (Df).
C. p. Tikader, 1982a: 149, f. 277-280 (f).

f raniceps Pocock, 1900....................India, Sri Lanka
C. r. Pocock, 1900a: 229 (Df).
C. r. Tikader, 1961a: 550, f. 2a-c (f, removed from S of C. perspicillata per Roewer).
C. r. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 29, f. 41-42 (f).
C. r. Tikader, 1982a: 145, f. 270-273 (f).

f rubicunda L. Koch, 1871....................New South Wales
C. r. L. Koch, 1871: 18 (Df).

f schmidi Tikader, 1963....................India
C. s. Tikader, 1963a: 271, f. 2d-f (Df).
C. s. Tikader, 1982a: 152, f. 285-288 (f).

f simplex (Karsch, 1878)....................New South Wales
Dema s. Karsch, 1878c: 801 (Df).

j sinicola Strand, 1942....................China
C. sp. Schenkel, 1936b: 127, f. 46 (j).
C. s. Strand, 1942: 396 (Dj).

f sundari Tikader, 1963....................India
C. s. Tikader, 1963a: 271, f. 3g-i (Df).
C. s. Tikader, 1982a: 150, f. 281-284 (f).

f szetschuanensis Schenkel, 1963....................China
C. s. Schenkel, 1963: 174, f. 101 (Df).
C. s. Yin et al., 1997: 275, f. 186a-b (f).

m termitophila Lawrence, 1952....................Congo
C. t. Lawrence, 1952b: 10, f. 6a-d (Dm).

f tricolor (Doleschall, 1859)....................Moluccas to Australia
Plectana t. Doleschall, 1859: 44, pl. 8, f. 3 (Df).
C. t. Thorell, 1881: 57.
C. t. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 209, f. 57-59, 78 (f).

f tricolor aruana Strand, 1911....................Aru Is.
C. t. a. Strand, 1911d: 155 (Df).

f tuladepilachna Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. t. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 581, f. 361a-e (Df).

j xanthopyga Kulczyn'ski, 1911....................New Guinea
C. x. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 503 (Dj).

mf yunoharuensis Strand, 1918....................China, Japan
C. y. Strand, 1918: 81, pl. 1, f. 12-14 (Df).
C. indutus Yaginuma, 1960: append. 4, pl. 26, f. 148, f. 101H (Df).
C. y. Yaginuma, 1986a: 110, f. 58.3 (m).
C. y. Zhang, 1986: 49, f. 1-3 (mf).
C. nigra Zhang, 1986: 50, f. 4-5 (f, misidentified).
C. y. Chikuni, 1989b: 82, f. 58 (mf).
C. y. Feng, 1990: 78, f. 53.1-4 (f).
C. induta Yin et al., 1997: 273, f. 183a-d (f).
C. y. Yin et al., 1997: 276, f. 187a-g (mf).
C. induta Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 162P-Q, 163L (f).
C. y. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 162U-V, 163E-F, O (mf).
C. y. Tanikawa, 2001c: 87, f. 1-2 (S).

Gen. Cyrtophora Simon, 1864

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Suzumia Nakatsudi, 1943b: 184, type S. orientalis Nakatsudi, 1943 by Yaginuma, 1958c: 10.

Transferred to other genera:
C. alayoi Archer, 1958 -- see Kapogea.
C. berlandi (Caporiacco, 1954) -- see Manogea.
C. brasilica (Soares & Camargo, 1948) -- see Manogea.
C. californiensis Keyserling, 1885 -- see Eustala.
C. cyrtophoroides (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) -- see Kapogea.
C. espiritosantensis (Soares & Camargo, 1955) -- see Manogea.
C. davisi (Hingston, 1932) -- see Spilasma.
C. gabonensis (Lucas, 1858) -- see Megaraneus.
C. grammica Simon, 1895 -- see Manogea.
C. guyanensis (Keyserling, 1881) -- see Manogea.
C. lodiculafaciens (Hingston, 1932) -- see Dolichognatha under Tetragnathidae.
C. nympha Simon, 1895 -- see Kapogea.
C. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) -- see Manogea.
C. sellata Simon, 1895 -- see Kapogea.
C. setospinosa (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936) -- see Kapogea.
C. sexnotata Simon, 1895 -- see Kapogea.
C. vachoni Caporiacco, 1954 -- see Azilia under Tetragnathidae.

In synonymy:
C. albopunctata Rainbow, 1898 = C. moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) (Davies & Gallon, 1986: 232).
C. bifurcata (Paik, 1942, T from Cyclosa) = C. exanthematica (Doleschall, 1859) (Yaginuma, 1958c: 14).
C. ikomosanensis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) = C. moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) (Yaginuma, 1968b: 36).
C. marxi (McCook, 1894, T from Argiope) = C. moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) (Levi, 1968a: 334).
C. orientalis (Nakatsudi, 1943) = C. moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) (Yaginuma, 1958c: 13, sub C. ikomosanensis).
C. simoni Rainbow, 1898 = C. moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857) (Davies & Gallon, 1986: 232).

Nomina dubia:
C. citricola nigra (Franganillo, 1925: 33, Iberian Peninsula, originally as C. opuntiae n.) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1456.
C. citricola pallida (Franganillo, 1925: 33, Iberian Peninsula, originally as C. opuntiae p.) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1456.

Nomen nudum:
"Suzumia" shimomurai Kishida (Yaginuma, in Brignoli, 1983c: 254).

j acrobalia (Thorell, 1895)....................Myanmar
Epeira a. Thorell, 1895: 173 (Dj, considered a possible member of this genus).

f admiralia Strand, 1913....................Admiralty Is.
C. a. Strand, 1913d: 117 (Df).
C. a. Strand, 1915d: 218, pl. 14, f. 17, pl. 17, f. 63 (f).

mf beccarii (Thorell, 1878)....................Malaysia to New Guinea
Epeira b. Thorell, 1878b: 65 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Workman & Workman, 1892: 5, pl. 5 (f).
C. b. Chrysanthus, 1960: 25, f. 9-13 (mf).
C. b. Chrysanthus, 1972: 157, f. 11-12 (m).
C. b. Koh, 1991: 177, f. 13-14 (f).

f bicauda (Saito, 1933)....................Taiwan
Cyclosa b. Saito, 1933b: 51, pl. 3, f. 31 (Df).
C. b. Tanikawa & Ono, 1993: 51 (Tf from Cyclosa, may =C. exanthematica).
Cyclosa b. Yin et al., 1997: 258, f. 168a-c (f).
Cyclosa b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 263, f. 155V, 160J (f).

f bidenta Tikader, 1970....................India
C. b. Tikader, 1970: 32, f. 20a-c (Df).
C. b. Tikader, 1982a: 174, f. 331-335 (f).

f caudata Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895....................East Africa
C. c. Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895: 41, pl. 2, f. 22 (Df).

j cephalotes Simon, 1877....................Philippines
C. c. Simon, 1877b: 73, pl. 3, f. 8 (Dj).

mf cicatrosa (Stoliczka, 1869)....................Pakistan to New Guinea
Epeira c. Stoliczka, 1869: 242, pl. 20, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira salebrosa Thorell, 1878b: 48 (Df).
Euetria salebrosa Thorell, 1881: 84, 687.
Meta adspersata Karsch, 1891: 284, pl. 10, f. 8 (Df).
Euetria salebrosa Workman, 1896: 31, pl. 31 (f).
Araneus c. Pocock, 1900a: 226.
C. salebrosa Strand, 1915d: 220.
C. c. Chrysanthus, 1960: 28, f. 19-23 (f, Dm).
C. c. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 32, f. 45-46 (f).
C. c. Tikader, 1982a: 179, f. 341-345 (f).
C. c. Koh, 1991: 179, f. 18-19 (f).
C. cicatorosa Okuma et al., 1993: 29, f. 26A-B (f).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997: 279, f. 188a-f (f).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 163P-Q, 164O-P, 165A (mf).

mf citricola (Forskål, 1775) *....................Old World, Hispaniola, Colombia
Aranea c. Forskål, 1775: 86 (D).
Aranea c. Forskål, 1776: pl. 26, f. D (D).
Epeira opuntiae Dufour, 1820a: 359, pl. 69, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira cacti-opuntiae Lucas, 1838: 40, pl. 6, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1842: 143, pl. 18, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira emarginata Lucas, 1858: 418, pl. 12, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira opuntiae Vinson, 1863: 212, 313, pl. 9, f. 1 (mf, in part).
Epeira flava Vinson, 1863: 222, 313, pl. 8, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira purpurea Vinson, 1863: 225, 313, pl. 8. f. 4 (Df).
C. c. Simon, 1864: 262.
Epeira dorsuosa Blackwall, 1866: 462 (Df).
Epeira opuntiae Simon, 1870b: 314 (Dm).
C. sculptilis L. Koch, 1872a: 128, pl. 9, f. 9 (Df).
C. opuntiae Simon, 1874a: 34, pl. 1, f. 3 (f).
Epeira cajetana Costa, 1882: sep. p. 28.
C. c. Simon, 1895a: 775, f. 845 (m).
Epeira c. Workman, 1896: 32, pl. 32 (f).
Araneus c. Pocock, 1900a: 266, f. 73 (f).
C. c. Tullgren, 1910: 158, pl. 4, f. 96 (f).
C. c. Dyal, 1935: 175, pl. 14, f. 111-115 (f).
C. dorsuosa Roewer, 1942a: 748.
C. c. Wiehle, 1967b: 195, f. 52 (f).
C. c. Brignoli, 1968d: 86, f. 4-5 (mf).
C. c. Yaginuma, 1968b: 36, f. 6-7 (f).
C. c. Saaristo, 1978: 124, f. 242-254 (mf).
C. c. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 31, f. 43-44 (f).
C. c. Tikader, 1982a: 180, f. 346-350 (f).
C. c. Roberts, 1983: 253, f. 133-138 (mf).
C. c. Yaginuma, 1986a: 118, f. 62.3 (f).
C. c. Chen & Gao, 1990: 60, f. 73a-b (mf).
C. c. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 375, f. 21 (m).
C. c. Levi, 1997: 252, f. 148-156 (mf).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997: 279, f. 189a-e (mf).
C. c. Levy, 1998a: 323, f. 47-56 (mf).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 163R-S, 165B (f).

f citricola abessinensis Strand, 1906....................Ethiopia
C. c. a. Strand, 1906b: 618 (Df).

f citricola minahassae Merian, 1911....................Sulawesi
C. c. m. Merian, 1911: 211 (Df).

f cordiformis (L. Koch, 1871)....................New Guinea, Queensland, Lord Howe Is.
Epeira c. L. Koch, 1871: 82, pl. 5, f. 7 (Df).
Araneus c. Chrysanthus, 1971: 26, f. 43-44 (f).
C. c. Gray, 1974: 51 (Tf from Araneus).

mf cylindroides (Walckenaer, 1842)....................China to Australia
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1842: 136 (Df).
Epeira viridipes Doleschall, 1859: 29, pl. 1, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira nephelina L. Koch, 1871: 90, pl. 7, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira viridipes Keyserling, 1887a: 167, pl. 14, f. 3 (Dm).
C. c. Pocock, 1898b: 462.
C. c. Chrysanthus, 1959: 200, f. 6, 10, 25 (f).
C. c. Chrysanthus, 1960: 25, f. 1-2 (m).
C. c. Yin et al., 1990: 67, f. 169-170 (f).
C. c. Yin et al., 1997: 280, f. 190a-c (f).
C. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 164A, D, 165C (f).

j cylindroides scalaris Strand, 1915....................New Britain
C. viridipes s. Strand, 1915d: 220, pl. 14, f. 22 (Dj).

j diazoma (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Epeira d. Thorell, 1890a: 127 (Dj).
C. d. Roewer, 1942a: 749.

f doriae (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea, Bismarck Arch.
Epeira d. Thorell, 1881: 81 (Df).
C. d. Strand, 1915d: 219.

f eczematica (Thorell, 1892)....................Malaysia, Java, Sulawesi, New Guinea
Epeira e. Thorell, 1892a: 231 (Df).
Epeira e. Workman, 1896: 45, pl. 45 (f).
C. e. Simon, 1895a: 771.

mf exanthematica (Doleschall, 1859)....................Myanmar to Philippines, New Guinea
Epeira e. Doleschall, 1859: 38, pl. 3, f. 3, pl. 11, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira e. Keyserling, 1887a: 184, pl. 16, f. 2 (f).
Epeira e. Workman, 1896: 44, pl. 44 (f).
Araneus exanthematicus Pocock, 1900a: 227.
Cyclosa bifurcata Paik, 1942: 104, f. 4-5 (Df).
Chinestela e. Archer, 1951b: 5 (Tmf from Cyrtophora, rejected).
C. e. Yaginuma, 1958c: 14, f. 3I-L (mf, S).
C. e. Yaginuma, 1960: 65, f. 61 (mf).
C. e. Lee, 1966: 47, f. 15d-f, h (mf).
C. e. Yaginuma, 1968b: 38, f. 3-5 (f).
C. e. Yaginuma, 1971: 65, f. 61 (mf).
C. e. Hu, 1984: 112, f. 110.1-2 (f).
C. e. Yaginuma, 1986a: 117, f. 62.2 (f).
C. e. Chikuni, 1989b: 81, f. 54 (f).
C. e. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 585, f. 364a-g (f).
C. e. Yin et al., 1997: 281, f. 191a-d (mf).
C. e. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 279, f. 164B, E, Q (mf).

mf feai (Thorell, 1887)....................India to Myanmar
Euetria feae Thorell, 1887: 173 (Dmf; patronym for Fea).
Araneus feae Pocock, 1900a: 226.
C. feae Tikader, 1982a: 176, f. 336-340 (f).

f forbesi (Thorell, 1890)....................Sumatra
Euetria f. Thorell, 1890a: 111 (Df).

f gemmosa Thorell, 1899....................Cameroon
C. g. Thorell, 1899: 43 (Df).
C. margaritata Pocock, 1899e: 854, pl. 55, f. 4 (Df).

mf guangxiensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. g. Yin et al., 1990: 67, f. 171-174 (Dmf).
C. g. Yin et al., 1997: 282, f. 192a-e (mf).
C. g. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 164C, F, R, 165D (mf).

f hainanensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. cicatrosus Feng, 1990: 81, f. 56.1-3 (f, misidentified).
C. h. Yin et al., 1990: 70, f. 175-177 (Df).
C. h. Yin et al., 1997: 283, f. 193a-f (f).
C. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 164G, J, 165E (f).

f hirta L. Koch, 1872....................Queensland
C. h. L. Koch, 1872a: 125, pl. 9, f. 7 (Df).

f jabalpurensis Gajbe & Gajbe, 1999....................India
C. j. Gajbe & Gajbe, 1999i: 29, f. 1-3 (Df).

f koronadalensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. k. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 590, f. 367a-h (Df).

f ksudra Sherriffs, 1928....................India
C. k. Sherriffs, 1928: 190 (Df).

f lacunaris Yin et al., 1990....................China
C. l. Yin et al., 1990: 71, f. 178-180 (Df).
C. l. Yin et al., 1997: 284, f. 194a-d (f).
C. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 164H, K, 165F (f).

f larinioides Simon, 1895....................Cameroon
C. l. Simon, 1895g: 155 (Df).

f leucopicta (Urquhart, 1890)....................Fiji
Argiope leuco-picta Urquhart, 1890a: 234 (Df).
C. l. Levi, 1983: 260 (Tf from Argiope).

f limbata (Thorell, 1898)....................Myanmar
Euetria l. Thorell, 1898: 351 (Df).

f lineata Kulczyn'ski, 1910....................Solomon Is., Bismarck Arch.
C. l. Kulczyn'ski, 1910: 394, pl. 17, f. 6-7 (Df).

mf moluccensis (Doleschall, 1857)....................India to Japan, Australia
Epeira m. Doleschall, 1857: 418 (Df).
Epeira maritima Keyserling, 1865: 813, pl. 18, f. 22-23 (Df).
Epeira hieroglyphica L. Koch, 1871: 89, pl. 7, f. 8 (Dm).
Euetria m. Thorell, 1890a: 111.
Argiope marxii McCook, 1894: 223, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).
C. m. Simon, 1895a: 770, f. 846 (m).
Araneus m. Pocock, 1897c: 599, pl. 25, f. 9 (f).
C. simoni Rainbow, 1898a: 337, pl. 7, f. 4 (Df).
C. albopunctata Rainbow, 1898a: 339, pl. 7, f. 5 (Df).
Aranea ikomosanensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 234, pl. 11, f. 224 (Df).
C. m. Kulczyn'ski, 1910: 394, pl. 17, f. 5 (f).
Araneus ikomosanensis Saito, 1939: 18.
Suzumia m. Nakatsudi, 1943a: 160, f. 9, pl. XXIII, f. 1 (f).
Suzumia orientalis Nakatsudi, 1943b: 185, f. 2F-H, 3A-E (mf).
C. ikomosensis Yaginuma, 1958c: 13, f. 2A-E (Tf from Araneus, Sm).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1958c: 14, f. 2F-H (mf).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1959: 199, f. 1, 9, 30 (f).
C. ikomosensis Yaginuma, 1960: 65, f. 61 (mf).
C. ikomasenensis Yaginuma, 1962c: 30 (invalid emendation).
C. m. Lee, 1966: 47, f. 15a-c, i (mf).
C. m. Levi, 1968a: 334 (S).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1968b: 36, f. 1-2 (mf, S).
C. ikomasanensis Yaginuma, 1971: 65, f. 61 (mf).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1971: 19, f. 31-33 (m).
C. m. Tikader, 1982a: 172, f. 326-330 (f).
C. m. Hu, 1984: 112, f. 109.1-3 (mf).
C. m. Davies & Gallon, 1986: 232-233 (S).
C. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 117, f. 62.1 (mf).
C. m. Davies, 1988b: 320, f. 42 (mf).
C. m. Chikuni, 1989b: 81, f. 53 (mf).
C. m. Feng, 1990: 82, f. 57.1-4 (mf).
C. m. Chen & Gao, 1990: 61, f. 74a-b (mf).
C. m. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 105, f. 99.1-4 (mf).
C. m. Koh, 1991: 179, f. 15-17 (f).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Li, 1993: 872, f. 38A-C (mf).
C. m. Yin et al., 1997: 285, f. 195a-g (mf).
C. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 164I, L. S (mf).

f moluccensis albidinota Strand,, 1911....................Caroline Is., Palau, Yap
C. m. a. Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
C. m. a. Strand, 1915d: 217, pl. 17, f. 66 (f).

f moluccensis bukae Strand, 1911....................Solomon Is.
C. m. b. Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
C. m. b. Strand, 1915d: 217, pl. 17, f. 67 (f).

f moluccensis cupidinea Thorell, 1875....................New Caledonia
Epeira c. Thorell, 1875e: 135, pl. 25, f. 3 (Df).
C. m. c. Strand, 1911b: 203.

f moluccensis margaritacea (Doleschall, 1859)....................Java
Epeira m. Doleschall, 1859: 29, pl. 1, f. 6 (Df).
C. m. m. Strand, 1911b: 203.

f moluccensis rubicundinota Strand, 1911....................Keule Is., near New Guinea
C. m. r. Strand, 1911b: 203 (Df).
C. m. r. Strand, 1915d: 217, pl. 14, f. 18 (f).

mf monulfi Chrysanthus, 1960....................New Guinea
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1960: 26, f. 14-18 (Df).
C. m. Chrysanthus, 1972: 157, f. 5-10 (Dm).

f parangexanthematica Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
C. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 586, f. 365a-g (Df).

f parnasia L. Koch, 1872....................Australia, Tasmania
C. p. L. Koch, 1872a: 126, pl. 9, f. 8 (Df).
C. p. Hickman, 1928: 172, f. 8.

f petersi Karsch, 1878....................Mozambique
C. p. Karsch, 1878a: 321, pl. 2, f. 4 (Df).

mf subacalypha (Simon, 1882)....................Yemen
Epeira s. Simon, 1882b: 232 (Dmf).
C. acalyphoides Simon, 1890a: 102 (lapsus).

f unicolor (Doleschall, 1857)....................Sri Lanka to Philippines, Australia
Epeira u. Doleschall, 1857: 419 (D).
Epeira u. Doleschall, 1859: pl. 2, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira stigmatisata Karsch, 1878c: 326, pl. 9, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira stigmatisata Hasselt, 1882: 21, pl. 4, f. 5 (f).
Epeira stigmatisata serrata Thorell, 1890a: 33.
Epeira u. Workman & Workman, 1894: 20, pl. 20 (f).
Araneus u. Pocock, 1897c: 600, pl. 25, f. 10 (f).
C. u. Chrysanthus, 1959: 201, f. 3, 7, 26 (f).
C. u. Yaginuma, 1968b: 36, f. 8-9 (f).
C. u. Yaginuma, 1986a: 117, f. 62.4 (f).
C. u. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 587, f. 366a-i (f).
C. u. Yin et al., 1997: 287, f. 196a-c (f).
C. u. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 164M-N, 165G (f).

Gen. Deione Thorell, 1898

f thoracica Thorell, 1898 *....................Myanmar
D. t. Thorell, 1898: 365 (Df).

Gen. Dolophones Walckenaer, 1837

f bituberculata Lamb, 1911....................Queensland
D. b. Lamb, 1911: 172, f. 3 (Df).

mf clypeata (L. Koch, 1871)....................Moluccas, Australia
Tholia c. L. Koch, 1871: 23, pl. 4, f. 5 (Dmf).
D. clypeatus Simon, 1895a: 903.

f conifera (Keyserling, 1886)....................Australia
Tholia c. Keyserling, 1886a: 109, pl. 8, f. 6 (Df).
D. conifer Simon, 1908d: 429.

mf elfordi Dunn & Dunn, 1946....................Victoria
D. e. Dunn & Dunn, 1946: 89, f. 3-4 (Df; N.B.: omitted by Brignoli).

f intricata Rainbow, 1915....................South Australia
D. i. Rainbow, 1915: 782, pl. 67, f. 9-10 (Df).

f macleayi (Bradley, 1876)....................Queensland
Tholia m. Bradley, 1876a: 140, pl. 1, f. 2 (Df).
D. m. Simon, 1895a: 903.

mf mammeata (Keyserling, 1886)....................Australia
Tholia m. Keyserling, 1886a: 107, pl. 8, f. 4-5 (Dmf).
D. mammeatus Hogg, 1900: 75.

f maxima Hogg, 1900....................Victoria
D. maximus Hogg, 1900: 104, pl. 15, f. 5 (Df).

f nasalis (Butler, 1876)....................Queensland
Tholia n. Butler, 1876a: 349, pl. 10, f. 4-5 (Df).
D. n. Simon, 1895a: 903.

mf notacantha (Quoy & Gaimarg, 1824) *....................New South Wales
Aranea n. Quoy & Gaimarg, 1824: 544, pl. 81, f. 6-8 (Dmf).
D. n. Walckenaer, 1837: 383.
Tholia n. Karsch, 1886e: 300.

f peltata (Keyserling, 1886)....................Australia, Lord Howe Is.
Tholia p. Keyserling, 1886a: 100, pl. 7, f. 6 (Df).
D. p. Rainbow, 1909: 233.

mf pilosa (Keyserling, 1886)....................Australia
Tholia p. Keyserling, 1886a: 105, pl. 8, f. 3 (Dmf).
D. pilosus Hogg, 1900: 74.

m simpla (Keyserling, 1886)....................New South Wales
Tholia s. Keyserling, 1886a: 110, pl. 8, f. 7 (Dm).
D. simplex Simon, 1896a: 348.

mf testudinea (L. Koch, 1871)....................Australia, New Caledonia
Tholia t. L. Koch, 1871: 20, pl. 2, f. 2; p. 204, pl. 18, f. 4 (Dmf).
D. t. Simon, 1895a: 902, f. 968, 970 (f).

f thomisoides Rainbow, 1915....................South Australia
D. t. Rainbow, 1915: 782, pl. 68, f. 11 (Df).

mf tuberculata (Keyserling, 1886)....................New South Wales
Tholia t. Keyserling, 1886a: 102, pl. 7, f. 7, pl. 8, f. 1 (Dmf).
D. t. Davies, 1988b: 308, f. 28 (mf).

f turrigera (L. Koch, 1867)....................Queensland, New South Wales
Gasteracantha t. L. Koch, 1867b: 173 (Df).
Tholia t. L. Koch, 1871: 22, pl. 1, f. 3 (f).
D. t. Butler, 1933: 280, pl. 17, f. 2.

Gen. Dubiepeira Levi, 1991

D. Levi, 1991a: 291, type Metepeira dubitata Soares & Camargo, 1948.

f amablemaria Levi, 1991....................Peru
D. a. Levi, 1991a: 296, f. 540-542 (Df).

mf amacayacu Levi, 1991....................Colombia, Peru, Brazil
D. a. Levi, 1991a: 296, f. 531-535 (Dmf).

mf dubitata (Soares & Camargo, 1948) *....................Venezuela to Brazil
Metepeira d. Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 375, f. 30-31 (Df).
D. d. Levi, 1991a: 292, f. 520-526 (Tf from Metepeira, Dm).

f lamolina Levi, 1991....................Ecuador, Peru
D. l. Levi, 1991a: 296, f. 536-539 (Df).

f neptunina (Mello-Leitão, 1948)....................Colombia, Peru, Guyana
Neosconella n. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 170, f. 13-14 (Df).
Araneus neptuninus Brignoli, 1983c: 263.
D. n. Levi, 1991a: 294, f. 527-530 (Tf from Araneus).

Gen. Edricus O. P.-Cambridge, 1890

N.B.: not a senior synonym of Salassina Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1986b: 37).

Transferred to other genera:
E. atomarius (Simon, 1895) -- see Alpaida.
E. cayana (Taczanowski, 1873) -- see Witica.
E. crassicaudus (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Witica.
E. ensifer Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Alpaida.
E. eupalaestrus Mello-Leitão, 1943 -- see Wagneriana.
E. tricuspis (Gétaz, 1893) -- see Witica.
E. truncatus (Keyserling, 1865) -- see Alpaida.

Nomen dubium:
E. rubricornis Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 204 (f, Brazil) -- Levi, 1991b: 367.

mf productus O. P.-Cambridge, 1896....................Mexico
E. p. O. P.-Cambridge, 1896a: 186, pl. 23, f. 5 (Dm).
E. p. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 500, pl. 49, f. 26 (m).
E. p. Levi, 1991b: 367, f. 1-8 (m, Df).

mf spiniger O. P.-Cambridge, 1890 *....................Panama to Ecuador
E. spinigerus O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 58, pl. 4, f. 1 (Dm).
E. spinigerus Keyserling, 1892: 33, pl. 2, f. 30 (m).
E. spinigerus F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 500, pl. 49, f. 25 (m).
E. spinigerus Levi, 1991b: 368, f. 9-15 (m, Df).

Gen. Enacrosoma Mello-Leitão, 1932

In synonymy:
E. leprosa (Simon, 1896, T from Glyptogona) = E. anomalum (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1996b: 148).
E. sexlobata (Simon, 1895, T from Glyptogona) = E. anomalum (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1996b: 148).

Nomen dubium:
E. quadrituberculatum (Simon, 1876d: 88, f, South America, originally in Acrosoma) -- Levi, 1996b: 146.

mf anomalum (Taczanowski, 1873) *....................Colombia, Peru to Brazil, French Guiana
Epeira anomala Taczanowski, 1873: 144, pl. 5, f. 19 (Dmf).
Gasteracantha anomala Taczanowski, 1879: 108.
Glyptogona sexlobata Simon, 1895a: 866, f. 928-929 (f).
Glyptogona sexlobata Simon, 1895g: 160 (Df).
Micrathena anomala Simon, 1895a: 862.
Glyptogona leprosa Simon, 1897b: 471 (Dmf).
E. a. Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 78.
E. a. Levi, 1996b: 148, f. 339-345 (mf, S).

m decemtuberculatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala
Cyrtarachne decem-tuberculata O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 59, pl. 4, f. 4 (Dm).
Cyrtarachne 10-tuberculata Keyserling, 1892: 57, pl. 3, f. 45 (m).
Glyptogona decem-tuberculata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 523.
E. d. Levi, 1996b: 151, f. 358 (Tm from Glyptogona).

mf frenca Levi, 1996....................Mexico to Panama
E. f. Levi, 1996b: 147, f. 322-338 (Dmf).

f javium Levi, 1996....................Costa Rica, Panama
E. j. Levi, 1996b: 150, f. 346-349 (Df).

f multilobatum (Simon, 1897)....................Peru
Glyptogona multilobata Simon, 1897b: 472 (Df).
E. m. Levi, 1996b: 151, f. 354-357 (Tf from Glyptogona).

f quizarra Levi, 1996....................Costa Rica
E. q. Levi, 1996b: 151, f. 350-353 (Df).

Gen. Encyosaccus Simon, 1895

mf sexmaculatus Simon, 1895 *....................Ecuador, Peru, Brazil
E. s. Simon, 1895a: 847, f. 894 (Df).
E. s. Levi, 1996b: 128, f. 237-247 (f, Dm).

Gen. Epeirella Mello-Leitão, 1941

E. Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 149, type E. tucumana Mello-Leitão, 1941.

Transferred to other genera:
E. albocincta Mello-Leitão, 1945 -- see Alpaida.
E. tubulofaciens (Hingston, 1932) -- see Micrepeira.

f tucumana Mello-Leitão, 1941 *....................Brazil
E. t. Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 149, pl. VII, f. 31 (Df).

Gen. Epeiroides Keyserling, 1885

N.B.: apparently removed from the synonymy of Araneus Clerck, 1757 by Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 237.

Transferred to other genera:
E. albonotatus Mello-Leitão, 1945 -- see Alpaida.
E. lamprus Soares & Camargo, 1948 -- see Verrucosa.

mf bahiensis (Keyserling, 1885) *....................Costa Rica to Brazil
E. b. Keyserling, 1885: 524, pl. 13, f. 23 (Df).
E. b. Keyserling, 1893: 307, pl. 15, f. 227 (f).
E. b. Göldi, 1899: 161, pl. 9, f. 1-10 (f, Dm).
Araneus b. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 281.
E. b. Levi, 1989, f. 1-10 (mf).

Gen. Eriophora Simon, 1864

N.B.: see note under Pararaneus.

Transferred to other genera:
E. aeronavis Mello-Leitão, 1947 -- see Parawixia.
E. bistriata (Rengger, 1836) -- see Parawixia.
E. burmeisteri (Holmberg, 1876) -- see Parawixia.
E. omnicolor (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Araneus.
E. wagenknechti Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see Molinaranea.

In synonymy:
E. acacesiiformis (Caporiacco, 1954, T from Araneus) = E. nephiloides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 177).
E. annulata (Keyserling, 1886, T from Araneus, where omitted by Roewer) = E. heroine (L. Koch, 1871) (Dondale, 1966: 1168, sub Araneus).
E. argyronota (Mello-Leitão, 1939, T from Araneus) = E. edax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1991a: 177).
E. balaustina (McCook, 1888, removed from S of E. circulata) = E. ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
E. blattea (Urquhart, 1887, T from Araneus) = E. pustulosa (Walckenaer, 1842) (Court & Forster, 1988: 104).
E. brouni (Urquhart, 1885, T from Araneus) = E. heroine (L. Koch, 1871) (Court & Forster, 1988: 100; f only; Urquhart's m = E. pustulosa).
E. capitalis (L. Koch, 1871, T from Araneus) = E. transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).
E. edax cauca (Strand, 1915) = E. edax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1971b: 296).
E. flava Zhu & Song, 1994 = E. sachalinensis (Saito, 1934) (Tanikawa, 2000a: 24).
E. flavomaculata (Yaginuma, 1955) = E. sachalinensis (Saito, 1934) (Yaginuma, 1977c: 386, sub Zilla).
E. geayi (Caporiacco, 1954, T from Araneus) = E. edax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1991a: 178).
E. hispida (C. L. Koch, 1844, T from Araneus) = E. fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
E. leucisca (Urquhart, 1892, T from Araneus) = E. pustulosa (Walckenaer, 1842) (Court & Forster, 1988: 104).
E. messalina (Hasselt, 1888, T from Araneus) = E. fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
E. migra Zhu & Song, 1994 = E. astridae (Strand, 1917) (Tanikawa, 2000a: 22, sub E. sagana).
E. minax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1893) = E. ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
E. musiva (Hasselt, 1888, T from Araneus, nomen oblitum) = E. nephiloides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 179).
E. nicaraguensis (Keyserling, 1885) = E. ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
E. producta (L. Koch, 1867) = E. transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).
E. purpurascens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) = E. fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
E. thyridota (Thorell, 1870, T from Araneus) = E. transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).
E. tokachiana (Saito, 1934, T from Zilla) = E. sachalinensis (Saito, 1934) (Tanikawa, 2000a: 24, after Yaginuma, 1986).
E. trapezoides (Karsch, 1879, T from Singa) = E. fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
E. ursina (Keyserling, 1865) = E. fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
E. variolata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889, removed from S of E. edax) = E. ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
E. viridis (Keyserling, 1865, T from Araneus) = E. transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).

Nomina dubia:
E. bivariolata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 27, pl. 6, f. 15, mf) -- Levi, 1971b: 287.
E. circulata (Walckenaer, 1842: 79, f, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1971b: 286.
E. nephiloides trapezoidalis (Franganillo, 1930: 30, f, 1946: 98, f. 3, m, Cuba, T from Araneus by Brignoli, 1983c: 268) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.

mf astridae (Strand, 1917)....................China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan
Aranea sagana Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 233, pl. 11, f. 212 (Df; preoccupied).
Aranea a. Strand, 1917c: 71 (replacement name).
Zilla sagana Yaginuma, 1955a: 22, pl. II, f. 1-7 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus a. Yaginuma, 1956d: 26.
Zilla a. Yaginuma, 1960: 58, f. 56.6-8 (f).
Zilla a. Lee, 1966: 42, f. 12f-i (f).
Zilla a. Yaginuma, 1971: 58, f. 56.6-8 (f).
Zilla a. Hu, 1984: 128, f. 128.1-2 (f).
Zilla a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 106, f. 56.2 (mf).
Zilla a. Yin, Wang & Zhang, 1987: 62, f. 1-4 (f).
Zilla a. Kim et al., 1988: 146, f. 1-5 (f).
Zilla a. Chikuni, 1989b: 74, f. 37 (mf).
Zilla a. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 104, f. 97.1-5 (mf).
E. migra Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 40, f. 15A-D (Dm).
E. migra Yin et al., 1997: 289, f. 198a-d (m).
Zilla a. Yin et al., 1997: 397, f. 287a-d (f).
Zilla a. Kim, Kim & Lee, 1999: 75, f. 24, 48 (m).
E. migra Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 165M, 166B, G (m).
Zilla a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 310, f. 184J-K (f).
E. sagana Tanikawa, 2000a: 22, f. 4-6, 11-14 (Tmf from Zilla, using name replaced before 1961, S).

mf aurea (Saito, 1934)....................Japan
Argiope a. Saito, 1934b: 316, pl. 13, f. 20, pl. 15, f. 63 (Df).
Argiope a. Saito, 1959: 99, f. 114a-d (f).
Zilla a. Ono, 1975a: 21, f. 8-10 (Tf from Argiope).
Araneus aureus Levi, 1983: 260 (Tf from Zilla).
Zilla a. Chikuni, 1989b: 75, f. 39 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).
E. a. Tanikawa, 2000a: 25, f. 8, 18-21 (Tmf from Zilla).

mf biapicata (L. Koch, 1871)....................Australia
Epeira b. L. Koch, 1871: 54, pl. 4, f. 4 (Df).
Araneus transmarinus Dondale, 1966: 1164 (S, rejected).
E. b. Davies, 1980b: 128, f. 9-15 (removed f from S of E. transmarina, Dm).

f collina (Keyserling, 1886)....................Queensland
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1886a: 141, pl. 11, f. 5 (Df).
E. c. Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tf from Araneus).

mf decorosa (Urquhart, 1894)....................New Zealand
Epeira decorosa Urquhart, 1894: 212 (Df).
E. d. Court & Forster, 1988: 110, f. 351, 531-538 (removed f from S of E. pustulosa, Dm).

mf edax (Blackwall, 1863)....................USA to Brazil
Epeira e. Blackwall, 1863a: 30 (Dmf).
E. e. Banks, 1909a: 210.
Araneus e. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 290.
Aranea e. cauca Strand, 1916b: 111 (Df).
E. e. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 325, f. 205-207 (mf).
Araneus argyronotus Mello-Leitão, 1939g: 111, f. 14 (Df).
E. e. Bryant, 1948a: 62, f. 7 (f).
Araniella geayi Caporiacco, 1954: 104, f. 24 (Df).
E. e. Levi, 1971b: 296, f. 35-48 (mf, S).
Araneus geayi Levi, 1974b: 293 (Tf from Araniella).
E. e. Levi, 1991a: 177-178 (S).

mf flavicoma (Simon, 1880)....................New Caledonia, Loyalty Is.
Epeira f. Simon, 1880i: 168 (Df).
Araneus f. Berland, 1924a: 220 (Dm).
E. f. Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).

mf fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838)....................Honduras to Brazil
Epeira f. C. L. Koch, 1838: 58, f. 375 (Df).
Epeira hispida C. L. Koch, 1844: 71, f. 889 (Dm).
Epeira ursina Keyserling, 1865: 822, pl. 19, f. 3-5 (Df).
Epeira trapezoides Karsch, 1879h: 107 (Df).
Epeira messalina Hasselt, 1888: 181, pl. 6, f. 1-2 (Df).
Epeira purpurascens O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 33, pl. 7, f. 4-5 (Dmf).
Epeira purpurescens Keyserling, 1893: 226, pl. 11, f. 168 (mf).
Epeira ursina Keyserling, 1893: 229, pl. 11, f. 170 (f).
Araneus fuligineus Simon, 1895a: 803.
Araneus hispidus Simon, 1895a: 803.
Araneus messalina Simon, 1895a: 803.
Araneus purpurascens Simon, 1897d: 873.
E. purpurascens F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 463, pl. 43, f. 14-15 (mf).
Araneus trapezoides Petrunkevitch, 1911: 319.
Araneus ursinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
E. ursina Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 254 (Tf from Araneus)
Singa trapezoides Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 260 (Tf from Araneus).
E. f. Levi, 1971b: 290, f. 25-34 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

mf heroine (L. Koch, 1871)....................Australia, New Zealand
Epeira h. L. Koch, 1871: 51, pl. 4, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira brounii Urquhart, 1885: 32, pl. 10, f. 5 (Df, not m).
Epeira brounii indistincta Urquhart, 1885: 33 (D).
Epeira h. Keyserling, 1886a: 138, pl. 11, f. 3 (Dm).
Epeira annulata Keyserling, 1886a: 141 (D).
Araneus brouni Dalmas, 1917a: 383, f. 47-48, 50 (mf).
Araneus h. Dondale, 1966: 1166, f. 2A-C (mf, S).
Araneus h. Hickman, 1967: 65, f. 115-117 (mf).
Araneus h. Gibbs, 1982: 4, f. 1 (f).
E. h. Court & Forster, 1988: 100, f. 352, 504-506, 508-513 (Tmf from Araneus, S; see note under Neoscona orientalis).

mf nephiloides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Guyana
Epeira musiva Hasselt, 1888: 184, pl. 5, f. 5-7 (Df; nomen oblitum).
Epeira n. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 32, pl. 7, f. 1-2 (Df).
Epeira n. McCook, 1894: 190, pl. 14, f. 5-6, pl. 22, f. 3 (f).
Epeira n. Keyserling, 1893: 222, pl. 11, f. 165 (f).
Araneus musivus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 305.
Araneus n. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
Aranea n. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 511, pl. 48, f. 22 (f).
E. n. Banks, 1909a: 210.
Araneus acacesiiformis Caporiacco, 1954: 108, f. 27, 27a (Df).
E. n. Levi, 1971b: 298, f. 49-58 (f, Dm).
E. n. Levi, 1991a: 177-179 (S).

mf neufvilleorum (Lessert, 1930)....................Congo, Ethiopia
Araneus n. Lessert, 1930: 641, f. 17-18 (Dmf).
E. n. Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).

m oculosa Zhu & Song, 1994....................China
E. o. Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 38, f. 13A-F (Dm).
E. o. Yin et al., 1997: 290, f. 199a-f (m).
E. o. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 165L, 166C, H (m).

mf pustulosa (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand
Epeira p. Walckenaer, 1842: 132 (Df).
Epeira verrucosa Walckenaer, 1842: 135 (Df).
Epeira verrucosa Keyserling, 1864: 139, pl. 6, f. 20-21 (f).
Epeira verrucosa L. Koch, 1872a: 112, pl. 9, f. 4 (f, Dm).
Epeira brounii Urquhart, 1885: 32, pl. 10, f. 5 (m, misidentified).
Epeira corrugatum Urquhart, 1887: 72, pl. 7, f. 1 (Dmf).
Epeira pocillator Urquhart, 1887: 74 (Dmf).
Epeira oblitera Urquhart, 1887: 77 (Df).
Epeira mulleola Urquhart, 1888: 118, pl. 41, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira helveo-guttata Urquhart, 1888: 119 (Df).
Epeira mulleola Urquhart, 1889a: 147 (Dm).
Epeira ostri-brunnea Urquhart, 1890c: 243, 250, pl. 17, f. 5 (Dmf).
Epeira atri-apiata Urquhart, 1891a: 156 (Dm).
Epeira simulata Urquhart, 1892b: 242 (Df).
Epeira leucisca Urquhart, 1892b: 245 (Df).
Epeira blattea Urquhart, 1893a: 179 (Dm).
Araneus p. Dalmas, 1917a: 379, f. 46, 49 (mf).
Araneus pustulosus Main, 1964: 100, f. G (f).
Araneus pustulosus Hickman, 1967: 64, f. 112-114 (mf).
Aranea p. Forster, 1967: 17, f. 10, 31 (mf).
Araneus pustulosus Forster & Forster, 1973: 27, f. 3c, 6c (mf).
Araneus pustulosus Main, 1977b: 100, f. 5 (f).
E. p. Court & Forster, 1988: 104, f. 353, 516-530 (Tmf from Araneus, S).

mf ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) *....................USA to Brazil
Epeira r. C. L. Koch, 1844: 73, f. 890 (Df).
Epeira nicaraguensis Keyserling, 1885: 532, pl. 13, f. 31 (Df).
Epeira balaustina McCook, 1888b: 198 (Df).
Epeira variolata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 46, pl. 6, f. 14 (Dmf).
Epeira bivariolata Keyserling, 1892: 100, pl. 5, f. 74 (m, using nomen dubium).
Epeira nicaraguensis Keyserling, 1893: 214, pl. 10, f. 159 (f).
Epeira minax O. P.-Cambridge, 1893b: 112, pl. 15, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira balaustina McCook, 1894: 155, pl. 4, f. 2 (f).
Epeira bivariolata McCook, 1894: 159, pl. 5, f. 5-6 (mf, using nomen dubium).
Epeira r. McCook, 1894: 161, pl. 5, f. 7 (f, Dm).
Eustala variolata Simon, 1897d: 873.
E. variolata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 464.
E. minax F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 464, pl. 44, f. 3 (f).
Epeira bivariolata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 464, pl. 44, f. 1-2 (mf, using nomen dubium).
E. r. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 465.
Aranea nicaraguensis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 519.
E. balaustina Banks, 1909b: 161.
Araneus balaustinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 281.
Araneus minax Petrunkevitch, 1911: 303.
Araneus nicaraguensis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
Araneus ravillus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
Araneus variolatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 323.
E. circulata Comstock, 1940: 117, 517, f. 108-111, 538 (m).
E. nicaraguensis Mello-Leitão, 1948: 164 (Tf from Araneus).
E. r. Levi, 1971b: 286, f. 7-24 (mf, S).
E. r. Breene et al., 1993: 103, f. 154A-D (mf).

mf sachalinensis (Saito, 1934)....................Russia, China, Korea, Japan
Argiope s. Saito, 1934a: 332, f. 6 (Df).
Araneus tokachianus Saito, 1934b: 326, pl. 13, f. 22, pl. 15, f. 65 (Df).
Zilla s. Yaginuma, 1955a: 21, pl. II, f. 8-12 (Tmf from Argiope).
Zilla tokachianus Yaginuma, 1955a: 21 (Tf from Araneus).
Zilla flavomaculata Yaginuma, 1955a: 22, pl. II, f. 13-20 (Dmf).
Araneus tokachianus Saito, 1959: 90, f. 105a-c (f).
Araneus s. Saito, 1959: 110, f. 131a-d (f).
Zilla s. Yaginuma, 1960: 57, f. 56.1-3 (mf).
Zilla flavomaculata Yaginuma, 1960: 57, f. 56.4-5 (f).
Zilla s. Namkung, 1964: 38, f. 26 (f).
Zilla s. Arita, 1970: 27, f. 5-6 (f).
Zilla s. Yaginuma, 1971: 57, f. 56.1-3 (mf).
Zilla flavomaculata Yaginuma, 1971: 57, f. 56.4-5 (f).
Zilla s. Yaginuma, 1977c: 386 (S).
Zilla s. Nishikawa, 1977b: 365, f. 1-8 (f).
Zilla s. Wang & Zhu, 1982: 44, f. 1b, 2a-d (mf).
Araneus s. Levi, 1983: 262.
Zilla s. Hu, 1984: 128, f. 129.1-6 (mf).
Zilla s. Yaginuma, 1986a: 105, f. 56.1 (mf).
Zilla s. Yin, Wang & Zhang, 1987: 63, f. 5-7 (f).
Zilla s. Chikuni, 1989b: 74, f. 36 (mf).
Zilla s. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 105, f. 98.1-4 (mf).
E. flava Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 37, f. 12A-C (Dm).
E. flava Yin et al., 1997: 288, f. 197a-d (m).
Zilla s. Yin et al., 1997: 402, f. 292a-f (mf).
Zilla s. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1718, f. 21a-b (f).
Zilla s. Kim, Kim & Lee, 1999: 76, f. 25, 49 (m).
E. flava Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 165J-K, 166A, F (m).
Zilla s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 310, f. 184T-U, 185E-F, Q (mf).
E. s. Tanikawa, 2000a: 23, f. 7, 15-17 (Tmf from Zilla, S).

m shaanxiensis Zhu & Wang, 1994....................China
E. s. Zhu & Wang, in Zhu et al, 1994: 39, f. 14A-C (Dm).
E. s. Yin et al., 1997: 291, f. 200a-c (m).
E. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 165N, 166D (m).

mf transmarina (Keyserling, 1865)....................New Guinea, Australia, Samoa
Epeira t. Keyserling, 1865: 814, pl. 18, f. 15-16 (Df).
Epeira viridis Keyserling, 1865: 812, pl. 18, f. 11-12 (Df).
Epeira producta L. Koch, 1867b: 178 (Df).
Epeira thyridota Thorell, 1870c: 367 (Df).
Epeira thyridota L. Koch, 1871: 52, pl. 4, f. 3, pl. 7, f. 1 (f, Dm).
Epeira producta L. Koch, 1871: 55, pl. 4, f. 5-7 (f, Dm).
Epeira capitalis L. Koch, 1871: 58, pl. 5, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira t. Keyserling, 1887a: 139, pl. 1, f. 4 (Dm).
Epeira capitalis Hogg, 1899: 139, pl. 13, f. 3, 4b (f).
Epeira producta Hogg, 1899: 139, pl. 13, f. 4, 4a (f).
Araneus productus Rainbow, 1909: 222.
Aranea producta Strand, 1913c: 608.
Araneus capitalis Berland, 1938: 173, f. 129-130 (Dm).
E. producta Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).
E. t. Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus productus Chrysanthus, 1960: 30, f. 34, 47, 64, 71 (mf).
Araneus transmarinus Main, 1964: 100, f. B-F (f).
Araneus transmarinus Dondale, 1966: 1164, f. 2D-G (mf, S).
E. t. Davies, 1980b: 126, f. 1-8, pl. IB (mf, S).
E. t. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 24 (mf).

m tricentra Zhu & Song, 1994....................China
E. t. Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 41, f. 16A-D (Dm).
E. t. Yin et al., 1997: 292, f. 201a-d (m).
E. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 165O, 166E, I (m).

f wangi Zhu & Song, 1994....................China
E. w. Zhu & Song, in Zhu et al, 1994: 42, f. 17A-C (Df).
E. w. Yin et al., 1997: 293, f. 202a-c (f).
E. w. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 280, f. 165H-I, 166J (f).

mf yanbaruensis Tanikawa, 2000....................Japan
E. y. Tanikawa, 2000a: 20, f. 9-10, 22-25 (Dmf).

Gen. Eriovixia Archer, 1951

E. Archer, 1951a: 18, type Araneus rhinurus Pocock, 1899; removed from the synonymy of Neoscona Simon, 1864 by Grasshoff, 1986: 4, contra Berman & Levi, 1971: 469; considered a senior synonym of Simonarachne Archer, 1951b: 28, type Araneus laglaizei (Simon, 1877) by Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 36; Grasshoff, 1986: 118, apparently does not accept the synonymy of Eriovixia with Heurodes Keyserling, 1886 proposed by Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 35).

Transferred to other genera:
E. porcula (Simon, 1877) -- see Heurodes.

mf cavaleriei (Schenkel, 1963)....................China
Araneus c. Schenkel, 1963: 162, f. 95a-g (Dmf).
Araneus cavalierei Brignoli, 1983c: 257.
Araneus c. Song, 1987: 160, f. 120 (m).
Araneus c. Feng, 1990: 53, f. 28.1-2 (f).
E. c. Yin et al., 1997: 295, f. 203a-h (Tmf from Araneus).
E. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 165K-L, 167D-E, G (mf).
E. cavalerier Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 202, f. 121A-H (mf).

f enshiensis (Yin & Zhao, 1994)....................China
Neoscona e. Yin & Zhao, 1994: 4, f. 17-21 (Df).
E. e. Yin et al., 1997: 297, f. 204a-e (Tf from Neoscona).
E. e. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 166M-N, 167H (f).

mf excelsa (Simon, 1889)....................India, Pakistan, Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan
Glyptogona e. Simon 1889i: 337 (Df).
Araneus excelsus Simon, 1906c: 283.
Araneus excelsus Dyal, 1935: 179, pl. 16, f. 116 (f).
Neoscona excelsus Tikader & Bal, 1981: 25, f. 50-54 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus excelsus Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 20, f. 16-18 (f).
Neoscona excelsus Tikader, 1982a: 261, f. 520-524 (mf).
E. e. Grasshoff, 1986: 118 (Tmf from Neoscona).
E. e. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 643, f. 409a-f (f).
E. e. Tso & Tanikawa, 2000: 129, f. 17-22 (mf).

f hainanensis (Yin et al., 1990)....................China
Neoscona h. Yin et al., 1990: 110, f. 270-275 (Df).
E. h. Yin et al., 1997: 297, f. 205a-f (Tf from Neoscona).
E. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 166O-P, 167I (f).

mf laglaizei (Simon, 1877)....................India, China to Philippines, New Guinea
Epeira thomisoides Doleschall, 1857: 422 (Df; preoccupied).
Epeira thomisoides Doleschall, 1859: pl. 2, f. 2 (f).
Epeira laglaisei Simon, 1877b: 77 (Df, lapsus).
Epeira thelura Thorell, 1878b: 84 (replacement name for E. thomisoides).
Araneus l. Simon, 1895a: 820, f. 871-872 (f, Dm).
Epeira l. Workman, 1896: 41, pl. 41 (f).
Aranea l. thelura Strand, 1911d: 224.
Aranea l. Roewer, 1938: 41, f. 29 (f).
Simonarachne laglaizei Archer, 1951b: 28 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus l. Chrysanthus, 1960: 39, f. 50, 56, 75 (f).
Araneus l. Chrysanthus, 1971: 28, f. 45-47 (m).
Neoscona l. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 27, f. 55-58 (Tmf from Araneus).
Neoscona l. Tikader, 1982a: 263, f. 525-528 (f).
Araneus l. Yaginuma & Wen, 1983: 196, f. 5A-D (f).
E. l. Grasshoff, 1986: 118 (Tmf from Neoscona).
Araneus l. Song, 1987: 163, f. 124 (f).
Neoscona laglaizai Zhu et al, 1994: 45, f. 19A-E (mf).
E. l. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 641, f. 408a-j (f).
E. l. Yin et al., 1997: 296, f. 206a-e (mf).
E. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 166Q-R, 167F, J (mf).

f menglunensis (Yin et al., 1990)....................China
Neoscona m. Yin et al., 1990: 112, f. 276-279 (Df).
E. m. Yin et al., 1997: 300, f. 207a-d (Tf from Neoscona).
E. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 166S-T, 167K (f).

mf napiformis (Thorell, 1899)....................Cameroon to East Africa
Aranea n. Thorell, 1899: 55 (Df).
Aranea n. Tullgren, 1910: 167, pl. 4, f. 119 (f, Dm).
Araneus n. Lessert, 1930: 657.
E. n. Archer, 1951a: 18 (Tmf from Araneus).

f poonaensis (Tikader & Bal, 1981)....................India, China
Neoscona p. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 29, f. 59-62 (Df).
Neoscona p. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 22, text-f. 11-14, f. 22-24 (f).
Neoscona p. Tikader, 1982a: 265, f. 529-532 (f).
E. p. Grasshoff, 1986: 118 (Tf from Neoscona).
Neoscona p. Yin et al., 1990: 115, f. 280-282 (f).
E. p. Yin et al., 1997: 301, f. 208a-g (f).
E. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 166U, 167A, L (f).

mf pseudocentrodes (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906)....................China, Japan
Aranea p. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 232, pl. 15, f. 415 (Df).
Heurodes p. Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 36 (Tmf from Araneus, rejected).
Araneus p. Yaginuma, 1986a: 99, f. 53.1 (mf).
Araneus p. Chikuni, 1989b: 68, f. 21 (mf).
Araneus pseudoventrodes Chen & Zhang, 1991: 85, f. 75.1-2 (f).
Araneus p. Yin et al., 1997: 140, f. 55a-e (f).
Araneus p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 240, f. 139W-X, 148S (f).
E. p. Tanikawa, 1999a: 43, f. 1-10 (Tmf from Araneus).

mf rhinura (Pocock, 1899) *....................West, Central Africa
Araneus r. Pocock, 1899e: 852, pl. 56, f. 9 (Df).
Araneus r. Lessert, 1930: 655, f. 28a, 29 (f).
Araneus r. Lessert, 1938: 448, f. 34 (Dm).
E. r. Archer, 1951a: 18 (Tmf from Araneus).
Neoscona r. Berman & Levi, 1971: 469 (Tmf from Eriovixia).

mf sakiedaorum Tanikawa, 1999....................Taiwan, Japan
E. s. Tanikawa, 1999a: 45, f. 11-17 (Dmf).

f turbinata (Thorell, 1899)....................Cameroon, Congo
Aranea t. Thorell, 1899: 54 (Df).
Araneus turbinatus Lessert, 1930: 657, f. 28b (f).
E. t. Archer, 1951a: 18 (Tf from Araneus).

f yunnanensis (Yin et al., 1990)....................China
Neoscona y. Yin et al., 1990: 115, f. 283-287 (Df).
E. y. Yin et al., 1997: 302, f. 209a-g (Tf from Neoscona).
E. y. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 167B-C, M (f).

Gen. Euglyptila Simon, 1909

j acanthonota Simon, 1909 *....................Vietnam
E. a. Simon, 1909e: 115 (Dj).

j nigrithorax Simon, 1909....................Vietnam
E. n. Simon, 1909e: 116 (Dj).

Gen. Eustacesia Caporiacco, 1954

E. Caporiacco, 1954: 94, type E. albonotata Caporiacco, 1954.

f albonotata Caporiacco, 1954 *....................French Guiana
E. a. Caporiacco, 1954: 95, f. 19, 19a (Df).

Gen. Eustala Simon, 1895

Transferred to other genera:
E. aethiopica Roewer, 1961 -- see Araneus.
E. cucurbitoria Yin et al., 1990 -- see Cyclosa.
E. hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1942 -- see Ocrepeira.
E. lactea Mello-Leitão, 1944 -- see Araneus.
E. marginata Mello-Leitão, 1942 -- see Ocrepeira.
E. seditiosa (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Metepeira.
E. tuceps Chamberlin, 1925 -- see Metazygia.

In synonymy:
E. abdita Chickering, 1955 = E. californiensis (Keyserling, 1885) (Levi, 1977a: 104).
E. anastera buliafera Chamberlin, 1924 = E. conchlea (McCook, 1888) (Levi, 1977a: 122, contra Chickering, 1955: 414).
E. anastera leuca Chamberlin, 1924 = E. conchlea (McCook, 1888) (Levi, 1977a: 122, contra Chickering, 1955: 414).
E. arkansana Archer, 1951 = E. emertoni (Banks, 1904) (Levi, 1977a: 120).
E. diegensis (Schenkel, 1950, T from Araneus) = E. californiensis (Keyserling, 1885) (Levi, 1977a: 104).
E. mexicana Chickering, 1955 = E. californiensis (Keyserling, 1885) (Levi, 1977a: 104).
E. minima Chickering, 1955 = E. devia (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936) (Levi, 1977a: 101).
E. parvula (Keyserling, 1864, removed from S of E. anastera) = E. cepina (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1977a: 118).

Nomen dubium:
E. petasata (Walckenaer, 1842: 70, f, USA, originally in Epeira, T from Araneus) -- Levi, 1977a: 120.

f albicans Caporiacco, 1954....................French Guiana
E. a. Caporiacco, 1954: 88, f. 16 (Df).

f albiventer (Keyserling, 1884)....................Brazil
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1884b: 651, pl. 21, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira a. Keyserling, 1892: 157, pl. 8, f. 115 (f).
Araneus a. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 278.
Metazygia a. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 186 (Tf from Araneus).
E. a. Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Metazygia).

mf anastera (Walckenaer, 1842) *....................North, Central America
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 33 (Df).
Epeira eustala Walckenaer, 1842: 37 (Df).
Epeira apotroga Walckenaer, 1842: 43 (Df).
Epeira spatulata Walckenaer, 1842: 44 (Df).
Epeira illustrata Walckenaer, 1842: 45 (Dm).
Epeira decolorata Walckenaer, 1842: 49 (Dmf).
Epeira vivida Walckenaer, 1842: 54 (Df).
Epeira triflex Walckenaer, 1842: 60 (Dm).
Epeira trinotata Walckenaer, 1842: 75 (Df).
Epeira subfusca Walckenaer, 1842: 76 (Df).
Epeira prompta Hentz, 1847: 473, pl. 31, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira hebes Hentz, 1847: 473, pl. 31, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira bombycinaria Hentz, 1847: 476, pl. 31, f. 16 (Df).
Epeira bombycinaria Keyserling, 1892: 145, pl. 7, f. 107 (mf).
Epeira a. McCook, 1894: 172, pl. 8, f. 1-4 (mf).
E. a. Simon, 1895a: 795, f. 860 (f).
E. a. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 506, pl. 48, f. 7-8 (mf).
E. a. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 331, f. 215 (f).
E. a. Comstock, 1940: 524, f. 549-554 (f).
E. a. Muma, 1943: 92, pl. XIII, f. 18 (f).
E. a. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 102 (S E. conchlea, rejected).
E. a. Kaston, 1948: 233, f. 706-709, 727 (f).
E. a. Archer, 1951a: 19, f. 46 (m).
E. a. Chickering, 1955: 414, f. 24-29 (mf, S, rejected).
E. a. Levi, 1977a: 114, f. 205-232, 280-285, 298-302, 314-315 (mf).
E. a. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 60 (m).
E. a. Breene et al., 1993: 104, f. 155A-C (mf).

f anastera vermiformis Franganillo, 1931....................Cuba
E. a. v. Franganillo, 1931: 44 (Df).

j andina Chamberlin, 1916....................Peru
E. a. Chamberlin, 1916: 245 (Dj).

mf bacelarae Caporiacco, 1955....................Venezuela
E. b. Caporiacco, 1955: 340, f. 27a-d (Dmf).

m banksi Chickering, 1955....................Mexico, Costa Rica
E. b. Chickering, 1955: 417, f. 30-34 (Dm).

mf bifida F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................USA to Costa Rica
E. b. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 507, pl. 48, f. 9-10 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Banks, 1909a: 212.
E. b. Chickering, 1955: 421, f. 35-40 (mf).
E. b. Levi, 1977a: 108, f. 167-175, 178 (mf).

mf bisetosa Bryant, 1945....................Hispaniola
E. b. Bryant, 1945a: 370, f. 5-6 (Dmf).

mf brevispina Gertsch & Davis, 1936....................USA, Mexico
E. b. Gertsch & Davis, 1936: 12, f. 9-10 (Dmf).
E. b. Levi, 1977a: 106, f. 149-158 (mf).

m bucolica Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. b. Chickering, 1955: 425, f. 41-44 (Dm).

mf californiensis (Keyserling, 1885)....................USA, Mexico
Cyrtophora c. Keyserling, 1885: 525, pl. 13, f. 24 (Df).
Cyrtophora c. Keyserling, 1893: 263, pl. 13, f. 106 (f).
Epeira bucardia McCook, 1894: 183, pl. 9, f. 4 (Df).
Araneus diegensis Schenkel, 1950b: 67, f. 23a-c (Df).
E. abdita Chickering, 1955: 410, f. 19-23 (Dm).
E. mexicana Chickering, 1955: 465, f. 88-89 (Df).
E. c. Levi, 1977a: 104, f. 138-148 (Tf from Cyrtophora, Sm).

m cameronensis Gertsch & Davis, 1936....................USA
E. c. Gertsch & Davis, 1936: 13, f. 13 (Dm).
E. c. Levi, 1977a: 112, f. 189-191 (m).

mf cazieri Levi, 1977....................USA, Bahama Is.
E. c. Levi, 1977a: 102, f. 128-137 (Dmf).

mf cepina (Walckenaer, 1842)....................North America
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1842: 37 (Df).
Epeira parvula Keyserling, 1864: 131, pl. 6, f. 9-10 (Df).
Epeira parvula Emerton, 1884: 317, pl. 34, f. 12, pl. 37, f. 1, 2 (f, Dm).
Epeira parvula Emerton, 1902: 179, f. 416-418 (mf).
E. c. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 103 (removed from S of E. anastera).
E. arkansana Archer, 1951a: 19, f. 47 (f, misidentified).
E. c. Levi, 1977a: 118, f. 233-252, 286-290, 303-308, 316 (f, Dm, S).
E. c. Breene et al., 1993: 104, f. 156A-C (mf).

mf clavispina (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................USA to El Salvador
Epeira c. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 37, pl. 7, f. 11 (Df).
Epeira c. Keyserling, 1892: 102, pl. 5, f. 75 (Dm).
Amamra nigromaculata O. P.-Cambridge, 1895a: 155, pl. 19, f. 5 (Df).
E. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 509, pl. 48, f. 19 (f).
E. c. Chickering, 1955: 428, f. 45-48 (f).
E. c. Kraus, 1955b: 21, f. 51-52 (f).
E. c. Levi, 1977a: 106, f. 159-166, 176-177 (f, Dm).

mf conchlea (McCook, 1888)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira parvula c. McCook, 1888b: 199, f. 6 (Df).
E. anastera c. McCook, 1894: 174, pl. 8, f. 1n (f).
E. anastera buliafera Chamberlin, 1924b: 650 (Df).
E. anastera leuca Chamberlin, 1924b: 650 (Df).
E. anastera Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 102 (S, rejected).
E. anastera Chickering, 1955: 414 (S, rejected).
E. c. Levi, 1977a: 122, f. 269-279, 296, 312, 318 (mf, elevated from subspecies, S).

f conformans Chamberlin, 1925....................Panama
E. c. Chamberlin, 1925d: 216 (Df).
E. c. Chickering, 1955: 430, f. 49-50 (f).

f decemtuberculata Caporiacco, 1955....................Venezuela
E. d. Caporiacco, 1955: 342, f. 28a-b (Df).

m delasmata Bryant, 1945....................Hispaniola
E. d. Bryant, 1945a: 372, f. 11 (Dm).

m delecta Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. d. Chickering, 1955: 431, f. 51-54 (Dm).

f devia (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936)....................USA to Panama, West Indies
Neosconella d. Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936b: 16, f. 38 (Df).
E. minima Chickering, 1955: 471, f. 94-96 (Df).
E. d. Levi, 1973: 487 (Tf from Araneus).
E. d. Levi, 1977a: 101, f. 118-127 (f, Dm, S).

mf eleuthera Levi, 1977....................USA, Bahama Is., Jamaica
E. e. Levi, 1977a: 111, f. 179-188 (Dmf).

mf emertoni (Banks, 1904)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira e. Banks, 1904a: 111 (Df).
Araneus e. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 291.
E. anastera e. Archer, 1940: 55 (Tmf from Araneus, placed as subspecies).
E. triflex Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 103 (removed from S of E. anastera, misidentified).
E. arkansana Archer, 1951a: 19, f. 44 only (Dm, fig. 47, f=E. cepina).
E. triflex Archer, 1951a: 19, f. 45 (m, misidentified).
E. e. Levi, 1977a: 120, f. 253-268, 291-295, 309-311, 317 (elevated f from subspecies of E. anastera, Sm).

m essequibensis (Hingston, 1932)....................Guyana
Epeira e. Hingston, 1932: 366 (Dm).
Singa e. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 171 (Tm from Araneus).
Wixia e. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tm from Singa).
E. e. Levi, 1995b: 209 (Tm from Wixia).

m exigua Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. e. Chickering, 1955: 435, f. 55-58 (Dm).

f fragilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala, Panama
Epeira f. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 23, pl. 4, f. 18 (Df).
Epeira f. Keyserling, 1892: 186, pl. 9, f. 137 (f).
E. f. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 509, pl. 48, f. 18 (f).

mf fuscovittata (Keyserling, 1864)....................Mexico to South America
Epeira fusco-vittata Keyserling, 1864: 129, pl. 6, f. 7-8 (Df).
Epeira f. Keyserling, 1893: 251, pl. 13, f. 187 (f, Dm).
Cyclosa thorelli McCook, 1894: 228, pl. 19, f. 11 (Df).
Epeira caudata Banks, 1898b: 255, pl. 15, f. 5 (Df).
E. f. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 505, pl. 48, f. 3-4 (mf).
E. fusco-vittata Chickering, 1955: 398, f. A-B, 1-5 (mf).
E. f. Grasshoff, 1970b: 216, f. 2a-c (mf).

m gertschi Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. g. Chickering, 1955: 440, f. 59-62 (Dm).

mf gonygaster (C. L. Koch, 1838)....................Brazil, Guyana
Argyopes g. C. L. Koch, 1838: 43, f. 365 (Df).
E. g. Simon, 1895a: 789.
E. g. Caporiacco, 1948a: 660, f. 68-69 (Dm).

mf guianensis (Taczanowski, 1873)....................Peru, French Guiana
Singa g. Taczanowski, 1873: 124 (Df).
Epeira g. Taczanowski, 1878b: 160, pl. 2, f. 11 (f, Dm).
E. g. Simon, 1895a: 789.

mf guttata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico to Brazil
E. g. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 508, pl. 48, f. 13-14 (Dmf).
E. g. Camargo, 1953: 309, f. 6, 8, 31-34, 48 (m).
E. g. Chickering, 1955: 442, f. 63-68 (mf).
E. g. Kraus, 1955b: 22, f. 53 (f).

f histrio Mello-Leitão, 1948....................Guyana
E. h. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 165, f. 8 (Df).

mf illicita (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico to Panama
Epeira i. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 17, pl. 6, f. 16 (Df).
Epeira cambridgii Keyserling, 1893: 255, pl. 13, f. 190 (Df).
E. i. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 506, pl. 48, f. 5, 6 (f, Dm).
E. i. Chickering, 1955: 401, f. 6-11 (mf).

m inconstans Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. i. Chickering, 1955: 446, f. 69-72 (Dm).

f ingenua Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. i. Chickering, 1955: 449, f. 73 (Df).

f innoxia Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. i. Chickering, 1955: 452, f. 74-76 (Df).

f isosceles Mello-Leitão, 1939....................Paraguay
E. i. Mello-Leitão, 1939e: 62, f. 32-33 (Df).

m itapocuensis Strand, 1916....................Brazil
E. i. Strand, 1916b: 107 (Dm).

f lata Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. l. Chickering, 1955: 454, f. 77 (Df).

f latebricola (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Panama
Epeira l. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 31, pl. 8, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1892: 150, pl. 7, f. 110 (f).
E. l. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 508, pl. 48, f. 15 (f).
E. l. Chickering, 1955: 457, f. 78-80 (f).

m longembola Chickering, 1955....................Guatemala to Panama
E. l. Chickering, 1955: 458, f. 81-85 (Dm).

mf lunulifera Mello-Leitão, 1939....................French Guiana, Guyana
E. l. Mello-Leitão, 1939g: 108, f. 7-8 (Df).
E. l. Caporiacco, 1954: 90, f. 17 (Dm).

f maxima Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. m. Chickering, 1955: 461, f. 86-87 (Df).

m mimica Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. m. Chickering, 1955: 467, f. 90-93 (Dm).

mf minuscula (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil
Epeira m. Keyserling, 1892: 140, pl. 7, f. 103 (Dmf).
E. m. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 179 (Tmf from Mangora, after Mello-Leitão, 1919).

m montana Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. m. Chickering, 1955: 474, f. 97-100 (Dm).

f monticola Chamberlin, 1916....................Peru
E. m. Chamberlin, 1916: 246, pl. 18, f. 7 (Df).

f montivaga Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. m. Chickering, 1955: 478, f. 101-102 (Df).

mf mourei Mello-Leitão, 1947....................Brazil
E. m. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 241, f. 9-10 (Dmf).

f nasuta Mello-Leitão, 1939....................Guyana
E. n. Mello-Leitão, 1939g: 107, f. 5-6 (Df).

f nigerrima Mello-Leitão, 1940....................Brazil
E. n. Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 205 (Df).

f novemmamillata Mello-Leitão, 1941....................Argentina
E. 9-mamillata Mello-Leitão, 1941f: 212, f. 16-17 (Df).
E. n. Brignoli, 1983c: 270.

mf oblonga Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. o. Chickering, 1955: 404, f. 12-18 (Dmf).

m orina (Chamberlin, 1916)....................Peru
Aranea o. Chamberlin, 1916: 248, pl. 19, f. 3 (Dm).
E. o. Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tm from Araneus).

f pallida Mello-Leitão, 1940....................Brazil
E. p. Mello-Leitão, 1940h: 25, f. 2-3 (Df).

f panamana Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. p. Chickering, 1955: 480, f. 103-105 (Df).

mf perdita Bryant, 1945....................Hispaniola
E. p. Bryant, 1945a: 373, f. 4, 9 (Dmf).

f perfida Mello-Leitão, 1947....................Brazil
E. p. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 243, f. 11 (Df).

f photographica Mello-Leitão, 1944....................Argentina
E. p. Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 329, f. 13-14 (Df).

f procurva Franganillo, 1936....................Cuba
E. p. Franganillo, 1936c: 80, f. 37a-b (Df).

f redundans Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. r. Chickering, 1955: 484, f. 106-107 (Df).

mf richardsi Mello-Leitão, 1939....................Guyana
E. r. Mello-Leitão, 1939g: 105, f. 1-4 (Dmf).

mf rosae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935....................USA, Mexico
E. r. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935b: 22, pl. 15, f. 124 (Df).
E. r. Gertsch & Davis, 1936: 14, f. 11-12 (f, Dm).
E. r. Levi, 1977a: 112, f. 192-204, 297, 313 (f, Dm; m of Gertsch & Davis, 1936 =E. clavispina).

f rubroguttulata (Keyserling, 1879)....................Peru
Larinia r. Keyserling, 1879: 314, pl. 4, f. 15 (Df).
Larinia r. Keyserling, 1893: 292, pl. 15, f. 216 (f).
Araneus rubroguttulatus Grasshoff, 1970b: 218 (Tf from Larinia).
E. r. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 246 (Tf from Araneus).

mf rustica Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. r. Chickering, 1955: 486, f. 108-113 (Dmf).

mf saga (Keyserling, 1893)....................Brazil, Uruguay
Epeira s. Keyserling, 1893: 253, pl. 13, f. 188 (Dmf).
Araneus sagus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 313.
E. s. Roewer, 1942a: 766.

mf sagana (Keyserling, 1893)....................Brazil
Epeira s. Keyserling, 1893: 254, pl. 13, f. 189 (Dmf).
Araneus saganus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 314.
E. s. Roewer, 1942a: 766.

f sanguinosa (Keyserling, 1893)....................Brazil
Epeira s. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 225, pl. 11, f. 167 (Df).
Araneus sanguinosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 314.
E. s. Roewer, 1942a: 766.

m scitula Chickering, 1955....................Mexico to Panama
E. s. Chickering, 1955: 492, f. 114-117 (Dm).

mf scutigera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1898)....................Mexico to Panama
Epeira s. O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 243, pl. 33, f. 8 (Df).
Epeira nava O. P.-Cambridge, 1899a: 300, pl. 37, f. 5 (Df).
E. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 508, pl. 48, f. 11-12 (f, Dm).
E. s. Chickering, 1955: 496, f. 118-123 (mf).

f secta Mello-Leitão, 1945....................Argentina
E. s. Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 238, f. 11 (Df).

f sedula Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. s. Chickering, 1955: 500, f. 124-126 (Df).

f semifoliata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1899)....................Central America
Epeira s. O. P.-Cambridge, 1899a: 301, pl. 36, f. 3 (Df).
E. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 510, pl. 48, f. 21 (f).
E. s. Chickering, 1955: 502, f. 127 (f).

f smaragdinea (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Peru
Epeira s. Taczanowski, 1878b: 161, pl. 2, f. 12 (Df).
E. s. Simon, 1895a: 789.

m tantula Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. t. Chickering, 1955: 505, f. 128-130 (Dm).

f taquara (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina
Epeira t. Keyserling, 1892: 143, pl. 7, f. 105 (Df).
Araneus t. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 318.
E. t. Roewer, 1942a: 766.

f tribrachiata Badcock, 1932....................Paraguay
E. t. Badcock, 1932: 20, f. 15 (Df).

mf tridentata (C. L. Koch, 1838)....................Brazil, French Guiana
Argyopes tridentatus C. L. Koch, 1838: 41, f. 363-364 (Dmf).
Epeira argyopes Walckenaer, 1842: 132 (Dmf).
E. t. Simon, 1895a: 795.
E. t. Caporiacco, 1954: 92, f. 18, 18a (mf).

f trinitatis (Hogg, 1918)....................Trinidad
Araneus t. Hogg, 1918: 166, f. 1 (Df).
E. t. Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).

f tristis (Blackwall, 1862)....................Brazil
Epeira t. Blackwall, 1862b: 436 (Df).
Araneus t. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 321.
E. t. Roewer, 1942a: 767.

f tumida Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. t. Chickering, 1955: 508, f. 131-132 (Df).

f ulecebrosa (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Argentina
Epeira u. Keyserling, 1892: 104, pl. 5, f. 77 (Df).
Araneus ulecebrosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 321.
E. u. Mello-Leitão, 1919: 470.

f uncicurva Franganillo, 1936....................Cuba
E. u. Franganillo, 1936c: 80 (Df).

mf unimaculata Franganillo, 1930....................Cuba
E. u. Franganillo, 1930: 22 (Df).
E. u. Bryant, 1936b: 327, pl. 23, f. 1, 5 (Dm).

mf vegeta (Keyserling, 1865)....................Mexico to Brazil, Hispaniola
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1865: 819, pl. 19, f. 31-34 (Dmf).
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1892: 144, pl. 7, f. 106 (mf).
Acacesia v. Simon, 1895a: 789, f. 858-859 (m).
E. v. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 509, pl. 48, f. 16-17 (mf).
E. v. Bryant, 1945a: 374, f. 7 (m).
E. v. Chickering, 1955: 511, f. 133-138 (mf).

f vellardi Mello-Leitão, 1924....................Brazil
E. v. Mello-Leitão, 1924a: 279 (Df).

f venusta Chickering, 1955....................Panama
E. v. Chickering, 1955: 515, f. 139-140 (Df).

mf viridipedata (Roewer, 1942)....................Peru
Epeira viridipes Taczanowski, 1878b: 155, pl. 1, f. 8 (Dmf; preoccupied by Doleschall, 1859).
Araneus viridipes Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324.
Aranea v. Roewer, 1942a: 856 (replacement name).
E. v. Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tmf from Araneus).

f wiedenmeyeri Schenkel, 1953....................Venezuela
E. w. Schenkel, 1953a: 21, f. 19a-b (Df).

Gen. Exechocentrus Simon, 1889

f lancearius Simon, 1889 *....................Madagascar
E. l. Simon, 1889b: 227 (Df).
E. l. Simon, 1895a: 888, f. 951-953 (f).

Gen. Faradja Grasshoff, 1970

F. Grasshoff, 1970c: 418, type Larinia faradjensis Lessert, 1930.

m faradjensis (Lessert, 1930) *....................Congo
Larinia f. Lessert, 1930: 637, f. 14 (Dm).
F. f. Grasshoff, 1970c: 418, f. 24a-c (Tm from Larinia).

Gen. Friula O. P.-Cambridge, 1896

f wallacei O. P.-Cambridge, 1896 *....................Borneo
F. w. O. P.-Cambridge, 1896b: 1009, pl. 52, f. 2 (Df).

Gen. Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833

N.B.: not a senior synonym of Aetrocantha Karsch, 1879, Isoxya Simon, 1885, or Acrosomoides Simon, 1887 (Benoit, 1962a: 14, 43, 45); or of Actinacantha Simon, 1864, Macracantha Simon, 1864, Augusta O. P.-Cambridge, 1877, Thelacantha van Hasselt, 1882, Afracantha Dahl, 1914, Austracantha Dahl, 1914, Hypsacantha Dahl, 1914 or Togacantha Dahl, 1914 (Emerit, 1974: 28-31, contra Benoit, 1962a: 14); considered a senior synonym of Paurotylus Tullgren, 1910 (transferred here from the Theridiidae by Levi & Levi, 1962: 25) by Emerit, 1982c: 458, contra Benoit, 1964a: 47, who considered that genus a junior synonym of Aetrocantha Karsch, 1879 instead; considered a senior synonym of Bunocrania Thorell, 1878 by Levi, 1996b: 140.

Transferred to other genera:
G. acrosomoides O. P.-Cambridge, 1879 -- see Acrosomoides.
G. arcuata (Fabricius, 1793) -- see Macracantha.
G. astrigera L. Koch, 1871 -- see Austracantha.
G. batesi Pocock, 1899 -- see Afracantha.
G. brevispina (Doleschall, 1857) -- see Thelacantha.
G. camerunensis Thorell, 1899 -- see Afracantha.
G. cicatricosa C. L. Koch, 1844 -- see Isoxya.
G. cowani Butler, 1882 -- see Isoxya.
G. crucimaculata Dahl, 1914 -- see Hypsacantha.
G. falkensteini (Karsch, 1879) -- see Aetrocantha.
G. formosana Saito, 1933 -- see Thelacantha.
G. galeata (Simon, 1887) -- see Aetrocantha.
G. globulata (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Actinacantha.
G. glyphica Guérin, 1839 -- see Augusta.
G. linnaei (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Acrosomoides.
G. minax Thorell, 1859 -- see Austracantha.
G. mucronota (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Isoxya.
G. nigromutica Caporiacco, 1939 -- see Isoxya.
G. nordviei Strand, 1913 (removed from S of G. simoni) -- see Togacantha.
G. nossibeana Strand, 1915 -- see Madacantha.
G. penizoides (Simon, 1887) -- see Isoxya.
G. reuteri Lenz, 1886 -- see Isoxya.
G. sagaensis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.
G. sola Saito, 1933 -- see Thelacantha.
G. somalica Caporiacco, 1940 -- see Isoxya.
G. sparsa Saito, 1933 -- see Thelacantha.
G. stuhlmanni Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895 -- see Isoxya.
G. tabulata Thorell, 1859 -- see Isoxya.
G. testudinaria Simon, 1901 -- see Isoxya.
G. testudinaria benina Strand, 1913 -- see Isoxya.
G. tetraedra (Walckenaer, 1842) -- see Acrosomoides.
G. tuberifera Dahl, 1914 -- see Isoxya.

In synonymy:
G. cancriformis unicolor Taczanowski, 1879 = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1978a: 438).
G. comstocki Mello-Leitão, 1917 = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1996b: 142).
G. crucigera melanotica Kulczyn'ski, 1911 = G. crucigera Bradley, 1877 (Chrysanthus, 1971: 44).
G. crucigera tenuiscapus Kulczyn'ski, 1911 = G. crucigera Bradley, 1877 (Chrysanthus, 1971: 44).
G. depressa (Tullgren, 1910) = G. milvoides Butler, 1873 (Emerit, 1982c: 458).
G. importuna O. P.-Cambridge, 1879 = G. sanguinolenta C. L. Koch, 1844 (Benoit, 1962a: 64).
G. impotens Gerstäcker, 1873 (removed from S of G. versicolor) = G. sanguinolenta C. L. Koch, 1844 (Benoit, 1962a: 64).
G. insulana Thorell, 1859 (removed from S of G. servillei) = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1978a: 437).
G. kochi Butler, 1873 (removed from S of G. servillei) = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1978a: 438).
G. macrura Pocock, 1898 (removed from S of G. sanguinolenta) = G. milvoides Butler, 1873 (Benoit, 1962a: 59).
G. mammosa C. L. Koch, 1844 = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Benoit, 1964a: 49).
G. mascula Strand, 1915 = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1996b: 142).
G. nabona Chamberlin, 1924 = G. kuhli C. L. Koch, 1837 (Fox, 1938b: 365).
G. nigripes Simon, 1881 = G. rhomboidea madagascariensis Vinson, 1863 (Benoit, 1964a: 50).
G. occidentalis Dahl, 1914 = G. sanguinolenta C. L. Koch, 1844 (Benoit, 1962a: 64).
G. scintillans concolor Rainbow, 1913 = G. scintillans Butler, 1873 (Chrysanthus, 1971: 45).
G. sepulchralis Simon, 1881 = G. rhomboidea madagascariensis Vinson, 1863 (Benoit, 1964a: 50).
G. servillei (Guérin, 1825) = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1996b: 140).
G. servillei joinvillensis Strand, 1915 = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1996b: 142).
G. sodalis O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 = G. sanguinolenta C. L. Koch, 1844 (Benoit, 1964a: 50).
G. tetracantha (Linnaeus, 1767) = G. cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1996b: 140).
G. versicolor nigristerna Caporiacco, 1941 = G. versicolor (Walckenaer, 1842) (Benoit, 1962a: 61).

Nomen dubium:
G. trigona Giebel, 1863: 311 (Java) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1514.

Nomina nuda:
G. cancriformis alba Franganillo, 1936c: 96.
G. cancriformis aurata Franganillo, 1926a: 57.
G. cancriformis nigra Franganillo, 1926a: 57.

f aciculata (Pocock, 1899)....................New Britain
Actinacantha a. Pocock, 1899f: 107, pl. 10, f. 5 (Df).
G. a. Dahl, 1914: 248.

f acutispina Dahl, 1914....................Sulawesi
G. a. Dahl, 1914: 246, f. 17 (Df).

f audouini Guérin, 1838....................Sumatra, Timor, Amboina, Philippines
G. audouinii Guérin, 1838b: 55 (Df).
Plectana transversalis Walckenaer, 1842: 165 (Df).
Plectana bleekeri Doleschall, 1857: 423 (Df).
G. pseudoflava Simon, 1877c: 228, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
G. bleekeri Thorell, 1878b: 11.
G. bleekeri retrorsa Thorell, 1878b: 12 (Df).
G. retrorsa Thorell, 1881: 6.
G. pseudoflava Simon, 1895a: 839, f. 888 (f).
G. a. Dahl, 1914: 284.

f beccarii Thorell, 1877....................Sulawesi
G. b. Thorell, 1877b: 347 (Df).
Plectana b. Thorell, 1890a: 68.
G. b. Dahl, 1914: 245.

m biloba (Thorell, 1878)....................Moluccas, Amboina
Bunocrania b. Thorell, 1878b: 25 (Dj)
Bunocrania b. Thorell, 1898: 374 (Dm).

mf cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758) *....................New World
Aranea c. Linnaeus, 1758: 624 (Df).
Aranea tetracantha Linnaeus, 1767: 1037 (Df).
Aranea conchata Slabber, 1769: 3 (D).
Aranea tetracantha Pallas, 1772: 49, pl. 3, f. 16-17 (f).
Aranea hexacantha Fabricius, 1787: 344 (Df).
Epeira lata Walckenaer, 1805: 66.
Epeira servillei Guérin, 1825: 263 (Df).
G. c. Sundevall, 1833b: 14.
Acrosoma hexacantha Hahn, 1834: 17, f. 106 (f, misidentified).
G. c. C. L. Koch, 1837a: 21, f. 263 (f).
G. hexacantha C. L. Koch, 1837a: 31, f. 268 (f, misidentified).
G. velitaris C. L. Koch, 1837a: 33, f. 269 (Df).
Plectana c. Walckenaer, 1842: 151.
Plectana velitaris Walckenaer, 1842: 152.
Plectana hexacantha Walckenaer, 1842: 152.
Plectana elipsoides Walckenaer, 1842: 155 (Df).
Plectana quinqueserrata Walckenaer, 1842: 157 (Df).
Plectana sexserrata Walckenaer, 1842: 157 (Df).
Plectana triserrata Walckenaer, 1842: 158 (Df).
Plectana servillei Walckenaer, 1842: 159.
Plectana lata Walckenaer, 1842: 165 (Df).
Plectana atlantica Walckenaer, 1842: 167 (Df).
G. rubiginosa C. L. Koch, 1844: 55, f. 878 (Df).
G. picea C. L. Koch, 1844: 61, f. 882 (Df).
G. mammosa C. L. Koch, 1844: 57, f. 879 (Df).
G. quadridens C. L. Koch, 1844: 59, f. 880 (Df).
G. pallida C. L. Koch, 1844: 60, f. 881 (Df).
Epeira cancer Hentz, 1850: 23, pl. 3, f. 13 (Df).
G. moesta Thorell, 1859: 301 (Dj).
G. insulana Thorell, 1859: 302 (Df).
G. hilaris Thorell, 1859: 302 (Df).
G. columbiae Giebel, 1863: 312 (Df).
G. kochii Butler, 1873a: 169 (Df).
Dicantha lata Butler, 1873a: 175.
Micrathena triserrata Butler, 1873a: 429.
G. oldendorffii Holmberg, 1876: 21 (Df).
G. insulana Butler, 1877: 76, pl. 13, f. 1 (f).
G. canestrinii O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 282, pl. 26, f. 2 (Dj).
G. callida O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 284, pl. 26, f. 7 (Df).
G. raimondii Taczanowski, 1879: 106, pl. 1, f. 25-26 (Df).
G. raimondii unicolor Taczanowski, 1879: 107 (Df).
G. proboscidea Taczanowski, 1879: 108, pl. 1, f. 27 (Df).
G. rufospinosa Marx, 1886: 25, f. a-f (Df).
G. hexacantha Keyserling, 1892: 1, pl. 1, f. 1 (f, misidentified).
G. maura McCook, 1894: 210, pl. 13, f. 12 (Df).
G. c. McCook, 1894: 211, pl. 14, f. 9 (f).
G. elliptica Gétaz, 1893: 105 (Df).
G. pallida McCook, 1894: 209, pl. 14, f. 8 (f).
G. preciosa McCook, 1894: 211, pl. 14, f. 7 (Df).
G. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1901b: 329, pl. 7, f. 11 (f).
G. canestrinii F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1901b: 330, pl. 7, f. 10 (Df).
G. kochii F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1901b: 331, pl. 7, f. 10 (f).
G. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 525, pl. 51, f. 14 (f).
G. kochii F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 525, pl. 51, f. 15 (f).
G. biolleyi Banks, 1905b: 20, f. 3 (Df).
G. c. Dahl, 1914: 263.
G. servillei Dahl, 1914: 264.
G. tetracantha Dahl, 1914: 265.
G. kochi joinvillensis Strand, 1916b: 118 (Df).
G. mascula Strand, 1916b: 119 (Dm).
G. comstocki Mello-Leitão, 1917a: 93 (Df).
Vibradellus carolinus Chamberlin, 1925d: 214 (Dm).
G. c. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 249, f. 103 (mf).
G. tetracantha Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 253, f. 104-107 (f, Dm).
G. c. Archer, 1941b: 23, pl. IV, f. 3, 5 (mf).
G. c. Benoit, 1964a: 49 (S).
G. c. Levi, 1978a: 437, f. 69-84 (mf, S).
G. c. Levi, 1978b: 11, f. 15-17 (m).
G. tetracantha Wunderlich, 1986: 217, f. 218 (m).
G. c. Levi, 1996b: 140, f. 292-312 (mf, S).

mf cancriformis gertschi Archer, 1941....................USA
G. c. g. Archer, 1941b: 24, pl. IV, f. 6 (Dmf; probably not valid, per Brignoli, 1983c: 245).

f clarki Emerit, 1974....................Seychelles
G. c. Emerit, 1974: 101, f. 42, 43A-B (Df).

f clavatrix (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Lombok, Sulawesi, Mentawai Is.
Plectana c. Walckenaer, 1842: 186 (Df).
G. c. Thorell, 1877b: 349.
G. claveata O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 289, pl. 27, f. 17 (Df).
G. claveata Pocock, 1897c: 603, pl. 25, f. 5 (f).
G. c. Dahl, 1914: 244.

f clavigera Giebel, 1863....................Thailand, Philippines, Sulawesi
G. c. Giebel, 1863: 307 (Df).
G. nigrisparsa Butler, 1873a: 154, pl. 4, f. 11 (Df).
G. scoparia Simon, 1877b: 68, pl. 3, f. 1 (Df).
G. scoparia Simon, 1895a: 839, f. 889 (f).
G. c. Dahl, 1914: 244.

mf crucigera Bradley, 1877....................New Guinea
G. c. Bradley, 1877: 138, pl. 1, f. 1 (Df).
G. crepidiphora O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 287, pl. 27, f. 14 (Df).
G. similis Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 497, pl. 20, f. 65, 70 (Df).
G. c. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 494, pl. 20, f. 64, 69 (f, Dm).
G. crepidiphora Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 496, pl. 20, f. 66, 71 (f).
G. similis tenuiscapus Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 498 (Df).
G. similis melanotica Kulczyn'ski, 1911d: 123 (Df).
G. c. Dahl, 1914: 247.
G. c. Chrysanthus, 1971: 44, f. 94-96 (f, S).

mf curvispina (Guérin, 1837)....................West, Central Africa, Bioko
Epeira c. Guérin, 1837: 8, pl. 2, f. 8 (Df).
Plectana c. Walckenaer, 1842: 154.
G. walckenaeri Lucas, 1858: 49, 425, pl. 12, f. 7 (Df).
G. vaccula Thorell, 1859: 301 (Df).
G. retracta Butler, 1873a: 157, pl. 4, f. 12 (Df).
G. dahomensis Karsch, 1884b: 70 (Df).
G. c. Simon, 1907d: 300 (Dm).
G. c. Dahl, 1914: 266, f. 13 (f).
G. c. Benoit & Emerit, 1975: 328, f. 15-16 (m).
G. c. Emerit, 1982c: 458, 465, pl. 1, f. A, D, F-G (m).

f curvistyla Dahl, 1914....................Togian Is., near Sulawesi
G. c. Dahl, 1914: 245, f. 16 (Df).

f cuspidata C. L. Koch, 1837....................Malaysia, Nicobar Is., Java
G. c. C. L. Koch, 1837a: 22, f. 264 (Df).
Plectana c. Walckenaer, 1842: 154.

f dalyi Pocock, 1900....................India, Pakistan
G. d. Pocock, 1900a: 232 (Df).
G. d. Tikader, 1982a: 67, f. 135-138 (f).

f diadesmia Thorell, 1887....................India to Philippines
G. diadesmia Thorell, 1887: 225 (Df; cited under G. panisicea in Roewer).
G. d. Tikader, 1982a: 61, f. 123-126 (f).
G. d. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 557, f. 343a-f, 344a-i (f).
G. d. Yin et al., 1997: 95, f. 24a-c (f).
G. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 168C-D, P (f).

f diardi (Lucas, 1835)....................China, Thailand, Malaysia, Sunda Is.
Epeira d. Lucas, 1835a: 70, pl. 149, f. 4 (Df).
G. fornicata C. L. Koch, 1837a: 18, f. 261 (f, misidentified).
G. obliqua C. L. Koch, 1844: 64, f. 884 (Df).
Plectana acuminata Doleschall, 1859: 42, pl. 12, f. 1 (Df).
G. varia Thorell, 1859: 301 (Df).
G. unguicornis Butler, 1873a: 159, pl. 4, f. 13 (Df).
G. consanguinea Butler, 1873a: 159 (Df).
G. dicallina Butler, 1873a: 160, pl. 4, f. 1 (Df).
G. sumatrana Butler, 1873a: 162, pl. 4, f. 3 (Df).
G. pavesi O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 282, pl. 26, f. 4 (Df).
G. fornicata bubula Thorell, 1890a: 49 (Df).
G. montana Thorell, 1890a: 53 (Df).
G. fornicata jalorensis Simon, 1901k: 60 (Df).
G. bouchardi Simon, 1903h: 302 (Df).
G. marsdeni Simon, 1903h: 302 (Df).
G. marsdeni punctisternis Strand, 1906d: 264 (Df).
G. fornicata olivacea Strand, 1907m: 424 (Df).
G. d. Dahl, 1914: 285.
G. d. Kolosváry, 1931: 1057, pl. 30, f. 1 (f).

f doriae Simon, 1877....................Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo
G. d. Simon, 1877c: 232, pl. 3, f. 3 (Df).
G. harpax O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 284, pl. 26, f. 9 (Df).
G. d. Workman & Workman, 1892: 7, pl. 7 (f).
G. kulczynskii Strand, 1906d: 266 (Df).
G. fornicata hundeshageni Strand, 1907k: 195 (Df).
G. d. Dahl, 1914: 277.

f falcicornis Butler, 1873....................Africa
G. f. Butler, 1873a: 158, pl. 4, f. 10 (Df).
G. toxotes Gerstäcker, 1873: 489 (Df).
G. resupinata Gerstäcker, 1873: 490, pl. 18, f. 8 (Df).
G. petersii Karsch, 1878a: 322, pl. 1, f. 6 (Df).
G. falciformis Simon, 1895a: 840 (lapsus).
G. f. Dahl, 1914: 276.
G. f. Emerit, 1974: 107, f. 46D-F (f).

f fasciata Guérin, 1838....................New Guinea, Guam
G. f. Guérin, 1838b: 53 (Df).
Plectana variegata Walckenaer, 1842: 160 (Df).
G. variegata L. Koch, 1871: 2.
G. f. Dahl, 1914: 282.
G. f. Chrysanthus, 1971: 49, f. 112-113 (f).

f flava Nicolet, 1849....................Chile
G. f. Nicolet, 1849: 476 (Df).

f fornicata (Fabricius, 1775)....................Queensland
Aranea f. Fabricius, 1775: 435 (Df).
G. vittata L. Koch, 1871: 2, pl. 1, f. 1 (Df).
G. bradleyi Thorell, 1881: 12 (Df).
G. f. Dahl, 1914: 280.

f frontata Blackwall, 1864....................India, Myanmar, Thailand, Flores, Borneo
G. f. Blackwall, 1864b: 40 (Df).
G. f. O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 283, pl. 26, f. 5 (f).
G. flebilis O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 284, pl. 26, f. 8 (Df).
G. f. Dahl, 1914: 283.

f gambeyi Simon, 1877....................New Caledonia
G. g. Simon, 1877c: 236, pl. 3, f. 5 (Df).

mf geminata (Fabricius, 1798)....................India, Sri Lanka
Aranea g. Fabricius, 1798: 292 (Df).
G. g. C. L. Koch, 1837a: 16, f. 260 (f).
Plectana g. Walckenaer, 1842: 158.
G. connata Butler, 1873a: 168 (Df).
G. rimata O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 282, pl. 26, f. 3 (Df).
G. g. Simon, 1895a: 836, f. 883-887 (f, Dm).
G. g. Pocock, 1900a: 233, f. 79 (f).
G. g. Dahl, 1914: 267, f. 11 (f).
G. g. Tikader, 1982a: 53, f. 107-110 (f).

mf hasselti C. L. Koch, 1837....................India, China to Moluccas
G. hasseltii C. L. Koch, 1837a: 29, f. 267 (Df).
G. horrens Thorell, 1859: 303 (Df).
G. parvula Thorell, 1859: 303 (Dm).
G. blackwalli Keyserling, 1864: 65, pl. 1, f. 1 (Df).
G. helva Blackwall, 1864b: 42 (Df).
G. hepatica L. Koch, 1871: 8, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).
G. helva O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 287, pl. 27, f. 15 (f).
G. propinqua O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 288, pl. 27, f. 16 (Df).
G. pictospina Hasselt, 1882: 14, pl. 1, f. 1-2 (Df).
Actinacantha pictispina Simon, 1885a: 37.
Actinacantha propinqua Simon, 1886a: 147.
Plectana hasselti Thorell, 1887: 224.
Plectana blackwallii Thorell, 1890a: 68.
G. h. Pocock, 1900a: 233.
G. perakensis Simon, 1901k: 60 (Df).
G. propinqua Simon, 1904b: 282, pl. 16, f. 5 (f).
G. tjibodensis Strand, 1907m: 424 (Df).
G. hasseltii Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 33, f. 47-49 (f).
G. hasseltii Tikader, 1982a: 63, f. 127-130 (f).
G. h. Yin et al., 1997: 96, f. 25a-f (mf).
G. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 168E-F, K-L, Q-R (mf).

f hecata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Philippines
Plectana h. Walckenaer, 1842: 168 (Df).
G. falcifera C. L. Koch, 1844: 62, f. 883 (Df).
G. h. Dahl, 1914: 270.

f interrupta Dahl, 1914....................Lombok, Sulawesi
G. i. Dahl, 1914: 262, f. 15 (Df).

f irradiata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Thailand to Philippines, Sulawesi
Plectana i. Walckenaer, 1842: 170 (Df).
G. vittata Thorell, 1859: 301 (Df).
G. minahassae Merian, 1911: 235, pl. 9, f. 5 (Df).
G. i. Dahl, 1914: 284.

f janopol Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
G. j. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 553, f. 340a-i (Df).

mf kuhli C. L. Koch, 1837....................India to Japan, Philippines
G. kuhlii C. L. Koch, 1837a: 20, f. 262 (Df).
Plectana acuminata Walckenaer, 1842: 159 (Df).
G. annulipes C. L. Koch, 1844: 52, f. 876 (Df).
Plectana leucomelas Doleschall, 1859: 42, pl. 11, f. 8 (Df).
G. annamita Simon, 1886a: 148 (Df).
G. leucomelaena Thorell, 1887: 231 (Df).
G. leucomelas Simon, 1904b: 282, pl. 16, f. 3 (f).
G. leucomelas Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 239, pl. 3, f. 18, pl. 15, f. 395 (f).
G. k. Dahl, 1914: 262.
G. nabona Chamberlin, 1924a: 22 (Df).
G. leucomelas Sherriffs, 1934: 87, f. 2 (f).
G. kuhlii Fox, 1938b: 365 (S).
G. leucomelaena Saito, 1939: 10, f. 2(4) (f).
G. kuhlii Nakatsudi, 1943a: 162, f. 11 (f).
G. leucomelaena Saito, 1959: 112, f. 137a-d (f).
G. kuhlii Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 34, f. 50-52 (f).
G. kuhlii Tikader, 1982a: 59, g. 119-122 (f).
G. kuhlii Hu, 1984: 114, f. 112.1-2 (f).
G. kuhlii Yaginuma, 1986a: 111, f. 58.4 (m).
G. kuhlii Chikuni, 1989b: 83, f. 64 (mf).
G. kuhlii Feng, 1990: 83, f. 58.1-6 (f).
G. kuhlii Chen & Gao, 1990: 62, f. 75 (f).
G. kuhlii Chen & Zhang, 1991: 101, f. 95.1-4 (f).
G. kuhlii Zhao, 1993: 238, f. 111 (f).
G. kuhlii Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 559, f. 345a-f (f).
G. k. Yin et al., 1997: 97, f. 26a-f (mf).
G. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 168G-H, M, S-T (mf).
G. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 204, f. 122A-F (mf).

f lepelletieri (Guérin, 1825)....................Sumatra to Philippines, New Guinea
Epeira lepeletieri Guérin, 1825: 763 (Df, patronym for Lepelletier).
G. l. Guérin, 1838b: 52.
Plectana l. Walckenaer, 1842: 156.
Plectana praetextata Doleschall, 1859: 42, pl. 8, f. 4, pl. 11, f. 6 (f, misidentified).
G. doleschalli Simon, 1877c: 227 (Df).
Actinacantha l. Simon, 1885a: 37.
G. praetextata helva Merian, 1911: 235 (Df).
G. l. Dahl, 1914: 250.

f lunata Guérin, 1838....................Timor, Moluccas, New Caledonia
G. l. Guérin, 1838b: 55 (Df).
G. ternatensis Thorell, 1881: 18 (Df).
G. bruijnii Thorell, 1881: 21 (Df).
G. bruijnii laeviuscula Thorell, 1881: 21 (Df).
G. fragispina Keyserling, 1886a: 92, pl. 7, f. 3 (Df).
G. laeviuscula Strand, 1907k: 197.
G. l. Dahl, 1914: 285.

f martensi Dahl, 1914....................Sumatra
G. m. Dahl, 1914: 249, f. 18 (Df).

f mediofusca (Doleschall, 1859)....................Java, New Guinea
Plectana mediofusca Doleschall, 1859: 44, pl. 13, f. 9 (Df).
G. mediofusca Merian, 1911: 237.
G. m. Chrysanthus, 1971: 47, f. 105-106 (removed f from S of G. mammosa per Roewer).

f mengei Keyserling, 1864....................Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo
G. m. Keyserling, 1864: 67, pl. 1, f. 5 (Df).
Atelacantha malayensis Simon, 1864: 285.
G. malayensis Hasselt, 1882: 13 (Df).
G. m. Dahl, 1914: 270, f. 10 (f).

f metallica (Pocock, 1898)....................Solomon Is.
Actinacantha m. Pocock, 1898b: 465, pl. 19, f. 5 (Df).
G. m. Kulczyn'ski, 1910: 398.

mf milvoides Butler, 1873....................Central, East, Southern Africa
G. milvoides Butler, 1873a: 159, pl. 4, f. 2 (Df).
G. macrura Pocock, 1898e: 438, pl. 13, f. 3 (Df).
Paurotylus depressus Tullgren, 1910: 171, pl. 4, f. 125 (Dm).
G. m. Benoit, 1962a: 59 (removed f from S of G. versicolor, S).
Paurotylus depressus Benoit, 1962d: 371, f. 1-3 (m).
Aetrocantha galatea Benoit, 1964a: 47 (S, rejected).
G. m. Emerit, 1973: 685, f. 5B, pl. IIc (m).
G. m. Emerit, 1974: 107, f. 46A-C (f).
G. m. Benoit & Emerit, 1975: 328, f. 13-14 (m).
G. m. Emerit, 1982c: 458, pl. 1, f. C, E (m, S).

f notata Kulczyn'ski, 1910....................New Britain
G. n. Kulczyn'ski, 1910: 398, pl. 17, f. 10 (Df).

f panisicca Butler, 1873....................Myanmar to Philippines, Java
G. p. Butler, 1873a: 162, pl. 4, f. 14 (Df).
G. p. Dahl, 1914: 287.
G. panisicea Kolosváry, 1931: 1063, pl. 30, f. 2 (f).

f parangdiadesmia Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
G. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 555, f. 342a-e (Df).

mf pentagona (Walckenaer, 1842)....................New Ireland, New Britain
Plectana p. Walckenaer, 1842: 168 (Df).
G. p. L. Koch, 1871: 9, pl. 1, f. 6 (f).
Stanneoclavis studeri Karsch, 1878c: 799 (Df).
G. strasseni Strand, 1911b: 206 (Df).
G. mahurica Strand, 1913d: 118 (Df).
G. strasseni Strand, 1915d: 229, pl. 14, f. 25-26, pl. 17, f. 72 (f).
G. p. Dahl, 1914: 248.
G. p. Chrysanthus, 1971: 45, f. 97-100 (mf).

f pentagona anirica Strand, 1915....................Bismarck Arch.
G. strasseni a. Strand, 1915d: 230 (Df).

j picta (Thorell, 1892)....................Singapore
Bunocrania p. Thorell, 1892a: 251 (Dj).

f quadrispinosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1879....................New Guinea, Queensland
G. q. O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 281, pl. 26, f. 1 (Df).
G. papuana Thorell, 1881: 15 (Df).
G. quadrispina Lamb, 1911: 171, f. 2 (Df).
G. wolfi Strand, 1911b: 205 (Df).
G. q. Dahl, 1914: 270.
G. q. Chrysanthus, 1971: 48, f. 107-108 (f).

f recurva Simon, 1877....................Philippines
G. r. Simon, 1877b: 70, pl. 3, f. 2 (Df).
G. r. Simon, 1895a: 839, f. 890 (f).

f regalis Butler, 1873....................New Hebrides
G. r. Butler, 1873a: 156, pl. 4, f. 7 (Df).

f remifera Butler, 1873....................India, Sri Lanka
G. r. Butler, 1873a: 154, pl. 4, f. 5 (Df).
Plectana clavatrix Karsch, 1891: 277 (f, misidentified).
G. r. Pocock, 1900a: 233, f. 78 (f).
G. r. Dahl, 1914: 244.
G. r. Tikader, 1982a: 65, f. 131-134 (f).

f rhomboidea Guérin, 1838....................Mauritius
G. r. Guérin, 1838b: 54 (Df).
Plectana mauricia Walckenaer, 1842: 155 (Df).
G. mauritia Vinson, 1863: 239, 315.
G. peccans O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 293, pl. 26, f. 6 (Df).
G. r. Dahl, 1914: 287.
G. r. Emerit, 1974: 97, f. 27D, 39, 40A-C (f).

f rhomboidea comorensis Strand, 1917....................Comoro Is.
G. comorensis Strand, 1917b: 117 (Df).
G. r. c. Emerit, 1974: 95, f. 38A-B (f, reduced to subspecies).

mf rhomboidea madagascariensis Vinson, 1863....................Madagascar
G. m. Vinson, 1863: 242, 315, pl. 9, f. 6 (Df).
G. m. O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 285, pl. 26, f. 10 (f).
G. sepulchralis Simon, 1881e: 2 (Df).
G. nigripes Simon, 1881e: 3 (Df).
G. r. m. Benoit, 1964a: 50 (removed f from S of G. sanguinolenta, placed as subspecies, S G. comorensis, rejected).
G. r. m. Emerit, 1974: 91, f. 27C, 28C, 36, 37A-E (f, Dm).

f rubrospinis Guérin, 1838....................Lombok, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Caledonia, Guam
G. r. Guérin, 1838b: 53 (Df).
G. circumnotata Simon, 1877c: 229 (Df).
G. butleri Thorell, 1877b: 350 (Df).
G. simoni Keyserling, 1886a: 90, pl. 7, f. 2 (Df).
G. eurygaster Thorell, 1890a: 25 (Df).
G. circumnotata Pocock, 1897c: 603, pl. 25, f. 2 (f).
G. butleri elberti Strand, 1911b: 206 (Df).
G. r. Dahl, 1914: 282 (S all names above).
G. butleri elberti Strand, 1915d: 230, pl. 17, f. 73 (f).

f rufithorax Simon, 1881....................Madagascar
G. r. Simon, 1881e: 2 (Df).
G. rhomboidea madagascariensis Benoit, 1964a: 50 (S, rejected).
G. r. Emerit, 1974: 97, f. 38B, 41B (f, removed from S).

f sacerdotalis L. Koch, 1872....................New Guinea, Queensland, New Caledonia
G. s. L. Koch, 1872a: 198, pl. 18, f. 1 (Df).
G. sylvestris Simon, 1877c: 234, pl. 3, f. 6 (Df).
G. s. Thorell, 1881: 28.

f sanguinea Dahl, 1914....................Philippines
G. s. Dahl, 1914: 245, f. 2 (Df).

mf sanguinolenta C. L. Koch, 1844....................Africa, São Tomé, Socotra
G. s. C. L. Koch, 1844: 51, f. 875 (Df).
G. ensifera Thorell, 1859: 302 (Df).
G. ornata Thorell, 1859: 302 (Df).
G. lepida O. P.-Cambridge, 1870e: 821, pl. 50, f. 2 (Df).
G. nana Butler, 1873a: 168, pl. 4, f. 4 (Df).
G. radiata Gerstäcker, 1873: 488 (Df).
G. impotens Gerstäcker, 1873: 491 (Df).
G. vittata Keyserling, 1877b: 85, pl. 3, f. 1 (Df).
G. molesta O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 286, pl. 27, f. 13 (Df).
G. importuna O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 286, pl. 26, f. 12 (Df).
G. formosa confluxa Karsch, 1884a: 68 (Df).
G. schweinfurthi Simon, 1890a: 100 (Df).
G. sodalis O. P.-Cambridge, 1898b: 388, pl. 31, f. 3 (Df).
G. spenceri Pocock, 1900e: 324 (Df).
G. abyssinica Strand, 1907a: 537 (Dj).
G. abyssinica Strand, 1907n: 644 (Df).
G. s. Dahl, 1914: 278.
G. occidentalis Dahl, 1914: 283, f. 20 (Df).
G. occidentalis Archer, 1951d: 2, f. 2 (f).
G. s. Benoit, 1962a: 63, f. 42 (S).
G. s. Benoit, 1964a: 50 (S).
G. s. Wiehle, 1967b: 193, f. 36 (f).
G. s. Emerit, 1974: 77, f. 27B, 30A-C (f).
G. s. Benoit & Emerit, 1975: 329, f. 9-10 (Dm).

f sanguinolenta andrefanae Emerit, 1974....................Madagascar
G. s. a. Emerit, 1974: 83, f. 33A-C (Df).

mf sanguinolenta bigoti Emerit, 1974....................Madagascar
G. s. b. Emerit, 1974: 84, f. 28E, 34, 35A-C (Dmf).

mf sanguinolenta emeriti Roberts, 1983....................Aldabra
G. s. e. Roberts, 1983: 286, f. 225-234 (Dmf~).

f sanguinolenta insulicola Emerit, 1974....................Seychelles
G. s. i. Emerit, 1974: 81, f. 32C (Df).

f sanguinolenta legendrei Emerit, 1974....................Europa Is.
G. s. l. Emerit, 1974: 89, f. 32B (Df).

mf sanguinolenta mangrovae Emerit, 1974....................Madagascar
G. s. m. Emerit, 1974: 87, f. 28D, 32A (Dmf).

f sanguinolenta rueppelli (Strand, 1916)....................Egypt
G. lepida rüppelli Strand, 1916b: 65 (Df).

f sapperi Dahl, 1914....................New Guinea
G. s. Dahl, 1914: 249, f. 3 (Df).

f sauteri Dahl, 1914....................China, Taiwan
G. s. Dahl, 1914: 281, f. 14 (Df).
G. fornicata Saito, 1959: 112, f. 138 (S, rejected).
G. s. Feng, 1990: 85, f. 60.1-5 (f).
G. s. Yin et al., 1997: 100, f. 28a-c (f).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 168I-J, N, 169A (f).

f scintillans Butler, 1873....................Solomon Is.
G. s. Butler, 1873a: 156, pl. 4, f. 9 (Df).
G. s. concolor Rainbow, 1913: 12 (Df).
G. s. Chrysanthus, 1971: 45, f. 101-103 (f, S).

f signifera Pocock, 1898....................Solomon Is.
G. mollusca Keyserling, 1886a: 88, pl. 7, f. 1 (f, misidentified).
G. signifer Pocock, 1898b: 465, pl. 19, f. 6 (Df).
G. s. Dahl, 1914: 281.
G. s. Chrysanthus, 1971: 49, f. 109-111 (f).

f signifera bistrigella Strand, 1915....................Bismarck Arch.
G. s. b. Strand, 1915d: 236, pl. 20, f. 80 (Df).

f signifera heterospina Strand, 1915....................Bismarck Arch.
G. s. h. Strand, 1915d: 236 (Df).

f signifera pustulinota Strand, 1915....................Bismarck Arch.
G. s. p. Strand, 1915d: 236, pl. 20, f. 84 (Df).

f simoni O. P.-Cambridge, 1879....................Central Africa
G. s. O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 289, pl. 27, f. 18 (Df).
G. connata Simon, 1895a: 843.

f sororna Butler, 1873....................India
G. s. Butler, 1873a: 155, pl. 4, f. 15 (Df).

f sturi (Doleschall, 1857)....................Sumatra, Java, Moluccas
Plectana sturii Doleschall, 1857: 424 (Df).
Plectana centrum Doleschall, 1857: 425 (Df).
Plectana s. Doleschall, 1859: pl. 8, f. 1 (f).
G. s. Thorell, 1878b: 9, 294.
G. nigristernis Simon, 1899a: 92 (Df).
G. s. Dahl, 1914: 284.
G. s. Kolosváry, 1931: 1068, pl. 30, f. 3 (f).

f subaequispina Dahl, 1914....................Borneo, New Guinea
G. s. Dahl, 1914: 278, f. 19 (Df).

mf taeniata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................India to Polynesia
Plectana t. Walckenaer, 1842: 169 (Df).
G. violenta L. Koch, 1871: 5, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
G. t. L. Koch, 1871: 10.
G. hebridisia Butler, 1873a: 165 (Df).
G. albiventer Butler, 1873a: 166, pl. 4, f. 6 (Df).
G. relegata Simon, 1877c: 235 (Df).
G. albertisii Thorell, 1881: 2 (Df).
G. wallacei Thorell, 1881: 13 (Df).
G. karschii Thorell, 1887: 230 (Df).
G. t. Dahl, 1914: 287.
G. t. Chrysanthus, 1959: 202, f. 5, 14, 27 (f).
G. t. Chrysanthus, 1960: 23, f. 7-8 (Dm).

f taeniata analispina Strand, 1911....................New Guinea
G. a. Strand, 1911b: 205 (Df).
G. a. Strand, 1915d: 232, pl. 18, f. 81 (f).

f taeniata anirensis Strand, 1911....................New Ireland
G. analispina a. Strand, 1911b: 206 (Df).
G. analispina a. Strand, 1915d: 233, pl. 18, f. 78 (f).

f taeniata bawensis Strand, 1915....................New Guinea
G. t. b. Strand, 1915d: 235 (Df).

f taeniata jamurensis Strand, 1915....................New Guinea
G. t. j. Strand, 1915d: 235 (Df).

f taeniata lugubris Simon, 1898....................Solomon Is.
G. hebridisia l. Simon, 1898b: 274 (Df).

f taeniata maculella Strand, 1911....................Aru Is.
G. t. m. Strand, 1911d: 154 (Df).

f taeniata novahannoveriana Dahl, 1914....................Bismarck Arch.
G. t. nova-hannoveriana Dahl, 1914: 288, f. 21 (Df).

f taeniata obsoletopicta Strand, 1915....................Indonesia
G. t. o. Strand, 1915d: 235, pl. 18, f. 75 (Df).

f taeniata oinokensis Strand, 1915....................New Guinea
G. t. o. Strand, 1915d: 235 (Df).

f taeniata sentanensis Strand, 1915....................New Guinea
G. t. s. Strand, 1915d: 235 (Df).

f taeniata trivittinota Strand, 1911....................New Ireland
G. bradleyi t. Strand, 1911b: 206 (Df).
G. bradleyi t. Strand, 1915d: 234, pl. 17, f. 74, pl. 18, f. 83 (f).

f taeniata univittinota Strand, 1911....................New Ireland
G. bradleyi u. Strand, 1911b: 206 (Df).

mf theisi Guérin, 1838....................New Guinea, Moluccas
G. theisii Guérin, 1838b: 54 (Df).
Plectana praetextata Walckenaer, 1842: 166 (Df).
G. aruana Thorell, 1881: 40 (Df).
G. t. Strand, 1915d: 228, pl. 18, f. 77 (f).
G. t. Dahl, 1914: 249.
G. t. Chrysanthus, 1959: 203, f. 12, 15-18, 20-23 (mf).
G. t. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 374, f. 17 (m).

f theisii antemaculata Strand, 1911....................Aru Is.
G. aruana a. Strand, 1911d: 154 (Df).

f theisii keyana Strand, 1911....................Kei Is.
G. aruana k. Strand, 1911d: 154 (Df).

f theisii quadrisignatella Strand, 1911....................Indonesia
G. t. q. Strand, 1911b: 206 (Df).

f thomasinsulae Archer, 1951....................São Tomé
G. t. Archer, 1951d: 1, f. 1 (Df).

mf thorelli Keyserling, 1864....................Madagascar
G. thorellii Keyserling, 1864: 67, pl. 1, f. 4 (Df).
G. formosa t. Strand, 1907n: 642.
G. t. Dahl, 1914: 276.
G. t. Emerit, 1974: 111, f. 28B, 48C, 50, 51A-C (f, Dm).

f tondanae Pocock, 1897....................Sulawesi
G. t. Pocock, 1897c: 604, pl. 25, f. 3 (Df).

f transversa C. L. Koch, 1837....................Sumatra, Java
G. t. C. L. Koch, 1837a: 14, f. 259 (Df).
G. nebulosa Butler, 1873a: 164 (Df).
G. vittata longicornis Strand, 1907m: 422 (Df).
G. t. Dahl, 1914: 280.

f unguifera Simon, 1889....................India
G. u. Simon, 1889i: 336 (Df).
G. u. Tikader, 1982a: 57, f. 115-118 (f).

mf versicolor (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Central, East, Southern Africa
Plectana v. Walckenaer, 1842: 161 (Df).
G. scapha Gerstäcker, 1873: 487 (Df).
G. v. Dahl, 1914: 279.
G. versicolor nigristerna Caporiacco, 1941b: 88 (Df).
G. v. Benoit, 1962a: 61, f. 40 (S).
G. v. Emerit, 1968: 898, f. 1-3 (mf).
G. v. Emerit, 1973: 686, f. 5A. pl. IIA-B (Dm).
G. v. Emerit, 1974: 103, f. 28F, 47A-B (mf).
G. v. Benoit & Emerit, 1975: 330, f. 11-12 (m).

f versicolor avaratrae Emerit, 1974....................Madagascar
G. v. a. Emerit, 1974: 109, f. 48A, 49A-C (Df).

mf versicolor formosa Vinson, 1863....................Madagascar
G. f. Vinson, 1863: 244, 315, pl. 9, f. 7 (Df).
G. f. O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 285, pl. 26, f. 11 (f).
G. v. f. Emerit, 1974: 109, f. 2A-C, 27A, 28A, 29, 45A-E, 48B (f, placed as subspecies, Dm).

f westringi Keyserling, 1864....................Australia, Admiralty Is., New Caledonia
G. westringii Keyserling, 1864: 66, pl. 1, f. 2 (Df).
G. laeta Fauvel, 1865: 68, pl. 1, f. 18 (Df).
G. w. L. Koch, 1871: 7, pl. 1, f. 4 (f).
G. mollusca L. Koch, 1871: 7, pl. 1, f. 4 (Df).
G. ocillatum Urquhart, 1889b: 152, pl. 7, f. 1-3 (Df).
G. wogeonis Strand, 1911b: 205 (Df).
G. wogeonis Strand, 1915d: 231, pl. 18, f. 82 (f).
G. w. Dahl, 1914: 281.

Gen. Gastroxya Benoit, 1962

G. Benoit, 1962a: 8, type G. schoutedeni Benoit, 1962.

f benoiti Emerit, 1973....................South Africa
G. b. Emerit, 1973: 693, f. 8, 9D (Df).
G. b. Emerit, 1974: 39, f. 5D (f).

mf krausi Benoit, 1962....................Liberia, Congo
G. k. Benoit, 1962a: 11, f. 7-10 (Dmf).

f leleupi Benoit, 1962....................Congo
G. l. Benoit, 1962a: 13, f. 11 (Df).

mf schoutedeni Benoit, 1962 *....................Congo, Rwanda, Burundi
G. s. Benoit, 1962a: 9, f. 1-6 (Dmf).
G. s. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 374, f. 14 (m).

Gen. Gea C. L. Koch, 1843

Transferred to other genera:
G. bimucronata Mello-Leitão, 1936 -- see Mecynogea.
G. diadema Hogg, 1920 -- see Neogea.
G. dubiosa Strand, 1911 -- see Argiope.
G. guttata Thorell, 1890 -- see Neogea.
G. lugens O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 -- see Neogea.
G. nocticolor Thorell, 1887 -- see Neogea.
G. panamensis Chamberlin, 1917 -- see Argiope.
G. rotunda Hogg, 1915 -- see Argiope.
G. virginis Strand, 1911 -- see Leucauge under Tetragnathidae.
G. wiedenmeyeri Schenkel, 1953 -- see Mecynogea.

In synonymy:
G. brongersmai Chrysanthus, 1971 = G. subarmata Thorell, 1890 (Levi, 1983: 323).
G. catenulata Thorell, 1898 = G. subarmata Thorell, 1890 (Levi, 1983: 323).
G. chelifer (Hasselt, 1882, removed from S of Argiope catenulata (Doleschall, 1859)) = G. spinipes C. L. Koch, 1843 (Levi, 1983: 326).
G. corbetti Tikader, 1982 = G. subarmata Thorell, 1890 (Levi, 1983: 323).
G. curvipes (Keyserling, 1886, T from Argiope) = G. theridioides (L. Koch, 1872) (Levi, 1983: 328).
G. decorata Thorell, 1890 = G. spinipes C. L. Koch, 1843 (Levi, 1983: 326).
G. festiva Thorell, 1895 = G. spinipes C. L. Koch, 1843 (Levi, 1983: 326).
G. heptagon nigra Petrunkevitch, 1930 = G. heptagon (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1968a: 325).
G. praecincta (L. Koch, 1872) = G. heptagon (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1983: 322).
G. praedicta O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 = G. heptagon (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1968a: 325).

Nomina dubia:
G. decorata varians Franganillo, 1926a: 53 (Dj, Cuba) -- Levi, 1968a: 324.
G. integra Franganillo, 1930: 19, f. 6B (Dmf, Cuba) -- Levi, 1968a: 325.
G. lineata Franganillo, 1926a: 53 (Dj, Cuba) -- Levi, 1968a: 324.
G. partita Franganillo, 1930: 17, f. 6A (Dmf, Cuba) -- Levi, 1968a: 325.
G. severinoi Mello-Leitão, 1917a: 91 (Df, Brazil, omitted by Roewer) -- Levi, 1968a: 324.
G. subarmata maculata Franganillo, 1930: 19 (Df, Cuba) -- Levi, 1968a: 325.

f africana Simon, 1895....................Congo
G. a. Simon, 1895g: 154 (Df).

f argiopides Strand, 1911....................Aru Is., New Guinea
G. a. Strand, 1911d: 146, pl. 4, f. 10, pl. 5, f. 51 (Df).
G. a. Levi, 1983: 322, f. 345-349 (f).

f bituberculata (Thorell, 1881)....................New Guinea
Ebaea b. Thorell, 1881: 60 (Df).
G. b. Levi, 1983: 328, f. 376-380 (f).

mf eff Levi, 1983....................New Guinea, New Britain
G. e. Levi, 1983: 324, f. 336-337, 355-361 (Dmf).

mf heptagon (Hentz, 1850)....................USA, West Indies, South Pacific Is., Australia
Epeira h. Hentz, 1850: 20 (Dmf).
Ebaea praecincta L. Koch, 1872a: 130, pl. 10, f. 2, 3 (Dmf).
G. h. Keyserling, 1892: 76, pl. 3, f. 58 (f).
G. h. McCook, 1894: 208, pl. 12, f 8 (f).
G. praecincta Simon, 1895a: 765, f. 844.
G. praedicta O. P.-Cambridge, 1898a: 267, pl. 37, f. 11 (Dm).
G. h. Tullgren, 1901a: 9, pl. 1, f. 5 (f).
G. h. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 243, f. 93-96 (mf).
G. h. nigra Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 245, f. 97-100 (Df).
G. ergaster Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 104 (S, rejected).
G. h. Levi & Field, 1954: 448, f. 24-25, 27 (mf).
G. h. Levi, 1968a: 324, f. 1-24 (mf, S).
G. h. Levi, 1983: 322, f. 334-335, 338-344 (mf, S).
G. h. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 66 (m).
G. h. Breene et al., 1993: 101, f. 146A-C (mf).

mf infuscata Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa, Angola
G. i. Tullgren, 1910: 157, pl. 4, f. 95 (Df).
G. i. Lessert, 1915a: 26, pl. 1, f. 4, 8 (Dm).

f nilotica Simon, 1906....................Egypt, Sudan
G. n. Simon, 1906a: 1162 (Df).

mf spinipes C. L. Koch, 1843 *....................India, China, Taiwan to Borneo
G. s. C. L. Koch, 1843: 101, f. 823 (Df).
Pronous chelifer Hasselt, 1882: 24, pl. 2, f. 3, pl. 4, f. 7-10 (Dm).
Argiope chelifera Thorell, 1890a: 90 (Df).
G. decorata Thorell, 1890a: 104 (Df).
G. decorata Workman & Workman, 1894: 23, pl. 23 (Dm).
G. festiva Thorell, 1895: 166 (Df).
G. festiva Workman, 1896: 30, pl. 30 (f).
G. s. Levi, 1983: 326, f. 362-375 (f, Sm).
G. s. Yin et al., 1989: 67, f. 7A-C (f).
G. s. Chang & Chang, 1997: 83, f. 1-4 (mf).
G. s. Yin et al., 1997: 90, f. 21a-f (mf).
G. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 169B-D (mf).

f spinipes nigrifrons Simon, 1901....................Malaysia
G. festiva n. Simon, 1901k: 59 (Df).

mf subarmata Thorell, 1890....................India, Bangladesh to Philippines, New Guinea
G. s. Thorell, 1890a: 101 (Df).
G. catenulata Thorell, 1898: 339 (Df).
G. s. Kulczyn'ski, 1910: 392, pl. 17, f. 3, 4 (f).
G. s. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 476, pl. 20, f. 48-49 (f, Dm).
G. brongersmai Chrysanthus, 1971: 18, f. 26-29 (Df).
G. corbetti Tikader, 1982a: 109, f. 205-210 (Df).
G. s. Levi, 1983: 323, f. 350-354 (f, S).
G. s. Okuma et al., 1993: 21, f. 16A-B (f, Dm).
G. s. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 568, f. 351a-j (f).

mf theridioides (L. Koch, 1872)....................Queensland, New South Wales
Ebaea t. L. Koch, 1872a: 132, pl. 10, f. 4 (Df).
Argiope curvipes Keyserling, 1886a: 135, pl. 17, f. 1 (Dm).
G. t. Levi, 1983: 328, f. 381-388 (f, Sm).
G. t. Davies & Gallon, 1986: 233 (f of Araneus transversus Rainbow, 1912, belongs here).
G. t. Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 32 (mf).

f transversovittata Tullgren, 1910....................Congo, East Africa
G. t. Tullgren, 1910: 157, pl. 4, f. 94 (Df).

f zaragosa Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
G. z. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 569, f. 352a-f (Df).

Gen. Gibbaranea Archer, 1951

G. Archer, 1951b: 4, type Araneus bituberculatus (Walckenaer, 1802); considered valid by Grasshoff, 1976: 148..

In synonymy:
G. melo (Krynicki, 1837, T from Araneus) = G. bituberculata (Walckenaer, 1802) (Marusik, 1985b: 138).

mf abscissa (Karsch, 1879)....................Russia, China, Korea, Japan
Epeira a. Karsch, 1879g: 69 (Df).
Aranea a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 225, pl. 11, f. 214 (f, Dm).
Araneus a. Saito, 1934b: 328.
Atea abcissa Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 40 (Tmf from Araneus, rejected).
Araneus a. Saito, 1959: 85, f. 87a-b (f).
Araneus abscissus Yaginuma, 1960: 53, f. 49 (f).
Araneus abscissus Namkung, 1964: 37, f. 24 (f).
Araneus abscissus Yaginuma, 1971: 53, f. 49 (f).
Araneus abscissus Yaginuma, 1972a: 53, f. 17-18 (mf).
Araneus abscissus Yaginuma, 1986a: 97, f. 51.3 (mf).
Araneus abscissus Song, 1987: 158, f. 119 (mf).
Araneus abscissus Zhu, Tu & Hu, 1988: 53, f. 1-3 (f).
Araneus abscissus Chikuni, 1989b: 67, f. 18 (mf).
G. abscissus Yin et al., 1997: 303, f. 210a-e (Tmf from Araneus).
G. abscissus Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 169E-G, N, Q (mf).
G. abscissus Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 205, f. 123A-C (mf).

mf bituberculata (Walckenaer, 1802) *....................Palearctic
Aranea abdomine bicorni Lepechin, 1774: 245, pl. 16, f. 13 (f; unavailable trinomen).
Aranea bicornuta Martini & Goeze, in Lister, 1778: 263 (D for species of Lepechin, 1774; nomen oblitum).
Aranea bicornis Gmelin, 1789: 2959 (D for species of Lepechin, 1774; nomen oblitum).
Aranea b. Walckenaer, 1802: 191 (Df).
Aranea dromaderia Walckenaer, 1802: 191 (Df).
Aranea alboarcuata Panzer, 1804: 244, pl. 172, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira b. Walckenaer, 1805: 58.
Epeira dromaderia Walckenaer, 1805: 58.
Epeira furcata Walckenaer, 1826: pl. 9, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira lepechini Krynicki, 1837: 78 (Df).
Epeira melo Krynicki, 1837: 81 (Df).
Epeira dromaderia Walckenaer, 1842: 126 (Dm).
Epeira dromedaria C. L. Koch, 1844: 98, f. 906-907 (mf).
Epeira bicornis Menge, 1866: 66, pl. 10, f. 13 (m).
Epeira dromedaria Menge, 1879: 560, pl. 91, f. 322 (m).
Epeira dromedaria Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 129, pl. 5, f. 3 (mf).
Epeira dromedaria Becker, 1896: 14, pl. 3, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira ullrichi Bösenberg, 1901: 28, pl. 1, f. 10 (Dmf).
Epeira dromedaria O. P.-Cambridge, 1909a: 111, pl. A, f. 15-17 (f).
Araneus dromedarius Lessert, 1910b: 309.
Araneus bituberculatus Simon, 1929: 699, 765, f. 1088-1090 (mf).
Epeira dromedaria Reimoser, 1931b: 84, f. 1 (mf).
Aranea b. Wiehle, 1931: 61, f. 87-90 (mf).
Aranea b. Drensky, 1943: 241, f. 16 (mf).
G. b. Archer, 1951b: 4 (Tmf from Araneus).
G. dromedaria Archer, 1951c: 2, f. 3 (m).
Araneus bituberculatus Tullgren, 1952: 168, f. 13a-d (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Locket & Millidge, 1953: 123, f. 80A, 81A, 82A (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Yaginuma, 1969c: 81, f. 4-5 (f).
Araneus bituberculatus Tyschchenko, 1971: 194, f. 568 (m).
Araneus bituberculatus Miller, 1971: 208, pl. XXXIX, f. 1-2 (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Loksa, 1972: 76, f. 66A-E (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Bakhvalov, 1974: 112, f. 98, 100, 102 (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Palmgren, 1974a: 19, f. 8k-n (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Punda, 1975b: 32, f. 41-42 (f).
Araneus bituberculatus Yaginuma, Yamaguchi & Nishikawa, 1976: 826, f. 4-5 (f).
Araneus bituberculatus Tikader & Bal, 1981: 51, f. 111-144 (f).
Araneus bituberculatus Tikader, 1982a: 231, f. 448-451 (f).
G. b. Marusik, 1985b: 138 (S).
G. b. Roberts, 1985: 206, f. 92a (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Hu & Wu, 1989: 86, f. 63.1-4 (f).
G. b. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 82, f. 185 (mf).
G. b. Thaler, 1991b: 53, f. 31, 34-35 (m).
G. b. Roberts, 1995: 315, f. (mf).
Araneus bituberculatus Mcheidze, 1997: 268, f. 592-593 (m).
G. b. Yin et al., 1997: 304, f. 211a-d (f).
G. b. Levy, 1998a: 331, f. 80-87 (mf).
G. b. Roberts, 1998: 329, f. (mf).
G. b. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 169H-J, R (f).
G. b. Hu, 2001: 458, f. 300.1-3 (f).

f bituberculata cuculligera (Simon, 1909)....................Spain
Araneus dromedarius cucuiilger Simon, 1909b: 25 (Df).

f bituberculata strandiana (Kolosváry, 1936)....................Eastern Europe
Aranea b. s. Kolosváry, 1936: 97, f. 16 (Df).

mf gibbosa (Walckenaer, 1802)....................Europe to Azerbaijan
Aranea g. Walckenaer, 1802: 190 (Df).
Aranea bicornis Walckenaer, 1802: 190 (Df).
Epeira bicornis Walckenaer, 1805: 57.
Epeira g. Walckenaer, 1805: 57.
Epeira arbustorum C. L. Koch, 1837b: 3 (D).
Epeira bicornis Walckenaer, 1842: 124 (Dm).
Epeira bicornis C. L. Koch, 1844: 92, f. 902-903 (mf).
Epeira bicornis Blackwall, 1864a: 361, pl. 27, f. 260 (mf).
Epeira g. Simon, 1874a: 67 (m).
Epeira arbustorum Dahl, 1883: 28 (Dmf).
Epeira g. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 129, pl. 5, f. 2 (f).
Epeira g. Becker, 1896: 16, pl. 3, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira g. Bösenberg, 1901: 29, pl. 1, f. 11 (mf).
Araneus gibbosus Lessert, 1910b: 168.
Araneus gibbosus Simon, 1929: 698, 764, f. 1085-1086 (mf).
Aranea g. Wiehle, 1931: 67, f. 99-102 (mf).
Aranea g. Drensky, 1943: 241, f. 18 (mf).
G. g. Archer, 1951b: 4, f. 6 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus gibbosus Locket & Millidge, 1953: 124, f. 80B, 81B, 82B (mf).
Aranea g. Zamaraev, 1964: 355, f. 46-48 (f).
Araneus gibbosus Tyschchenko, 1971: 194, f. 573 (f).
Araneus gibbosus Miller, 1971: 208, pl. XXXIX, f. 21 (f).
Araneus gibbosus Loksa, 1972: 78, f. 67C (f).
G. g. Roberts, 1985: 206, f. 92b (mf).
G. g. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 82, f. 184 (mf).
G. g. Roberts, 1995: 315, f. (mf).
G. g. Roberts, 1998: 329, f. (mf).

mf gibbosa confinis (Simon, 1870)....................Spain, Corsica
Epeira c. Simon, 1870b: 307, pl. 3, f. 1 (Dmf).
Araneus gibbosus c. Simon, 1929: 698, 764.

m hetian (Hu & Wu, 1989)....................China
Araneus h. Hu & Wu, 1989: 88, f. 65.1-6 (Dm).
G. h. Marusik, 1992: 95 (Tm from Araneus).
Araneus h. Yin et al., 1997: 203, f. 121a-f (m).
G. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 169O-P, S (m).

f nanguosa Yin & Gong, 1996....................China
G. n. Yin & Gong, 1996: 74, f. 12-16 (Df).
G. n. Yin et al., 1997: 305, f. 212a-e (f).
G. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 169K-M, 170A (f).

mf occidentalis Wunderlich, 1989....................Azores
G. o. Wunderlich, 1989: 205, f. 1-9 (Dmf).
G. o. Wunderlich, 1992a: 367, f. 353-361 (mf).

mf omoeda (Thorell, 1870)....................Palearctic
Epeira bicornis Westring, 1851: 35 (D; preoccupied).
Epeira o. Thorell, 1870a: 19 (Dmf).
Epeira o. Hansen, 1882: 20, pl. 1, f. 35 (mf).
Epeira o. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 129, pl. 5, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira o. Bösenberg, 1901: 27, pl. 1, f. 9 (mf).
Araneus omoedus Lessert, 1910b: 310.
Araneus omoedus Simon, 1929: 699, 764, f. 1087-1088 (mf).
Aranea o. Wiehle, 1931: 66, f. 96-98 (mf).
Araneus omoedus Saito, 1934b: 328, pl. 13, f. 24 (f).
Aranea o. Drensky, 1943: 241, f. 18 (mf).
G. o. Archer, 1951b: 4 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus omoedus Tullgren, 1952: 168, f. 14a-b (f).
Araneus o. Yaginuma, 1957a: 55, f. 19 (f).
Araneus o. Saito, 1959: 88, f. 97a-d (f).
Araneus omoedus Tyschchenko, 1971: 194, f. 574 (f).
Araneus omoedus Miller, 1971: 208, pl. XXXIX, f. 20 (m).
Araneus omoedus Loksa, 1972: 78, f. 67A-B (mf).
Araneus omoedus Palmgren, 1974a: 19, f. 8f-j (mf).
G. o. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 84, f. 187 (mf).
G. o. Thaler, 1991b: 53, f. 32-33 (m).
G. o. Roberts, 1995: 316, f. (mf).
G. o. Roberts, 1998: 330, f. (mf).

f tenerifensis Wunderlich, 1992....................Canary Is.
G. t. Wunderlich, 1992a: 367, f. 362-367 (Df).

mf ullrichi (Hahn, 1835)....................Europe, Russia, Central Asia
Epeira ullrichii Hahn, 1835: 66, f. 159 (Dmf).
Epeira dromedaria C. L. Koch, 1844: 98, f. 906-907 (Dmf).
Epeira u. Simon, 1874a: 64.
Epeira u. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 129, pl. 5, f. 4 (mf).
Araneus u. Lessert, 1904: 363, pl. 5, f. 25 (f).
Araneus u. Kulczyn'ski, 1909b: 677, pl. 26, f. 19-20, 22 (m).
Araneus u. Kulczyn'ski, 1911a: 61, pl. 2 (f).
Araneus u. Simon, 1929: 699, 765, f. 1091 (mf).
Aranea u. Wiehle, 1931: 64, f. 91-95 (mf).
Aranea ulrichi Drensky, 1943: 241, f. 18 (mf).
G. u. Archer, 1951b: 4 (Tmf from Araneus).
Aranea u. Zamaraev, 1964: 356, f. 49-50 (f).
Araneus u. Azheganova, 1968: 79, f. 145, 163, 171 (mf).
Araneus u. Tyschchenko, 1971: 194, f. 569 (m).
Araneus u. Miller, 1971: 208, pl. XXXIX, f. 3-4 (mf).
Araneus u. Loksa, 1972: 77, f. 66F-H (mf).
Araneus u. Bakhvalov, 1974: 112, f. 99, 101, 103 (mf).
G. u. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 82, f. 186 (mf).
Araneus u. Mcheidze, 1997: 269, f. 594-596 (mf).

Gen. Glyptogona Simon, 1884

Transferred to other genera:
G. bufo Denis, 1941 -- see Araneus.
G. decemtuberculata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Enacrosoma.
G. fumosa (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.
G. gayi (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.
G. leprosa Simon, 1896 -- see Enacrosoma.
G. multilobata Simon, 1896 -- see Enacrosoma.
G. nicoleti Roewer, 1942 -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.
G. pennata (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.
G. sexlobata Simon, 1895 -- see Enacrosoma.
G. spissa (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.
G. umbrosa (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.
G. variabilis (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Phoroncidia under Theridiidae.

f duriuscula Simon, 1895....................Sri Lanka
G. d. Simon, 1895g: 159 (Df).

mf sextuberculata (Keyserling, 1863) *....................Italy to Israel
Epeira 6-tuberculata Keyserling, 1863: 381, pl. 10, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira tuberculata Canestrini & Pavesi, 1868: 796 (lapsus).
G. s. Simon, 1884j: 326.
G. s. Trani, 1905: 1, f. 1-2 (f, Dm).
G. s. Levi, 1996b: 152, f. 359-365 (mf).
G. s. Levy, 1998a: 315, f. 12-23 (mf).

Gen. Heterognatha Nicolet, 1849

N.B.: implicitly revalidated by Levi, 1991a: 177-180, after Archer, 1963; Levi's (1991) suggestion that this genus may belong to the Mimetidae was rejected by Platnick & Shadab, 1993: 9; possibly a close relative of the tropical species misplaced in Gnolus Simon, 1879 (to which the name Arcidius Simon, 1893 may apply).

In synonymy:
H. collusor Petrunkevitch, 1911 (T from Araneus) = H. margaritacea Nicolet, 1849 (Archer, 1963: 22, sub H. chilensis).

f margaritacea (Nicolet, 1849) *....................Chile
Heterognatha chilensis Nicolet, 1849: 470, pl. 5, f. 3 (Df; preoccupied by Nicolet, 1849 sub Epeira).
H. m. Nicolet, 1849: 471 (Df).
Araneus collusor Petrunkevitch, 1911: 285 (replacement name).
Araneus margaritaceus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 301.
H. chilensis Archer, 1963: 22 (Tf from Araneus, sub junior secondary homonym replaced before 1960, S).
H. m. Levi, 1991a: 180.

Gen. Heurodes Keyserling, 1886

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Araneus Clerck, 1757 by Archer, 1958: 14; apparently not a senior synonym of Eriovixia Archer, 1951 or Simonarachne Archer, 1951 (see note under Eriovixia).

j fratrellus (Chamberlin, 1924)....................China
Aranea fratrella Chamberlin, 1924a: 19 (Dj).
H. f. Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 36 (Tj from Araneus).
Araneus f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 242 (considered unidentifiable).

f porculus (Simon, 1877)....................Singapore, Philippines
Epeira porcula Simon, 1877b: 78, pl. 3, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira porcula Workman, 1896: 42, pl. 42 (f).
Eriovixia porcula Archer, 1951a: 18 (Tf from Araneus).
H. porcula Archer, 1958: 14, f. 35 (Tf from Eriovixia).

mf turritus Keyserling, 1886 *....................Tasmania
H. turrita Keyserling, 1886a: 116, pl. 9, f. 3 (Dj).
Araneus turrita Simon, 11895a: 820.
H. turrita Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 25 (Dmf).

Gen. Hingstepeira Levi, 1995

H. Levi, 1995b: 161, type Araneus folisecens (Hingston, 1932).

In synonymy:
H. bristowei (Mello-Leitão, 1940, T from Larinia) = H. folisecens (Hingston, 1932) (Levi, 1995b: 164).

f arnolisei Levi, 1995....................Brazil
H. a. Levi, 1995b: 165, f. 40-44 (Df).

f dimona Levi, 1995....................Brazil
H. d. Levi, 1995b: 166, f. 45-52 (Df).

mf folisecens (Hingston, 1932) *....................Brazil, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana
Epeira f. Hingston, 1932: 364 (Df).
Larinia bristowei Mello-Leitão, 1940c: 180, f. 6-7 (Dm).
H. f. Levi, 1995b: 164, f. 21-34 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

f isherton Levi, 1995....................Guyana
H. i. Levi, 1995b: 165, f. 35-39 (Df).

Gen. Homalopoltys Simon, 1895

f albidus Simon, 1895....................Sri Lanka
H. a. Simon, 1895a: 894 (Df).

f incanescens Simon, 1895 *....................Sri Lanka
H. i. Simon, 1895a: 893 (Df).

Gen. Hypognatha Guérin, 1839

In synonymy:
H. coccinellina (Taczanowski, 1879) = H. scutata (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1996b: 105).
H. decora (O. P.-Cambridge, 1877) = H. scutata (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1996b: 105).
H. geometrica (Taczanowski, 1879) = H. testudinaria (Taczanowski, 1879) (Levi, 1996b: 109).
H. prospiciens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1874) = H. scutata (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1996b: 105).

Nomina dubia:
H. cruciata Tullgren, 1905: 36, pl. 5, f. 13 (j, Bolivia) -- Levi, 1996b: 105.
H. squammosa (Simon, 1864: 293, f, Brazil, originally in Micrathena) -- Levi, 1996b: 105.

f alho Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. a. Levi, 1996b: 122, f. 175-178 (Df).

f belem Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. b. Levi, 1996b: 115, f. 131-133 (Df).

m cacau Levi, 1996....................Peru, Brazil
H. c. Levi, 1996b: 122, f. 179-182 (Dm).

mf cambara Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. c. Levi, 1996b: 114, f. 112-118 (Dmf).

m carpish Levi, 1996....................Peru
H. c. Levi, 1996b: 110, f. 92-94 (Dm).

mf colosso Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. c. Levi, 1996b: 126, f. 17-19, 216-224 (Dmf).

f coyo Levi, 1996....................Colombia
H. c. Levi, 1996b: 118, f. 162-164 (Df).

mf cryptocephala Mello-Leitão, 1947....................Brazil
H. c. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 246, f. 12 (Df).
H. c. Levi, 1996b: 99, f. 2-16 (f, Dm).

mf deplanata (Taczanowski, 1873)....................Brazil, French Guiana
Hypophthalma d. Taczanowski, 1873: 284, pl. 6, f. 32 (Df).
H. d. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 350.
H. d. Caporiacco, 1955: 359, f. 37a-b (Dm).
H. d. Levi, 1996b: 123, f. 196-207 (mf).

mf divuca Levi, 1996....................Peru
H. d. Levi, 1996b: 122, f. 183-189 (Dmf).

mf elaborata Chickering, 1953....................Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia
H. e. Chickering, 1953a: 2, f. 1-10 (Dmf).
H. e. Levi, 1996b: 116, f. 138-153 (mf).

m furcifera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1881)....................Brazil
Mutina f. O. P.-Cambridge, 1881d: 771, pl. 66, f. 4 (Dm).
H. f. Simon, 1895a: 872, f. 936-937 (m).
H. f. Levi, 1996b: 126, f. 225-228 (m).

mf ica Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. i. Levi, 1996b: 118, f. 154-161 (Dmf).

f ituara Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. i. Levi, 1996b: 110, f. 88-91 (Df).

m jacaze Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. j. Levi, 1996b: 128, f. 233-236 (Dm).

f janauari Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. j. Levi, 1996b: 116, f. 134-137 (Df).

mf lagoas Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. l. Levi, 1996b: 100, f. 24-30 (Dmf).

mf lamoka Levi, 1996....................Venezuela
H. l. Levi, 1996b: 104, f. 38-44 (Dmf).

f maranon Levi, 1996....................Peru
H. m. Levi, 1996b: 120, f. 165-167 (Df).

m maria Levi, 1996....................Peru
H. m. Levi, 1996b: 112, f. 103-105 (Dm).

mf matisia Levi, 1996....................Peru
H. m. Levi, 1996b: 114, f. 119-127 (Dmf).

f mirandaribeiroi Soares & Camargo, 1948....................Brazil
H. m. Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 371, f. 25-26 (Df).
H. mirandariberoi Brignoli, 1983c: 271 (lapsus).
H. m. Levi, 1996b: 110, 95-99 (f).

mf mozamba Levi, 1996....................Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil
H. m. Levi, 1996b: 100, f. 1, 31-37, 52-53 (Dmf).

mf nasuta O. P.-Cambridge, 1896....................Mexico
H. n. O. P.-Cambridge, 1896a: 222, pl. 27, f. 3-5 (Dmf).
H. n. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 540, pl. 51, f. 27-28 (mf).
H. n. Chickering, 1953a: 6, f. 11-15 (mf).
H. n. Levi, 1996b: 104, f. 45-51, 54-55 (mf).

mf navio Levi, 1996....................Venezuela, Brazil
H. n. Levi, 1996b: 108, f. 67-76 (Dmf).

f pereiroi Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. p. Levi, 1996b: 115, f. 128-130 (Df).

mf putumayo Levi, 1996....................Colombia, Ecuador
H. p. Levi, 1996b: 124, f. 208-215 (Dmf).

f rancho Levi, 1996....................Venezuela
H. r. Levi, 1996b: 123, f. 190-192 (Df).

f saut Levi, 1996....................French Guiana
H. s. Levi, 1996b: 108, f. 64-66 (Df).

mf scutata (Perty, 1833) *....................Trinidad to Argentina
Acrosoma scutatum Perty, 1833: 194, pl. 38, f. 7 (Df).
Gasteracantha feisthamelii Guérin, 1839: 110 (Df).
Eurysoma scutatum C. L. Koch, 1839a: 117, f. 517 (f).
Epeira s. Walckenaer, 1842: 148.
Eurycorma s. Thorell, 1868b: 4.
Calydna prospiciens O. P.-Cambridge, 1874c: 175, pl. 17, f. 3 (Dm).
Paraplectana decora O. P.-Cambridge, 1877c: 34, pl. 7, f. 8 (Df).
Eurysoma s. Keyserling, 1879: 293, pl. 4, f. 1 (f, Dm).
Hypophthalma coccinellina Taczanowski, 1879: 125, pl. 2, f. 37 (Dmf).
Paraplectana s. Keyserling, 1892: 2, pl. 1, f. 2 (mf).
H. s. Simon, 1895a: 874, f. 932-935 (mf).
H. decora Simon, 1895a: 874.
H. prospiciens Simon, 1895a: 874.
H. coccinellina Petrunkevitch, 1911: 350.
H. s. Levi, 1996b: 105, f. 56-63 (mf, S).

f solimoes Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. s. Levi, 1996b: 123, f. 193-195 (Df).

f tampo Levi, 1996....................Peru
H. t. Levi, 1996b: 99, f. 20-23 (Df).

mf testudinaria (Taczanowski, 1879)....................Peru
Hypophthalma t. Taczanowski, 1879: 128, pl. 2, f. 39 (Dmf).
Hypophthalma geometrica Taczanowski, 1879: 126, pl. 2, f. 38 (Dmf).
H. t. Simon, 1895a: 873.
H. geometrica Petrunkevitch, 1911: 350.
H. t. Levi, 1996b: 109, f. 77-87 (mf, S).

m tingo Levi, 1996....................Peru
H. t. Levi, 1996b: 112, f. 100-102 (Dm).

f tocantins Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. t. Levi, 1996b: 126, f. 229-232 (Df).

f triunfo Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. t. Levi, 1996b: 120, f. 168-170 (Df).

f utari Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. u. Levi, 1996b: 120, f. 171-174 (Df).

mf viamao Levi, 1996....................Brazil
H. v. Levi, 1996b: 112, f. 106-111 (Dmf).

Gen. Hypsacantha Dahl, 1914

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 by Emerit, 1973: 688, 1974: 29.

mf crucimaculata (Dahl, 1914) *....................Central, East, Southern Africa
Gasteracantha c. Dahl, 1914: 257, f. 4 (Df).
H. c. Dahl, 1914: 257.
Isoxya c. Benoit, 1962a: 31 (Tf from Gasteracantha).
H. c. Emerit, 1973: 688, f. 6-7, pl. IIF-G (Tf from Isoxya, Dm).

Gen. Hypsosinga Ausserer, 1871

N.B.: often considered a synonym of Singa C. L. Koch, 1836; for the orthography, see Levi, 1972a: 240.

Transferred to other genera:
H. henanensis Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991 -- see Araneus.

In synonymy:
H. aenea (Kroneberg, 1875, T from Singa) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Marusik, 1989b: 43).
H. affinis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876, T from Singa) = H. albovittata (Westring, 1851) (Levy, 1984: 127).
H. atra (Kulczyn'ski, 1885, T from Singa) = H. sanguinea (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1972a: 242).
H. attica (Simon, 1884, T from Singa) = H. albovittata (Westring, 1851) (Hadjissarantos, 1940: 70, sub Singa).
H. banksi (Petrunkevitch, 1911, T from Linyphia) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Levi, 1972a: 244, sub H. variabilis).
H. cubana (Banks, 1909, T from Singa) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Levi, 1972a: 244, sub H. variabilis).
H. distincta (Banks, 1892, T from Microneta) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Levi, 1972a: 242, sub H. variabilis).
H. hentzi (Banks, 1907, T from Singa) = H. rubens (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1972a: 250).
H. hilgendorfi (Karsch, 1879, T from Theridion) = H. sanguinea (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Ono, 1981c: 4).
H. itemvarians (Bonnet, 1955, T from Araneus) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Levi, 1972a: 244, sub H. variabilis).
H. laevisternis (Simon, 1909, T from Pronous) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Levi, 1995b: 169).
H. linyphiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906, T from Singa) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Yaginuma, 1962c: 32, sub Singa).
H. melania (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947, T from Singa) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Levi, 1972a: 244, sub H. variabilis).
H. modesta (Banks, 1896, T from Singa) = H. rubens (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1972a: 250).
H. nigripes (Keyserling, 1884, T from Singa) = H. rubens (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1972a: 250).
H. nigrofasciata (L. Koch, 1881, T from Singa) = H. albovittata (Westring, 1851) (Denis, 1952c: 1, sub Singa, after Simon, 1929).
H. orotes (Archer, 1951, T from Singa) = H. funebris (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1972a: 246, sub H. singaeformis).
H. singaeformis (Scheffer, 1904) = H. funebris (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1975b: 113).
H. theridiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906, T from Singa) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Yaginuma, 1962c: 32, sub Singa).
H. truncata (Banks, 1901, T from Singa) = H. rubens (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1972a: 250).
H. variabilis (Emerton, 1884) = H. pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Levi, 1975c: 273, but see Crawford, 1988: 9 for a dissenting opinion).

f alberta Levi, 1972....................Russia, Canada
H. a. Levi, 1972a: 254, f. 99-106 (Df).

mf alboria Yin et al., 1990....................China
H. a. Yin et al., 1990: 73, f. 181-187 (Dmf).
H. a. Yin et al., 1997: 307, f. 213a-g (mf).
H. a. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1713, f. 14a-c (m).
H. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 170B-C, I-J, 171A (mf).

mf albovittata (Westring, 1851)....................Europe, North Africa, Russia, Ukraine
Singa a. Westring, 1851: 36 (D).
Epeira calva Blackwall, 1852b: 99 (Df).
Singa a. Westring, 1861: 60 (Dmf).
Epeira calva Blackwall, 1864a: 365, pl. 27, f. 263 (f).
Singa a. Menge, 1866: 84, pl. 13, f. 23 (mf).
Hyposinga a. Ausserer, 1871b: 823.
Singa affinis O. P.-Cambridge, 1876b: 575 (Df).
Singa a. Menge, 1879: 558, pl. 91, f. 321 (mf).
Singa nigrofasciata L. Koch, 1882: 627, pl. 2, f. 2 (Df).
Singa attica Simon, 1884j: 329 (Df).
Singa a. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 135, pl. 5, f. 26 (mf).
Singa a. Becker, 1896: 45, pl. 10, f. 1 (mf).
Singa a. Bösenberg, 1901: 51, pl. 4, f. 44 (mf).
Araneus albovittatus Lessert, 1910b: 336.
Singa a. Wiehle, 1931: 46, f. 62-63 (mf).
Singa a. Hadjissarantos, 1940: 70 (S).
Singa a. Drensky, 1943: 232, f. 13 (mf).
Singa a. Denis, 1952c: 2 (S).
Singa a. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 154, f. 102A, 103A, 104A (mf).
Singa a. Holm, 1960a: 512, f. 3 (f).
Singa a. Zamaraev, 1964: 354, f. 31-33 (Tmf from Singa s. str.).
H. a. Azheganova, 1968: 86, f. 174-175, 184 (mf).
Singa a. Miller, 1971: 206, pl. XXXVIII, f. 8-9 (m).
Singa a. Loksa, 1972: 101, f. 92A-B, 94A (mf).
H. a. Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 27-29 (mf).
Singa a. Palmgren, 1974a: 11, f. 4a-c (mf).
H. a. Levy, 1984: 127, f. 42-56 (mf).
H. a. Roberts, 1985: 218, f. 98b (mf).
H. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 84, f. 188 (mf).
H. a. Roberts, 1995: 330, f. (mf).
H. a. Mcheidze, 1997: 257, f. 564-566 (mf).
H. a. Roberts, 1998: 343, f. (mf).

mf clax Oliger, 1993....................Russia
H. c. Oliger, 1993: 65, f. 1a-d, 2a (Dmf).

mf funebris (Keyserling, 1892)....................USA, Canada
Cercidia f. Keyserling, 1892: 37, pl. 2, f, 32 (Df).
Cercidia f. McCook, 1894: 216, pl. 19, f. 9-10 (f).
Araneus singaeformis Scheffer, 1904b: 259, pl. 17, f. 4-6 (Dm).
Singa schefferi Banks, 1910: 40 (replacement name for A. s., believed preoccupied by Epeira singaeformis Hasselt, 1882).
Araneus f. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 293.
Araneus schefferi Petrunkevitch, 1911: 314.
Singa orotes Archer, 1951a: 41, f. 36-37, 61 (Dmf).
H. singaeformis Levi, 1972a: 246, f. 58-71 (Tf from Singa, Sm).
Singa singaeformis Levi, 1972c: 191, f. 1-11 (mf).
H. f. Levi, 1975b: 113 (Tf from Cercidia, Sm).
H. singaeformis Kaston, 1977: 28, f. 20 (f).

mf groenlandica Simon, 1889....................USA, Canada, Greenland
H. g. Simon, 1889j: 290 (Df).
Aranea g. Strand, 1906a: 460.
Araneus groenlandicus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 295.
Singa (H.) g. Holm, 1960a: 512, f. 2 (Tf from Singa s. str.).
Singa g. Holm, 1967: 68, f. 86-87 (f).
H. g. Levi, 1972a: 254, f. 89-98 (f, Dm).

mf heri (Hahn, 1831)....................Palearctic
Epeira herii Hahn, 1831a: 8, f. 5 (Dmf).
Singa h. C. L. Koch, 1837b: 6.
Singa nigrifrons C. L. Koch, 1844: 153, f. 949 (Df).
Singa nigrifrons Menge, 1866: 85, pl. 13, f. L-N (Dm).
Hypsosinga nigrifrons Ausserer, 1871b: 823.
Cercidia pachyderma Simon, 1873c: 327, pl. 10, f. 1 (Df).
Singa h. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 135, pl. 5, f. 27 (mf).
Singa h. O. P.-Cambridge, 1893a: 160, f. 5 (m).
Singa h. Bösenberg, 1901: 51, pl. 4, f. 43 (mf).
Araneus h. Lessert, 1910b: 335.
Araneus h. Simon, 1929: 703, 705, 766, f. 1102-1103 (mf).
Singa h. Wiehle, 1931: 48, f. 66-68 (mf).
Singa h. Drensky, 1943: 232, f. 14 (mf).
Singa h. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 157, f. 103F, 105A-B (mf).
Singa (H.) h. Zamaraev, 1964: 354, f. 28-30 (Tmf from Singa s. str.).
H. h. Azheganova, 1968: 86, 176-177 (mf).
Singa h. Miller, 1971: 206, pl. XXXVIII, f. 12-13 (mf).
Singa h. Loksa, 1972: 102, f. 93A-B (mf).
H. h. Levy, 1984: 130, f. 72-77 (mf).
H. h. Roberts, 1985: 218, f. 98e (mf).
H. h. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 84, f. 189 (mf).
H. h. Almquist, 1994: 114, f. 10-15 (mf).
H. h. Roberts, 1995: 332, f. (mf).
H. h. Mcheidze, 1997: 258, f. 570-572 (mf).
H. h. Yin et al., 1997: 308, f. 214a-b (m).
H. h. Roberts, 1998: 344, f. (mf).
H. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 170D, K (mf).

mf lithyphantoides Caporiacco, 1947....................Uganda, Kenya
Hyposinga l. Caporiacco, 1947d: 164, f. 25 (Df).
Hyposinga l. Caporiacco, 1949a: 413, f. 54a-c (f, Dm).

mf lithyphantoides dealbata Caporiacco, 1949....................Kenya
Hyposinga l. dealbatas Caporiacco, 1949a: 414, f. 55 (Dmf).
H. l. d. Brignoli, 1983c: 271.

mf pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831)....................Holarctic
Theridion pygmaeum Sundevall, 1831: 14, 1832: 121 (Df).
Micryphantes anthracinus C. L. Koch, 1837b: 11 (D).
Phrurolithus trifasciatus C. L. Koch, 1839a: 116, f. 516 (Df).
Singa trifasciata C. L. Koch, 1844: 151, f. 948 (f).
Singa anthracina C. L. Koch, 1844: 154, f. 950 (Dm).
Epeira nigrifrons Westring, 1851: 36.
Epeira trifasciata Westring, 1851: 59.
Epeira anthracina Blackwall, 1864a: 357, pl. 26, f. 257 (m).
Epeira herii Blackwall, 1864a: pl. 27, f. 264 (misidentified).
Singa heerii Menge, 1866: 84, pl. 13, f. 23A (mf, misidentified).
Singa trifasciata Ohlert, 1867: 26 (Dm).
Singa p. Thorell, 1870a: 26.
Hyposinga p. Ausserer, 1871b: 823.
Singa abbreviata Karsch, 1873: 120, pl. 1, f. 1 (Dj).
Singa p. Simon, 1874a: 128.
Singa aenea Kroneberg, 1875: 5, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
Singa maculata Thorell, 1875a: 81 (Dmf).
Singa maculata Thorell, 1875c: 13 (Dmf).
Singa variabilis Emerton, 1884: 322, pl. 34, f. 16, pl. 37, f. 19-21 (Dmf).
Singa grammica Simon, 1884j: 328 (Df).
Singa p. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 135, pl. 5, f. 28 (mf).
Microneta distincta Banks, 1892a: 48, pl. 2, f. 53 (Dm).
Singa variabilis McCook, 1894: 233, pl. 20, f. 11-13, pl. 19, f. 7 (mf).
Singa p. Becker, 1896: 46, pl. 10, f. 2 (mf).
Singa p. Bösenberg, 1901: 53, pl. 4, f. 46 (mf).
Singa variabilis Emerton, 1902: 187, f. 436 (mf).
Araneus p. Lessert, 1910b: 337.
Aranea (Singa) theridiformis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 236, pl. 4, f. 35, pl. 15, f. 400 (Dmf).
Aranea (Singa) linyphiformis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 237, pl. 15, f. 421 (Df).
Linyphia bicolor Banks, 1906b: 97 (Dmf; preoccupied by Nicolet, 1849).
Pronous laevisternis Simon, 1909e: 113 (Df).
Singa cubana Banks, 1909b: 157, pl. 45, f. 8 (Df).
Linyphia banksi Petrunkevitch, 1911: 246 (replacement name for Linyphia bicolor).
Araneus varians Petrunkevitch, 1911: 323 (replacement name for Singa variabilis).
Microneta distincta Banks, 1916: 77, pl. 10, f. 1 (m).
Singa p. Wiehle, 1931: 47, f. 64-65 (mf).
Singa p. Drensky, 1943: 232, f. 13 (mf).
Singa melania Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947b: 64 (Dj).
Singa variabilis Kaston, 1948: 240, f. 760-765 (mf).
Singa p. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 155, f. 102C, 103B, 104B (mf).
Araneus itemvarians Bonnet, 1955: 523 (replacement name for Araneus varians Petrunkevitch, 1911, preoccupied).
Singa p. Yaginuma, 1960: 59, f. 57 (f).
Singa p. Yaginuma, 1962c: 32 (S).
Singa pygmea Namkung, 1964: 39, f. 29 (f).
Singa (H.) p. Zamaraev, 1964: 354, f. 34-36 (Tmf from Singa s. str.).
Singa p. Yaginuma, 1965b: 363, f. 3.2 (f).
H. p. Azheganova, 1968: 87, f. 185-186 (mf).
Singa p. Chu & Okuma, 1970: 70, f. 2A-B (mf).
Singa p. Yaginuma, 1971: 59, f. 57 (f).
Singa p. Miller, 1971: 206, pl. XXXVIII, f. 6-7 (m).
Singa p. Loksa, 1972: 101, f. 92C-D, 94B (mf).
H. variabilis Levi, 1972a: 242, f. 44-57 (Tmf from Singa, S).
H. p. Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 24, 26, 30 (mf).
Singa p. Palmgren, 1974a: 11, f. 4d-f (mf).
H. p. Levi, 1975c: 273, f. 21 (f, S).
Singa p. Yin, 1978: 6, f. 16A-E (mf).
Singa p. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 48, f. 31 (f).
Singa p. Song, 1980: 108, f. 53a-e (mf).
Singa p. Qiu, 1981: 17, f. 8A-D (mf).
Singa p. Wang, 1981: 104, f. 46A-C (mf).
H. p. Levy, 1984: 129, f. 57-71 (mf).
Singa p. Hu, 1984: 130, f. 131.1-4 (mf).
H. p. Roberts, 1985: 218, f. 98c (mf).
Singa p. Guo, 1985: 72, f. 2-25.1-3 (mf).
Singa p. Zhu et al., 1985: 87, f. 75a-e (mf).
H. p. Yaginuma, 1986a: 107, f. 57.2 (f).
Singa p. Song, 1987: 177, f. 137 (mf).
H. p. Zhang, 1987: 80, f. 63.1-4 (mf).
H. p. Marusik, 1989b: 43 (S).
Singa p. Hu & Wu, 1989: 108, f. 83.1-3 (mf).
H. p. Feng, 1990: 100, f. 75.1-4 (mf).
Singa p. Chen & Gao, 1990: 71, f. 90a-b (mf).
Singa p. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 108, f. 102.1-5 (mf).
H. p. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 84, f. 190 (mf).
H. p. Okuma et al., 1993: 25, f. 21A-B (mf).
Singa p. Zhao, 1993: 260, f. 122a-c (mf).
H. p. Roberts, 1995: 331, f. (mf).
H. p. Levi, 1995b: 169 (S).
H. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 611, f. 383a-c (f).
H. pigmaea Mcheidze, 1997: 257, f. 567-569 (mf).
H. p. Yin et al., 1997: 309, f. 215a-f (mf).
H. p. Roberts, 1998: 343, f. (mf).
H. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 282, f. 170E-F, N, 171B (mf).
H. p. Hu, 2001: 460, f. 302.1-3 (mf).
H. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 207, f. 124A-D (mf).

f pygmaea nigra (Simon, 1909)....................Vietnam
Pronous laevisternis niger Simon, 1909e: 113 (Df).

f pygmaea nigriceps (Kulczyn'ski, 1903)....................Turkey
Aranea p. n. Kulczyn'ski, 1903b: 649 (Df).

mf rubens (Hentz, 1847)....................USA, Canada
Epeira r. Hentz, 1847: 477, pl. 31, f. 18 (Df).
Singa maculata Emerton, 1884: 323, pl. 37, f. 18 (Dmf; preoccupied by Thorell, 1875).
Singa nigripes Keyserling, 1884b: 655, pl. 21, f. 7 (Df).
Singa maculata Keyserling, 1892: 285, pl. 14, f. 210 (f).
Singa nigripes Keyserling, 1893: 290, pl. 15, f. 214 (f).
Singa nigripes McCook, 1894: 232, pl. 19, f. 5-6 (f, Dm).
Singa maculata McCook, 1894: 235, pl. 19, f. 9 (f).
Singa modesta Banks, 1896e: 70 (Df).
Singa truncata Banks, 1901c: 188 (replacement name for Singa maculata).
Singa hentzi Banks, 1907: 740, f. 20 (Df).
Araneus hentzi Petrunkevitch, 1911: 296.
Araneus modestus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 304.
Araneus nigripes Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
Araneus r. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 313.
Araneus tusus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 321 (superfluous replacement name).
Singa r. Archer, 1940: 38, pl. II, f. 3 (Tf from Araneus).
Singa truncata Kaston, 1948: 241, f. 746, 766 (mf).
H. r. Levi, 1972a: 248, f. 72-88 (Tmf from Singa, S).
H. r. Breene et al., 1993: 107, f. 165A-C (mf).

mf sanguinea (C. L. Koch, 1844) *....................Palearctic
Singa s. C. L. Koch, 1844: 155, f. 951 (Df).
Epeira s. O. P.-Cambridge, 1873b: 552 (Dm).
Theridion hilgendorfi Karsch, 1879g: 63, pl. 1, f. 2 (Dm).
Singa atra Kulczyn'ski, 1885: 23, pl. 9, f. 6 (Df).
Singa s. Bösenberg, 1901: 52, pl. 4, f. 45 (mf).
Theridion hilgendorfi Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 148, pl. 15, f. 401 (Df).
Araneus sanguineus Simon, 1929: 703, 707, 767.
Singa s. Wiehle, 1931: 49, f. 69-70 (mf).
Singa s. Nakatsudi, 1942b: 12, f. 3B-C (f).
Singa s. Drensky, 1943: 232, f. 14 (mf).
Singa s. Tullgren, 1952: 162, f. 8a-b (m).
Singa s. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 155, f. 103D-E, 104C (mf).
Singa s. Yaginuma, 1960: 59, f. 57 (f).
Singa s. Paik, 1962: 76, f. 4 (f).
Singa (H.) s. Zamaraev, 1964: 354, f. 37-39 (Tmf from Singa s. str.).
Singa s. Yaginuma, 1965b: 363, f. 3.3 (f).
H. s. Azheganova, 1968: 87, f. 178, 187 (mf).
Singa s. Yaginuma, 1971: 59, f. 57 (f).
Singa s. Miller, 1971: 206, pl. XXXVIII, f. 10-11 (mf).
Singa s. Loksa, 1972: 103, f. 93C-D (mf).
H. s. Izmailova, 1972c: 55, f. 6 (f).
H. s. Levi, 1972a: 242, f. 35-43 (mf, S).
Singa s. Palmgren, 1974a: 11, f. 3h-l (mf).
H. s. Ono, 1981c: 4, f. 2 (Sm).
Singa s. Hu, 1984: 130, f. 132.1-3 (mf).
H. s. Roberts, 1985: 218, f. 98d (mf).
Singa s. Guo, 1985: 72, f. 2-26.1-2 (f).
H. s. Zhu et al., 1985: 77, f. 65a-f (mf).
H. s. Yaginuma, 1986a: 107, f. 57.3 (f).
H. s. Song, 1987: 169, f. 129 (f).
H. s. Zhang, 1987: 81, f. 64.1-3 (mf).
H. s. Chikuni, 1989b: 76, f. 42 (mf).
H. s. Feng, 1990: 99, f. 74.1-3 (mf).
H. s. Chen & Gao, 1990: 72, f. 91a-b (mf).
H. s. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 109, f. 103.1-3 (f).
H. s. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 84, f. 191 (mf).
H. s. Oliger, 1993: 65, f. 2b-c (m).
H. s. Zhao, 1993: 237, f. 110a-c (mf).
H. s. Roberts, 1995: 331, f. (mf).
H. s. Mcheidze, 1997: 258, f. 573-574 (mf).
H. s. Yin et al., 1997: 310, f. 216a-f (mf).
H. s. Roberts, 1998: 344, f. (mf).
H. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 170G-H, L-M, 171C (mf).
H. s. Hu, 2001: 460, f. 301.1-2 (f).
H. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 208, f. 125A-F (mf).

mf taprobanica (Simon, 1895)....................Sri Lanka
Pronous taprobanicus Simon, 1895a: 863, f. 952 (Dmf).
H. t. Levi, 1995b: 169 (Tmf from Pronous).

mf turkmenica Bakhvalov, 1978....................Turkmenistan
Hyposinga t. Bakhvalov, 1978: 792, f. 8-12 (Dmf).

f vaulogeri (Simon, 1909)....................Vietnam
Araneus (H.) v. Simon, 1909e: 110 (Df).

m wanica Song, Qian & Gao, 1996....................China
H. w. Song, Qian & Gao, in Song et al., 1996: 106, f. 2A-C (Dm).
H. w. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 170O-P (m).

Gen. Ideocaira Simon, 1903

f transversa Simon, 1903 *....................South Africa
I. t. Simon, 1903d: 26 (Df).

f triquetra Simon, 1903....................South Africa
I. t. Simon, 1903d: 27 (Df).

Gen. Isoxya Simon, 1885

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 by Benoit, 1962a: 14; not a senior synonym of Afracantha Dahl, 1914, Hypsacantha Dahl, 1914 or Togacantha Dahl, 1914 (Emerit, 1974: 28-31, contra Benoit, 1962a: 14).

Transferred to other genera:
I. camerunensis (Thorell, 1899) -- see Afracantha.
I. crucimaculata (Dahl, 1914) -- see Hypsacantha.
I. galeata Simon, 1887 -- see Aetrocantha.
I. nordviei (Strand, 1913) -- see Togacantha.

In synonymy:
I. rogersi (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879, removed from S of I. testudinaria) = I. semiflava Simon, 1887 (Benoit, 1962a: 29).
I. testudinaria benina (Strand, 1913, T from Gasteracantha) = I. testudinaria (Simon, 1901) (Benoit, 1962a: 31).
I. tuberifera (Dahl, 1914, T from Gasteracantha) = I. cicatricosa (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Benoit, 1962a: 38).

mf basilewskyi Benoit & Emerit, 1975....................Rwanda, Congo
I. b. Benoit & Emerit, 1975: 324, f. 4-6 (Dmf).

mf cicatricosa (C. L. Koch, 1844) *....................Central, East, Southern Africa
Gasteracantha c. C. L. Koch, 1844: 54, f. 877 (Df).
Isacantha hildebrandti Karsch, 1878b: 313, pl. 8, f. 3 (Df).
Gasteracantha wealii O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 290, pl. 27, f. 20 (Df).
Gasteracantha proba O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 291, pl. 27, f. 22 (Df).
Gasteracantha pygmaea Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895: 47, pl. 2, f. 29 (Dm).
Gasteracantha sanguinipes Strand, 1906b: 625 (Df).
Gasteracantha hildebrandti Strand, 1908g: 433 (Dm).
Gasteracantha c. Dahl, 1914: 256.
Gasteracantha tubifera Dahl, 1914: 256, f. 18 (Df).
I. c. Benoit, 1962a: 38, f. 25bis (Tmf from Gasteracantha, S).
I. c. Emerit, 1973: 676, f. 2A-C, pl. IA, C (m).
I. c. Benoit & Emerit, 1975: 327, f. 8a-b (m).

mf cowani (Butler, 1882)....................Madagascar
Gasteracantha c. Butler, 1882b: 766, pl. 57, f. 5 (Dm).
Gasteracantha c. Dahl, 1914: 255 (Df).
I. c. Emerit, 1974: 49, f. 7A, 11, 12A-C, 16A (Tmf from Gasteracantha).

mf mahafalensis Emerit, 1974....................Madagascar
I. m. Emerit, 1974: 43, f. 7C, 8, 9A-C, 10A-C, 16B (Dmf).

f milloti Emerit, 1974....................Madagascar
I. m. Emerit, 1974: 55, f. 15, 16C (Df).

f mossamedensis Benoit, 1962....................Angola
I. m. Benoit, 1962a: 24, f. 17 (Df).

mf mucronata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Central, Southern Africa
Plectana m. Walckenaer, 1842: 156 (Df).
Gasteracantha tuberosa Thorell, 1859: 303 (Df).
Stanneoclavis tuberosa Karsch, 1879a: 330.
Gasteracantha purpurea Simon, 1884k: 19, pl. 1, f. 9 (Df).
Gasteracantha m. Dahl, 1914: 255.
I. m. Benoit, 1962a: 27, f. 20 (Tf from Gasteracantha).
I. m. Emerit, 1982b: 160, pl. 1C, f. 2 (Dm).

f nigromutica (Caporiacco, 1939)....................East Africa
Gasteracantha n. Caporiacco, 1939a: 348 (Df).
I. m. Benoit, 1962a: 66 (Tf from Gasteracantha).

mf penizoides Simon, 1887....................West, Central, East Africa
Isoxia p. Simon, 1887a: 269 (Df).
Gasteracantha p. Simon, 1895a: 843, f. 892 (f).
Plectana p. Thorell, 1899: 64.
Gasteracantha p. Simon, 1907d: 302 (Dm).
I. p. Benoit, 1962a: 20 (Tmf from Gasteracantha).
I. p. Emerit, 1982b: 162, pl. 1B.

f reuteri (Lenz, 1886)....................Madagascar
Gasteracantha r. Lenz, 1886: 382, pl. 10, f. 3 (Df).
G. maculosa Lenz, 1886: 383, pl. 10, f. 4 (f).
I. r. Dahl, 1914: 255.
I. r. Benoit, 1962d: 373 (Tf from Gasteracantha).
I. r. Emerit, 1974: 51, f. 7B, 13, 14A-C, 16D (f).

f semiflava Simon, 1887....................West, Central Africa
Isoxia s. Simon, 1887a: 268, pl. 6, f. 2 (Df).
I. s. Simon, 1895a: 843, f. 893 (f).
Gasteracantha rogersi O. P.-Cambridge, 1879c: 292, pl. 27, f. 23 (Dm).
I. s. Benoit, 1962a: 29, f. 22 (removed f from S of I. mucronata, S).

f somalica (Caporiacco, 1940)....................Somalia
Gasteracantha s. Caporiacco, 1940c: 773, f. 2 (Df).
I. s. Benoit, 1962a: 67 (Tf from Gasteracantha).

f stuhlmanni (Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895)....................Central, East, Southern Africa
Gasteracantha s. Bösenberg & Lenz, 1895: 48, pl. 2, f. 30 (Df).
I. s. Benoit, 1962a: 34, f. 25 (Tf from Gasteracantha).

mf tabulata (Thorell, 1859)....................Central, East, Southern Africa
Gasteracantha t. Thorell, 1859: 303 (Df).
Gasteracantha modesta Thorell, 1859: 303 (Dm).
Isoxia t. Pavesi, 1895a: 497.
Gasteracantha cicatrella Strand, 1907a: 537 (Df).
Gasteracantha kibonotensis Tullgren, 1910: 169 (Df).
Gasteracantha momboensis Tullgren, 1910: 170 (Df).
Gasteracantha t. Dahl, 1914: 255, f. 8 (f).
Gasteracantha t. Lawrence, 1937: 234, f. 11 (mf).
I. t. Benoit, 1962a: 36 (Tmf from Gasteracantha).
I. t. Emerit, 1973: 680, f. 3A-C, pl. IE-G (m).
I. t. Benoit & Emerit, 1975: 327, f. 7a-b (m).

mf testudinaria (Simon, 1901)....................West, Central, East Africa
Gasteracantha t. Simon, 1901d: 20 (Df).
Gasteracantha t. benina Strand, 1913a: 385 (Df).
I. t. Benoit, 1962a: 31, f. 23 (Tmf from Gasteracantha, S).
I. t. Emerit, 1982b: 163, pl. 1D.

f yatesi Emerit, 1973....................South Africa
I. y. Emerit, 1973: 683, f. 4 (Df).

Gen. Kaira O. P.-Cambridge, 1889

N.B.: original spelling as above, not Caira; considered a senior synonym of Pronarachne Mello-Leitão, 1937 and Macpos Mello-Leitão, 1940a: 59, type M. monstrosus Mello-Leitão, 1940 by Levi, 1977b: 214, and of Haliger Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 180, type H. corniferus Mello-Leitão, 1943, transferred from the Theridiosomatidae, by Levi, 1993c: 210.

Transferred to other genera:
K. dromedaria O. P.-Cambridge, 1893 -- see Pozonia.
K. granadensis Mello-Leitão, 1941 -- see Pozonia.

In synonymy:
K. aries (Mello-Leitão, 1937) = K. altiventer O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1977b: 218).
K. cornifera (Mello-Leitão, 1943) = K. altiventer O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1993c: 214).
K. minutissima (Mello-Leitão, 1941) = K. gibberosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1890 (Levi, 1993c: 216).
K. obtusa Keyserling, 1892 = K. gibberosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1890 (Levi, 1993c: 216).
K. spinosa Simon, 1896 = K. altiventer O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 (Levi, 1977b: 218).

Nomina dubia:
K. capra Simon, 1896b: 479, f, Paraguay -- Levi, 1993c: 214.
K. monstrosa (Mello-Leitão, 1940a: 59, f. 6a-b, f, Brazil, originally in Macpos) -- Levi, 1993c: 216.

mf alba (Hentz, 1850)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira a. Hentz, 1850: 30, pl. 3, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira leucogaster Marx, 1890: 546.
K. a. Keyserling, 1892: 64, pl. 3, f. 50 (f).
K. a. McCook, 1894: 202, pl. 12, f. 3 (f).
K. a. Levi, 1977b: 216, f. 117-129 (f, Dm).
K. a. Levi, 1993c: 216, f. 1-2, 23-28 (mf).
K. a. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 374, f. 16 (m).

mf altiventer O. P.-Cambridge, 1889....................USA to Brazil
K. a. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 56, pl. 8, f. 13 (Df).
K. a. Keyserling, 1892: 62, pl. 3, f. 48 (f).
Caira spinosa Simon, 1897b: 478 (Df).
K. a. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 522, pl. 51, f. 10 (f).
Pronarachne aries Mello-Leitão, 1937a: 9, f. 10 (Df).
Haliger corniferus Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 180, f. 18 (Df).
K. a. Levi, 1977b: 218, f. 130-137 (f, Dm, S).
K. a. Levi, 1993c: 213, f. 3-22 (mf, S).

f candidissima (Mello-Leitão, 1941)....................Argentina
Macpos candidissimus Mello-Leitão, 1941f: 212, f. 18-19 (Df).
K. c. Brignoli, 1983c: 271.
K. c. Levi, 1993c: 221, f. 66-69 (f).

mf cobimcha Levi, 1993....................Brazil
K. c. Levi, 1993c: 223, f. 86-92 (Dmf).

f conica Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1948....................Brazil, Argentina
K. c. Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1948: 11, f. 11-13 (Df).
K. c. Levi, 1993c: 221, f. 70-74 (f).

f dianae Levi, 1993....................Peru
K. d. Levi, 1993c: 221, f. 61-65 (Df).

mf echinus (Simon, 1897)....................Brazil, Argentina
Caira e. Simon, 1897b: 479 (Df).
K. e. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 352.
K. e. Levi, 1993c: 222, f. 75-81 (f, Dm).

m electa (Keyserling, 1883)....................Brazil
Epeira e. Keyserling, 1883a: 196, pl. 15, f. 2 (Dmf).
Epeira e. Keyserling, 1893: 250, pl. 12, f. 186 (m).
Araneus electus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 290.
K. e. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tm from Araneus).

f erwini Levi, 1993....................Peru
K. e. Levi, 1993c: 220, f. 52-56 (Df).

mf gibberosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1890 *....................Mexico to Brazil
K. g. O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 57, pl. 3, f. 12 (Df).
K. g. Keyserling, 1892: 63, pl. 3, f. 49 (f).
K. obtusa Keyserling, 1892: 66, pl. 3, f. 51 (Dj).
K. g. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 522, pl. 51, f. 9 (f).
Wagneriana minutissima Mello-Leitão, 1941c: 250 (Df).
K. minutissima Levi, 1991b: 373 (Tf from Wagneriana).
K. g. Levi, 1993c: 216, f. 29-47 (f, Sm).

mf hiteae Levi, 1977....................USA
K. h. Levi, 1977b: 220, f. 138-140 (Dm).
K. h. Levi, 1993c: 222, f. 82-85 (Df).

f levii Alayón, 1993....................Cuba
K. l. Alayón, 1993e: 2, f. 1A-D (Df).

f sabino Levi, 1977....................USA
K. s. Levi, 1977b: 221, f. 141-147 (Df).

mf sexta (Chamberlin, 1916)....................Guatemala to Brazil
Aranea s. Chamberlin, 1916: 255, pl. 19, f. 7 (Df).
Araneus s. Levi, 1991a: 259, f. 339-342 (Dmf; N.B.: Chamberlin's f is juvenile).
K. s. Levi, 1993c: 24 (Tmf from Araneus).

f shinguito Levi, 1993....................Peru
K. s. Levi, 1993c: 220, f. 57-60 (Df).

f tulua Levi, 1993....................Colombia
K. t. Levi, 1993c: 220, f. 48-51 (Df).

Gen. Kapogea Levi, 1997

K. Levi, 1997: 239, type Cyrtophora sellata Simon, 1895.

In synonymy:
K. franganilloides (Brignoli, 1983, T from Araneus) = K. sellata (Simon, 1895) (Levi, 1997: 242).
K. nympha (Simon, 1895, T from Cyrtophora) = K. sexnotata (Simon, 1895) (Levi, 1997: 249).
K. setospinosa (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936, T from Araneus) = K. cyrtophoroides (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904) (Levi, 1997: 244, contra Levi, 1991a: 178m sub Cyrtophora nympha).

mf alayoi (Archer, 1958)....................Greater Antilles, Panama to Argentina
Cyrtophora a. Archer, 1958: 9, f. 14-16 (Dm).
K. a. Levi, 1997: 246, f. 133-139 (Tm from Cyrtophora, Df).

mf cyrtophoroides (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904)....................Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
Aranea c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 518, pl. 51, f. 4 (Df).
Araneus c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 288.
Araneus setospinosus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 48, pl. 14, f. 124 (Df).
K. c. Levi, 1997: 244, f. 123-132 (removed f from S of Cyrtophora nympha, contra Levi, 1991a: 178, Dm).

mf sellata (Simon, 1895) *....................Greater Antilles, Costa Rica to Argentina
Cyrtophora s. Simon, 1895g: 155 (Df).
Cyrtophora s. Blanke, 1976b: 125, f. 1a-c, 2a-e (f, Dm).
Araneus rugosus Franganillo, 1936c: 75, f. 33 (Df; preoccupied by Badcock, 1932).
A. franganilloides Brignoli, 1983c: 262 (replacement name for A. rugosus Franganillo).
K. s. Levi, 1997: 243, f. 107-122 (Tmf from Cyrtophora, S).

mf sexnotata (Simon, 1895)....................Venezuela to Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
Cyrtophora s. Simon, 1895g: 155 (Df).
Cyrtophora nympha Simon, 1895g: 156 (Dj).
Cyrtophora nympha Levi, 1991a: 178 (S, rejected).
K. s. Levi, 1997: 249, f. 140-147 (Tf from Cyrtophora, Dm, S).

Gen. Kilima Grasshoff, 1970

K. Grasshoff, 1970a: 122, type Larinia decens (Blackwall, 1866).

In synonymy:
K. mitis (Pavesi, 1897, T from Larinia) = K. decens (Blackwall, 1866) (Grasshoff, 1970a: 123).
K. simillima (Lessert, 1915, T from Larinia) = K. griseovariegata (Tullgren, 1910) (Grasshoff, 1970a: 124).

mf conspersa Grasshoff, 1970....................Congo
K. c. Grasshoff, 1970a: 127, f. 1e-f, 4a-d, 6a-c, 8c, 11 (Dmf; N.B.: omitted by Brignoli).

mf decens (Blackwall, 1866) *....................Central, East, Southern Africa, Seychelles
Epeira d. Blackwall, 1866: 461 (Dj).
Larinia mitis Pavesi, 1897b: 163 (Df).
Larinia d. Tullgren, 1910: 160, pl. 4, f. 102 (Dmf).
K. d. Grasshoff, 1970a: 122, f. 1a-d, 2a-c, 5a-c, 8a-b, 9 (Tmf from Larinia, S).

mf griseovariegata (Tullgren, 1910)....................Central, East Africa
Larinia g. Tullgren, 1910: 161, pl. 4, f. 105 (Dmf).
Larinia simillima Lessert, 1915a: 28, pl. 2, f. 27-29 (Dmf).
K. g. Grasshoff, 1970a: 124, f. 3a-d, 7a-c, 8d, 10 (Tmf from Larinia, S).

Gen. Larinia Simon, 1874

N.B.: Tanikawa (1989) and Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger (1991), following Levi (1975b) and Marusik (1986b), rejected the conclusions of Grasshoff (1970a, b, c, 1971a), who separated these species into about 10 genera; as none of the regional reports have analyzed Grasshoff's conclusions on a worldwide basis, and workers such as Levy (1986) have supported some of Grasshoff's results, only those subsequent generic synonymies that have been listed in detail (such as the synonymy of Drexelia McCook, 1892 by Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 243, after Levi, 1975b: 102) are followed here.

Transferred to other genera:
L. albosigillata Mello-Leitão, 1947 -- see Araneus.
L. argiopiformis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 -- see Lariniaria.
L. atomaria (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) -- see Siwa.
L. badiana Roewer, 1961 -- see Araneus.
L. bartelsi Lessert, 1933 -- see Paralarinia.
L. bristowei Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see Hingstepeira.
L. coamensis Petrunkevitch, 1930 -- see Metazygia.
L. decens (Blackwall, 1866) -- see Kilima.
L. delicata Rainbow, 1920 -- see Lipocrea.
L. denisi Lessert, 1938 -- see Paralarinia.
L. diluta (Thorell, 1887) -- see Lipocrea.
L. dufouri Simon, 1874 -- see Siwa.
L. eburneiventris Simon, 1908 -- see Araneus.
L. epeiroides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Lipocrea.
L. faradjensis Lessert, 1930 -- see Faradja.
L. fasciata Thorell, 1899 -- see Lipocrea.
L. forata Keyserling, 1893 -- see Araneus.
L. fusiformis (Thorell, 1877) -- see Lipocrea.
L. griseovariegata Tullgren, 1910 -- see Kilima.
L. hewitti Lessert, 1930 -- see Mahembea.
L. incerta Tullgren, 1910 -- see Paralarinia.
L. latro (Fabricius, 1775) -- see Alpaida.
L. longissima Simon, 1881 -- see Lipocrea.
L. lutescens Thorell, 1898 -- see Lipocrea.
L. maulliniana Mello-Leitão, 1951 -- see Zygiella.
L. melanosticta Thorell, 1891 -- see Lipocrea.
L. mitis Pavesi, 1897 -- see Kilima.
L. montagui Hogg, 1914 -- see Lariniaria.
L. mundula (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metazygia.
L. mundulella (Strand, 1915) -- see Metazygia.
L. nigrofoliata Keyserling, 1884 -- see Araneus.
L. nigrolimbata Simon, 1909 -- see Lipocrea.
L. nobilis Mello-Leitão, 1944 -- see Araneus.
L. ovata Denis, 1947 -- see Siwa.
L. peltiventris Strand, 1913 -- see Paralarinia.
L. punctifera Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 -- see Lariniaria.
L. pura Simon, 1907 -- see Araneus.
L. quadrinotata Simon, 1889 -- see Lipocrea.
L. quinquepunctata Tullgren, 1910 -- see Lipocrea.
L. quinquepunctata concolor Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Lipocrea.
L. rubroguttulata Keyserling, 1879 -- see Eustala.
L. scriba (Mello-Leitão, 1940) -- see Alpaida.
L. silvestris Bryant, 1942 -- see Metazygia.
L. simillima Lessert, 1915 -- see Kilima.
L. tabida (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Lipocrea.
L. tibelloides Lessert, 1930 -- see Lipocrea.
L. vicina Kulczyn'ski, 1911 -- see Lipocrea.
L. viriosa (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metazygia.

In synonymy:
L. albigera Yin et al., 1990 (N.B.: f only, m=Lariniaria argiopiformis) = L. phthisica (L. Koch, 1871) (Yin, 1994: 135).
L. albonigra Franganillo, 1931 = L. directa (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1975b: 106).
L. albotaeniata Simon, 1906 = L. acuticauda Simon, 1906 (Grasshoff, 1970b: 217, sub Drexelia).
L. antarctica Simon, 1905 = L. bivittata Keyserling, 1885 (Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 256).
L. bellona Banks, 1898 = L. directa (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1975b: 106).
L. camerunica (Strand, 1908) = L. acuticauda Simon, 1906 (Grasshoff, 1971a: 94, sub Drexelia).
L. chhagani Patel, 1975 = L. phthisica (L. Koch, 1871) (Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 44).
L. cymotympa Chamberlin, 1924 = L. directa (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1975b: 106).
L. flavescens Simon, 1882 = L. chloris (Audouin, 1826) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 222).
L. lintearia (Keyserling, 1893, T from Mangora) = L. bivittata Keyserling, 1885 (Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 256).
L. mormon (Keyserling, 1892, T from Araneus) = L. famulatoria (Keyserling, 1883) (Levi, 1975b: 110).
L. nenilini Marusik, 1986 = L. phthisica (L. Koch, 1871) (Yin et al., 1997: 321).
L. nigrovittata Mello-Leitão, 1947 = L. directa (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1975b: 106).
L. octopunctata (Caporiacco, 1955) = L. directa (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1975b: 106).
L. punctipedana Strand, 1913 = L. bifida Tullgren, 1910 (Grasshoff, 1970b: 217, sub Drexelia).
L. shandongensis Yin et al., 1990 = L. sekiguchii Tanikawa, 1989 (Yin, 1994: 135).
L. turcmenica Spassky, 1939 = L. pubiventris Simon, 1889 (Marusik, 1986b: 247).

mf acuticauda Simon, 1906....................West Africa to Israel
L. a. Simon, 1906a: 1164 (Df).
L. albotaeniata Simon, 1906a: 1164 (Df).
Drexelia camerunica Strand, 1908e: 269 (Df).
Drexelia a. Grasshoff, 1970b: 217 (Tf from Larinia, S).
Drexelia a. Grasshoff, 1971a: 94, f. 46a-e (mf, S).
Drexelia a. Levy, 1986: 8, f. 40-49 (mf).

mf ambo Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991....................Ecuador, Peru
L. a. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 257, f. 26-31 (Dmf).

f assimilis Tullgren, 1910....................East Africa
L. a. Tullgren, 1910: 161, pl. 4, f. 106 (Df).
Drexelia a. Grasshoff, 1971a: 90, f. 41a-d (Tf from Larinia).

m astrigera Yin et al., 1990....................China
L. a. Yin et al., 1990: 78, f. 195-198 (Dm).
L. a. Yin et al., 1997: 314, f. 218a-d (m).
L. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171T-U (m).

f bifida Tullgren, 1910....................Central, East, Southern Africa
L. b. Tullgren, 1910: 160, pl. 4, f. 103 (Df; not m, =Paralarinia incerta).
L. punctipedana Strand, 1913a: 369 (Df; not m, =Paralarinia incerta).
Drexelia b. Grasshoff, 1970b: 217 (Tf from Larinia, not m, =Paralarinia incerta, S).
Drexelia b. Grasshoff, 1971a: 88, f. 30b, 38a-c (f).

mf bivittata Keyserling, 1885....................Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile
L. b. Keyserling, 1885: 526, pl. 13, f. 25 (Df).
Epeira lintearia Keyserling, 1893: 236, pl. 11, f. 176 (Df).
L. b. Keyserling, 1893: 293, pl. 15, f. 217 (f).
Mangora lintearia Simon, 1895a: 791.
L. antarctica Simon, 1905e: 10 (Df).
Araneus antarctica Grasshoff, 1970b: 217 (Tf from Larinia, rejected).
L. b. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 256, f. 20-25 (f, Dm, S).

f blandula (Grasshoff, 1971)....................West Africa
Drexelia b. Grasshoff, 1971a: 85, f. 35a-d (Df).

mf bonneti Spassky, 1939....................Austria, Russia, Georgia, Japan
L. b. Spassky, 1939b: 304, f. 4-5, 7 (Dmf).
L. b. Marusik, 1986a: 21, f. 2.1-4 (mf).
L. b. Marusik, 1986b: 250, f. 17-21 (mf).
L. b. Tanikawa, 2000b: 205, f. 1-4 (mf).

mf borealis Banks, 1894....................North America
L. b. Banks, 1894a: 8 (D).
L. b. McCook, 1894: 247, pl. 22, f. 1-2 (mf).
L. b. Kaston, 1948: 228, f. 732-733 (f).
L. b. Archer, 1951b: 27, f. 46 (m).
Drexelia b. Grasshoff, 1971a: 89, f. 40a-d (Tmf from Larinia).
L. b. Levi, 1975b: 108, f. 13-21, 32, 35, 42-44 (mf).
L. b. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 375, f. 20 (m).

mf bossae Marusik, 1986....................Russia
L. b. Marusik, 1986b: 252, f. 25-29 (Dmf).

mf chloris (Audouin, 1826)....................Middle East to Mozambique, India
Epeira c. Audouin, 1826: 347, pl. 3, f. 5 (Dm).
L. flavescens Simon, 1882b: 233 (Dj).
L. chloreis Denis, 1947a: 46, pl. II, f. 6 (f).
L. c. Grasshoff, 1970b: 222, f. 7a-d, 8a-d, 9a (mf, S).
L. c. Grasshoff, 1973b: 148, f. 11 (mf).
L. c. Tikader, 1982a: 206, f. 404-407 (mf).
L. c. Levy, 1986: 5, f. 18-27 (mf).

mf cyclera Yin et al., 1990....................China
L. c. Yin et al., 1990: 80, f. 199-205 (Dmf).
L. c. Yin, 1994: 135 (Tm to Lipocrea fusiformis, subsequently rejected).
L. c. Yin et al., 1997: 315, f. 219a-g (mf).
L. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171D-E, V-W, 172K (mf).

f dasia (Roberts, 1983)....................Aldabra
Drexelia d. Roberts, 1983: 262, f. 160-161 (Df).

mf dinanea Yin et al., 1990....................China
L. d. Yin et al., 1990: 82, f. 206-212 (Dmf).
L. d. Yin et al., 1997: 316, f. 220a-g (mf).
L. d. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171F-G, 172A-B, L (mf).

mf directa (Hentz, 1847)....................USA to Brazil
Epeira d. Hentz, 1847: 478, pl. 31, f. 21 (Df).
Epeira rubella Hentz, 1847: 478, pl. 31, f. 22 (Df).
Epeira tetragnathoides O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 16 (D).
Epeira intercisa O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 18, pl. 5, f. 11 (Dm).
Drexelia d. McCook, 1892: 127.
Epeira deludens Keyserling, 1893: 261, pl. 13, f. 19 (Dmf).
Drexelia d. McCook, 1894: 249, pl. 6, f. 10-11, pl. 22, f. 3 (f).
Larinia d. Banks, 1894a: 8.
L. bellona Banks, 1898b: 257, pl. 15, f. 6 (Dmf).
Larinia d. Emerton, 1902: 182, f. 424-427 (mf).
Drexelia d. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 461, pl. 43, f. 12-13 (mf).
Drexelia bellona F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 461.
L. cymotypa Chamberlin, 1924b: 649, f. 93 (Df).
L. albonigra Franganillo, 1931: 44, f. 23 (Dmf).
L. albonigra Franganillo, 1936c: 81, f. 38 (m).
Metazygia albonigra Bryant, 1940: 339, f. 107-109, 111 (Tmf from Larinia, based on misidentified Metazygia zilloides, rejected).
L. nigrovittata Mello-Leitão, 1947c: 12, f. 26-27 (Dm).
L. d. Archer, 1951b: 27, f. 44 (m).
Drexelia octopunctata Caporiacco, 1955: 349, f. 32 (Df).
Araneus albonigra Grasshoff, 1970b: 217 (Tmf from Larinia, rejected).
Drexelia d. Grasshoff, 1971a: 93, f. 45a-d (mf).
L. d. Levi, 1975b: 105, f. 1-12, 31, 34, 37-41 (mf, S).
L. d. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 249, f. 1-5 (mf).

mf elegans Spassky, 1939....................Russia, China
L. e. Spassky, 1939b: 302, f. 3 (Df).
L. e. Spassky, 1940: 361, f. 12-13 (Dm).
L. e. Marusik, 1986a: 22, f. 3.1-4 (mf).
L. e. Marusik, 1986b: 248, f. 11-16 (mf).
L. e. Song, Zhou & Chen, 1992: 9, f. 1A-F (mf).
L. e. Yin et al., 1997: 318, f. 221a-f (mf).
L. e. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171H-I, 172C-D (mf).

mf famulatoria (Keyserling, 1883)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira f. Keyserling, 1883a: 201, pl. 15, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira mormon Keyserling, 1892: 182, pl. 9, f. 134 (Df).
Epeira f. Keyserling, 1893: 231, pl. 11, f. 172 (f).
Epeira mormon McCook, 1894: 164, pl. 6, f. 5 (f).
Aranea mormon F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 517, pl. 51, f. 1 (f).
L. f. Banks, 1910: 38.
Araneus mormon Petrunkevitch, 1911: 304.
L. f. Levi, 1975b: 110, f. 22-30, 33, 36, 45-46 (f, Dm, S).

m ishango (Grasshoff, 1971)....................Congo
Drexelia i. Grasshoff, 1971a: 92, f. 44a-b (Dm).

f jaysankari Biswas, 1984....................India
L. j. Biswas, 1984b: 133, f. 1-3 (Df).

mf jeskovi Marusik, 1986....................Eastern Europe to Japan
L. j. Marusik, 1986b: 253, f. 30-34 (Dmf).
L. j. Tanikawa, 1989: 44, f. 34-40 (mf).
L. j. Kupryjanowicz, 1995a: 78, f. 1-13 (mf).

f kampala (Grasshoff, 1971)....................Uganda
Drexelia k. Grasshoff, 1971a: 91, f. 43a-b (Df).

f kanpurae Patel & Nigam, 1994....................India
L. k. Patel & Nigam, 1994: 201, f. 1a-d (Df).

f lampa Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991....................Peru, Bolivia
L. l. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 252, f. 6-9 (Df).

mf lineata (Lucas, 1846) *....................Western Mediterranean
Epeira l. Lucas, 1846: 248, pl. 15, f. 5 (Df).
L. l. Simon, 1895a: 795, f. 848, 855 (f, Dm).
Araneus lineatus Simon, 1929: 692, 762, f. 1069-1071 (mf).
L. l. Grasshoff, 1970b: 221, f. 6a-e (mf).
L. l. Grasshoff, 1973b: 148, f. 11 (mf).
L. l. Barrientos, Morano & Ferrández, 1983: 286, f. 1A-C (f).

f macrohooda Yin et al., 1990....................China
L. m. Yin et al., 1990: 84, f. 213-217 (Df).
L. m. Yin et al., 1997: 319, f. 222a-f (f).
L. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171J-K, 172M (f).

f microhooda Yin et al., 1990....................China
L. m. Yin et al., 1990: 86, f. 218-220 (Df).
L. m. Yin et al., 1997: 320, f. 223a-c (f).
L. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171L-M, 172N ((f).

f minor (Bryant, 1945)....................Hispaniola
Drexelia m. Bryant, 1945a: 367, f. 10 (Df).
L. m. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 254, f. 16-19 (f).

mf montecarlo (Levi, 1988)....................Brazil, Argentina
Alpaida m. Levi, 1988: 414, f. 172-174 (Df).
L. m. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 260, f. 43-48 (Tf from Alpaida, Dm).

f natalensis (Grasshoff, 1971)....................South Africa
Drexelia n. Grasshoff, 1971a: 87, f. 36a-d (Df).

f neblina Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991....................Venezuela
L. n. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 258, f. 32-35 (Df).

m nolabelia Yin et al., 1990....................China
L. n. Yin et al., 1990: 88, f. 223-226 (Dm).
L. n. Yin et al., 1997: 320, f. 224a-d (m).
L. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 172E-F, O (m).

f obtusa (Grasshoff, 1971)....................Congo
Drexelia o. Grasshoff, 1971a: 87, f. 37a-e (Df).

mf onoi Tanikawa, 1989....................Japan
L. o. Tanikawa, 1989: 40, f. 22-27 (Dmf).

m parangmata Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
L. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 617, f. 388a-f (Dm).

mf phthisica (L. Koch, 1871)....................Asia, Japan, Philippines, Australia
Epeira p. L. Koch, 1871: 103, pl. 8, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira p. Keyserling, 1887a: 171, pl. 14, f. 6 (Dm).
L. p. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 205, f. 42-45 (f).
L. p. Grasshoff, 1970b: 224, f. 7a-e, 8f-i (mf).
L. p. Grasshoff, 1973b: 148, f. 11 (f).
L. chhagani Patel, 1975a: 113, f. 5-8 (Dmf).
L. phtisica Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 44, f. 72-73 (f, S).
L. phtisica Tikader, 1982a: 208, f. 408-410 (f).
L. nenilini Marusik, 1986b: 246, f. 1-5 (Dmf).
L. p. Tanikawa, 1989: 36, f. 15-21 (mf).
L. albigera Yin et al., 1990: 76, f. 188-194 (Df; m=Lariniaria argiopiformis).
L. nenilini Song, Zhou & Chen, 1992: 10, f. 2A-F (mf).
L. p. Okuma et al., 1993: 23, f. 18, 20A-B (f).
L. p. Yin, 1994: 135 (S, Tm of L. triprovina).
L. p. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 614, f. 386a-e, 387a-l (mf).
L. p. Zhu & Zhang, 1993: 37, f. 8-13 (mf).
L. p. Yin et al., 1997: 321, f. 225a-f (mf, S).
L. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171N-O. 172G-H, P (mf).

f pubiventris Simon, 1889....................Central Asia
L. p. Simon, 1889l: 381 (Df).
L. turkmenica Spassky, 1939b: 307, f. 6 (Df).
Araneus p. Grasshoff, 1970b: 218 (Tf from Larinia).
L. p. Marusik, 1986b: 247, f. 6-10 (Tf from Araneus, S).

mf sekiguchii Tanikawa, 1989....................Russia, China, Japan
L. s. Tanikawa, 1989: 42, f. 28-33 (Dmf).
L. shandongensis Yin et al., 1990: 87, f. 221-222 (Df).
L. s. Yin, 1994: 135 (S).
L. s. Yin et al., 1997: 322, f. 226a-c (f).
L. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 291, f. 171P-Q, 172Q (f).
L. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 210, f. 126A-C (f).

j strandi Caporiacco, 1941....................Ethiopia
L. s. Caporiacco, 1941b: 87 (Dj).

f tamatave (Grasshoff, 1971)....................Madagascar
Drexelia t. Grasshoff, 1971a: 91, f. 42a-d (Df).

mf t-notata (Tullgren, 1905)....................Brazil, Argentina
Chrysometa T-notata Tullgren, 1905: 28, pl. 3, f. 8 (Df).
L. T-notata Levi, 1986a: 102 (Tf from Chrysometa).
L. t. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 259, f. 36-42 (f, Dm).

mf trifida Tullgren, 1910....................Central, East Africa
L. t. Tullgren, 1910: 161, pl. 4, f. 104 (Dm).
L. t. Lessert, 1930: 635, f. 13 (Df).
Drexelia t. Grasshoff, 1971a: 84, f. 30a, 33a-g (Tmf from Larinia).

f triprovina Yin et al., 1990....................China
L. t. Yin et al., 1990: 90, f. 227-233 (Dmf).
L. t. Yin, 1994: 135 (Tm to L. phthisica).
L. t. Yin et al., 1997: 323, f. 227a-d (f).
L. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 171R-S, 172R (f).

mf tucuman Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991....................Argentina
L. t. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 253, f. 10-15 (Dmf).

mf tyloridia Patel, 1975....................India
L. t. Patel, 1975a: 111, f. 1-4 (Df).
L. t. Patel & Reddy, 1990c: 161, f. 12-16 (f, Dm).

m vara Kauri, 1950....................South Africa
L. v. Kauri, 1950: 9, f. 7 (Dm).

m wenshanensis Yin & Yan, 1994....................China
L. w. Yin & Yan, in Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 108, f. 22-26 (Dm).
L. w. Yin et al., 1997: 324, f. 228a-e (m).
L. w. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 172I-J, S (m).

Gen. Lariniaria Grasshoff, 1970

L. Grasshoff, 1970c: 420, type Larinia argiopiformis Bösenberg & Strand, 1906; see note under Larinia.

In synonymy:
L. montagui (Hogg, 1914, T from Larinia) = L. argiopiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 217).
L. punctifera (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906, T from Larinia) = L. argiopiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) (Yaginuma, 1962c: 30, sub Larinia).

mf argiopiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) *....................Russia, China, Korea, Japan
Larinia a. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 212, pl. 15, f. 423 (Df).
Larinia punctifera Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 212, pl. 4, f. 32, pl. 11, f. 203 (Dmf).
Larinia montagui Hogg, 1914b: 75, pl. 1, f. 4 (Df).
Larinia a. Nakatsudi, 1942a: 307, f. 15-21 (f).
Larinia a. Saito, 1959: 101, f. 121a-c (f).
Larinia punctifera Saito, 1959: 101, f. 122a-d (f).
Larinia a. Yaginuma, 1960: 60, f. 59 (f).
Larinia a. Yaginuma, 1962c: 30 (Sm).
L. a. Grasshoff, 1970b: 217 (Tmf from Larinia, S).
L. a. Grasshoff, 1970c: 421, f. 29a-e (mf).
Larinia a. Yaginuma, 1971: 60, f. 59 (f).
Larinia a. Yin, 1978: 6, f. 15A-C (f).
Larinia a. Paik & Namkung, 1979: 45, f. 26.1-2 (mf).
Larinia a. Song, 1980: 107, f. 52a-c (f).
Larinia a. Wang, 1981: 103, f. 45A-C (f).
Larinia a. Hu, 1984: 117, f. 116.1-2 (mf).
Larinia a. Guo, 1985: 66, f. 2-19.1-3 (mf).
Larinia a. Zhu et al., 1985: 78, f. 66a-b (f).
Larinia a. Yaginuma, 1986a: 115, f. 60.1 (f).
Larinia a. Marusik, 1986b: 251, f. 22-24 (f).
Larinia a. Zhang, 1987: 81, f. 65.1-3 (f).
Larinia a. Tanikawa, 1989: 33, f. 1-7 (mf).
Larinia a. Chikuni, 1989b: 87, f. 79 (mf).
Larinia a. Feng, 1990: 87, f. 62.1-5 (mf).
Larinia a. Chen & Gao, 1990: 63, f. 77a-d (mf).
Larinia albigera Yin et al., 1990: 76, f. 188-194 (m only, misidentified).
Larinia a. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 107, f. 100.1-3 (mf).
Larinia a. Zhao, 1993: 239, f. 112a-b (f).
Larinia a. Yin, 1994: 135 (Tm of Larinia albigera Yin et al., 1990).
Larinia a. Yin et al., 1997: 313, f. 217a-f (mf).
L. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 172T, 173A-D (mf).
Larinia a. Hu, 2001: 461, f. 277.1-2 (mf).

Gen. Larinioides Caporiacco, 1934

In synonymy:
L. cornutus orientalis (Fage, 1921) = L. suspicax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) (Levy, 1998a: 347).
L. dernae Caporiacco, 1934 = L. suspicax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) (Grasshoff, 1983: 226, sub L. folium).
L. dumetorum (Fourcroy, 1785, T from Araneus) = L. patagiatus (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
L. foliatus (Fourcroy, 1785, T from Araneus) = L. cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
L. ithaca (McCook, 1894, T from Araneus) = L. patagiatus (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1974b: 309).
L. lyrata (Fischer-Waldheim, 1830, T from Araneus) = L. cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Mikhailov, 1997c: 119).
L. oviger (Panzer, 1804, T from Araneus) = L. sclopetarius (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
L. potanini (Simon, 1895, T from Araneus) = L. patagiatus (Clerck, 1757) (Marusik, 1989b: 43).
L. tricolor (Fischer-Waldheim, 1830, T from Araneus) = L. cornutus (Clerck, 1757) (Mikhailov, 1997c: 119).

Nomina dubia:
L. folium (Schrank, 1803: 240, f, Mediterranean) -- Levy, 1998a: 345, contra Thaler, 1974b: 257.
L. gracilis (Menge, 1879: 558, Germany, originally in Epeira, T from Araneus) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1482; Prószyn'ski & Starega, 1971: 85, sub Cyphepeira.

f chabarovi (Bakhvalov, 1981)....................Russia
Araneus c. Bakhvalov, 1981b: 143, f. 2 (Df).
L. c. Marusik, 1989b: 43 (Tf from Araneus).

mf cornutus (Clerck, 1757)....................Holarctic
Araneus c. Clerck, 1757: 39, pl. 1, f. 11 (Df).
Aranea leuwenhoekii Scopoli, 1763: 394 (Df).
Aranea foliata Fourcroy, 1785: 533 (Df).
Aranea apoclisa Walckenaer, 1802: 195 (in part).
Epeira marmorata Risso, 1826: 169 (D).
Epeira lyrata Fischer-Waldheim, 1830: pl. 7i-k (D).
Epeira tricolor Fischer-Waldheim, 1830: pl. 7n-o (D).
Epeira apoclisa Sundevall, 1833a: 243 (mf).
Epeira apoclisa Hahn, 1834: 30, f. 116 (mf).
Epeira arundinacea C. L. Koch, 1835: 131, pl. 18, 20 (mf).
Epeira apoclisa americana Walckenaer, 1842: 61, 502 (D).
Epeira foliosa Walckenaer, 1842: 66 (Df).
Epeira foliata C. L. Koch, 1844: 119, f. 920-921 (mf).
Epeira arundinacea C. L. Koch, 1844: 109, f. 913 (Dm).
Epeira affinis Blackwall, 1846a: 77 (Df).
Epeira strix Hentz, 1847: 473, pl. 31, f. 5 (Df).
Epeira tectorum Bremi-Wolff, 1849: 1-16 (Dmf).
Epeira cornuta Westring, 1851: 34.
Epeira cornuta Westring, 1861: 34 (m).
Epeira foliata Keyserling, 1864: 92, pl. 7, f. 10-11.
Epeira apoclysa Blackwall, 1864a: 325, pl. 23, f. 237 (mf).
Epeira cornuta Menge, 1866: 58, pl. 8, f. 8 (mf).
Epeira cornuta Simon, 1874a: 108, pl. 1, f. 17 (mf).
Epeira strix Emerton, 1884: 305, pl. 33, f. 5, pl. 35, f. 12 (f, Dm).
Epeira vicaria Kulczyn'ski, 1885: 21, pl. 9, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira cornuta Kulczyn'ski, 1885: 21, pl. 9, f. 5 (f).
Epeira cornuta Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 133, pl. 5, f. 9 (mf).
Epeira cornuta McCook, 1894: 140, pl. 1, f. 9-11 (mf).
Epeira cornuta Becker, 1896: 34, pl. 7, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira cornuta Bösenberg, 1901: 35, pl. 2, f. 21 (mf).
Epeira strix Emerton, 1902: 160, f. 385 (f).
Epeira cornuta Kulczyn'ski, 1908b: 44, pl. 2, f. 64 (f).
Epeira vicaria Grese, 1909: 326, pl. 7, f. 1-2 (Dm).
Epeira cornuta inermis Franganillo, 1925: 33 (D).
Aranea foliata Reimoser, 1928: 105, f. 2 (mf).
Araneus c. Simon, 1929: 686, 759, f. 1048, 1061-1063 (mf).
Aranea foliata Wiehle, 1931: 86, f. 124-127 (mf).
Aranea frondosa Comstock, 1940: 114, 501, f. 104-106, 513-515 (mf).
Aranea foliata Muma, 1943: 85, pl. XIII, f. 15 (f).
Aranea foliata Drensky, 1943: 242, f. 27 (mf).
Epeira foliata Kaston, 1948: 254, f. 787, 803, 812 (mf).
Araneus c. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 134, f. 88A, 89B, 90C (mf).
Araneus c. Braendegaard, 1958: 36, f. 26-27 (mf).
Cyphepeira cornuta Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 41.
Araneus c. Saito, 1959: 85, f. 90a-h (mf).
Aranea foliata Zamaraev, 1964: 361, f. 91-93 (mf).
Araneus c. Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 600 (f).
Araneus c. Miller, 1971: 212, pl. XL, f. 7-8 (mf).
Araneus c. Loksa, 1972: 91, f. 81A-C, 82F, 83A-B (mf).
Araneus c. Izmailova, 1972c: 54, f. 5 (f).
Araneus foliatus Bakhvalov, 1974: 110, f. 58, 62, 65 (mf).
Araneus c. Thaler, 1974b: 257, f. 3-4, 6, 8, 11 (mf).
Nuctenea cornuta Levi, 1974b: 306, f. 61-62, 67-76, 94, 97-98, 110-111, 118-119, 126 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus c. Palmgren, 1974a: 25, f. 9e, 11a-e (mf).
Araneus c. Yin, 1978: 2, f. 2A-d (mf).
Nuctenea cornuta Paik, 1978e: 98, f. 14-15 (m).
Nuctenea cornuta Paik & Namkung, 1979: 45, f. 27.1-2 (mf).
Aranea cornuta Song, 1980: 93, f. 39a-d (mf).
L. cornuta Grasshoff, 1983: 227 (Tmf from Nuctenea).
Araneus c. Hu, 1984: 89, f. 81.1-2 (mf).
L. c. Roberts, 1985: 212, f. 95a (mf).
Araneus c. Guo, 1985: 53, f. 1-21, 2-9.1-3 (mf).
Araneus c. Zhu et al., 1985: 70, f. 57a-f (mf).
L. c. Yaginuma, 1986a: 98, f. 52.3 (f).
Araneus c. Song, 1987: 161, f. 121 (mf).
Araneus c. Zhang, 1987: 64, f. 29, 47.1-4 (mf).
Araneus c. Chikuni, 1989b: 67, f. 17 (mf).
Araneus c. Feng, 1990: 54, f. 29.1-3 (mf).
Araneus c. Chen & Gao, 1990: 43, f. 45a-b (mf).
Araneus c. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 86, f. 76.1-3 (mf).
L. c. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 86, f. 192 (mf).
Nuctenea cornuta Herreros, 1991: 210, f. 4A-D (mf).
Araneus c. Zhao, 1993: 225, f. 103a-e (mf).
L. c. Roberts, 1995: 321, f. (mf).
L. c. Agnarsson, 1996: 63, f. 49A-C (mf).
Araneus cornutus Mcheidze, 1997: 276, f. 626-627 (f).
L. cornuta Yin et al., 1997: 325, f. 229a-e (mf).
L. c. Mikhailov, 1997c: 119 (S).
L. c. Levy, 1998a: 345, f. 135-143 (mf).
L. c. Roberts, 1998: 334, f. (mf).
L. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 13A, 173E, L (mf).
L. cornuta Hu, 2001: 462, f. 303.3-4 (mf, lapsus).
L. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 211, f. 127A-D (mf).

mf ixobolus (Thorell, 1873)....................Palearctic
Epeira umbratica Menge, 1866: 55, pl. 6, f. 6 (m, misidentified)
Epeira ixobola Thorell, 1873: 545 (Dm).
Epeira ixobola Simon, 1874a: 106 (Df).
Epeira umbratica Menge, 1879: 556, pl. 91, f. 319 (m, misidentified).
Epeira ixobola Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 133, pl. 5, f. 8 (mf).
Epeira ixobola Bösenberg, 1901: 34, pl. 2, f. 20 (mf).
Aranea ixobola Wiehle, 193: 92, f. 134-137 (mf).
Araneus multiplicatus Rosca, 1935: 241, f. 1-2 (Df).
Araneus multiplicatus Rosca, 1936a: 197, f. 6 (f).
Araneus ixobola Drensky, 1939a: 87.
Aranea ixobola Drensky, 1943: 243, f. 28 (mf).
Aranea ixobola Zamaraev, 1964: 361, f. 94-96 (mf).
Araneus i. Tyschchenko, 1971: 200, f. 597 (f).
Araneus i. Miller, 1971: 213, pl. XL, f. 15, 22 (mf).
Araneus i. Loksa, 1972: 93, f. 82B-C, 84A (mf).
Araneus i. Bakhvalov, 1974: 110, f. 53-56 (mf).
Nuctenea ixobola Levi, 1974b: 312, f. 89-92, 95, 109, 116-117, 129 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus i. Palmgren, 1974a: 27, f. 9i, 12i-k (mf).
L. ixobola Grasshoff, 1983: 227 (Tmf from Nuctenea).
Araneus ixobolatus Zhu et al., 1985: 74, f. 61a-c (m).
Araneus ixobolatus Zhang, 1987: 68, f. 50.1-3 (m).
Araneus i. Hu & Wu, 1989: 89, f. 66.1-3 (f).
Araneus i. Izmailova, 1989: 55, f. 39 (f).
L. i. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 86, f. 196 (mf).
L. i. Horak & Kropf, 1992: 167, f. 1b, 2b, d, f (m).
L. ixobola Yin et al., 1997: 327, f. 230a-c (f).
L. i. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 173F-G, M (f).

mf patagiatus (Clerck, 1757)....................Holarctic
Araneus p. Clerck, 1757: 38, pl. 1, f. 10 (Df).
Araneus ocellatus Clerck, 1757: 36, pl. 1, f. 9 (Df).
Aranea dumetorum Fourcroy, 1785: 534 (D).
Aranea dumetorum Villers, 1789: 126 (Df).
Aranea lacera Olivier, 1789: 201 (Df).
Aranea picta Razoumowsky, 1789: 242 (Df).
Aranea nigro-fasciata Razoumowsky, 1789: 247 (Df).
Aranea apoclysa Walckenaer, 1802: 195 (in part, var. 3).
Epeira apoclysa Dufour, 1831: 364, pl. 11, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira dumetorum Hahn, 1834: 31, f. 117 (mf).
Epeira nauseosa C. L. Koch, 1834: 123, pl. 20 (Df).
Epeira munda C. L. Koch, 1836b: 134, pl. 4 (Df).
Epeira patagiata C. L. Koch, 1844: 115, f. 916-919 (f, Dm).
Epeira nauseosa C. L. Koch, 1844: 120, f. 922-923 (f).
Epeira patagiata Blackwall, 1864a: 329, pl. 24, f. 239 (mf).
Epeira formosa Keyserling, 1865: 828, pl. 19, f. 17-18 (Df).
Epeira patagiata Menge, 1866: 60, pl. 8, f. 9 (mf).
Epeira silvicultrix Ohlert, 1867: 25 (Dmf).
Epeira patagiata Thorell, 1870a: 16.
Epeira hilaris O. P.-Cambridge, 1881b: 113 (Df).
Epeira patagiata Emerton, 1884: 305, pl. 33, f. 3, pl. 35, f. 11 (f).
Epeira patagiata Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 133, pl. 5, f. 10 (mf).
Epeira patagiata Emerton, 1894: 404, pl. 1, f. 3 (f).
Epeira patagiata McCook, 1894: 138, pl. 1, f. 11, pl. 3, f. 8-9 (mf).
Epeira ithaca McCook, 1894: 152, pl.4, f. 3 (Dmf).
Araneus potanini Simon, 1895c: 336 (Df).
Epeira patagiata Becker, 1896: 36, pl. 8, f. 3 (mf).
Epeira patagiata Bösenberg, 1901: 36, pl. 2, f. 22 (mf).
Epeira patagiata Emerton, 1902: 160, f. 384 (mf).
Araneus ithaca Petrunkevitch, 1911: 298.
Araneus ocellatus Simon, 1929: 684, 700, f. 1055-1057 (mf).
Aranea dumetorum Wiehle, 1931: 88, f. 128-129 (mf).
Aranea ocellata Comstock, 1940: 114, 503, f. 107, 517-518 (mf).
Aranea dumetorum Drensky, 1943: 243, f. 27 (mf).
Epeira dumetorum Kaston, 1948: 255, f. 788, 804, 813 (mf).
Araneus p. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 136, f. 89C, 90B (mf).
Araneus p. Braendegaard, 1958: 38, f. 28-29 (mf).
Cyphepeira patagiata Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 41.
Araneus p. Saito, 1959: 88, f. 98a-d (f).
Araneus p. Yaginuma, 1960: 58, f. 49 (f).
Araneus p. Beer, 1964: 528, f. 8 (f; N.B.: listed as A. ocellatus in heading but A. p. in legend).
Aranea patagiata Zamaraev, 1964: 360, f. 85-87 (mf).
Araneus ocellatus Azheganova, 1968: 78, f. 157-158 (mf).
Araneus p. Yaginuma, 1971: 58, f. 49 (f).
Araneus ocellatus Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 599 (f).
Araneus ocellatus Miller, 1971: 212, pl. XL, f. 13-14 (mf).
Araneus ocellatus Loksa, 1972: 90, f. 82A, 83C (mf).
Araneus ocellatus Izmailova, 1972c: 51, f. 3 (f).
Araneus p. Bakhvalov, 1974: 110, f. 57, 60 (f).
Nuctenea patagiata Levi, 1974b: 309, f. 77-84, 96, 100-102, 107, 112-113, 120-123, 127 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
Araneus p. Palmgren, 1974a: 27, f. 9f, 11f-j (mf).
Cyphepeira patagiata Punda, 1975b: 40, f. 69-70 (f).
L. patagiata Grasshoff, 1983: 227 (Tmf from Nuctenea).
L. p. Roberts, 1985: 212, f. 95c (mf).
Araneus p. Yaginuma, 1986a: 98, f. 52.2 (f).
L. p. Marusik, 1989b: 43 (S).
L. patagiata Ware & Opell, 1989: 150, f. 2B (m).
Araneus p. Chikuni, 1989b: 65, f. 11 (f).
Araneus ocellatus Izmailova, 1989: 57, f. 41 (f).
L. p. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 86, f. 194 (mf).
Nuctenea patagiata Herreros, 1991: 215, f. 10C.3-4 (mf).
L. p. Roberts, 1995: 322, f. (mf).
L. p. Agnarsson, 1996: 65, f. 52A-B (mf).
Araneus ocellatus Mcheidze, 1997: 275, f. 623-624 (mf).
L. patagiata Yin et al., 1997: 328, f. 231a-c (f).
L. p. Roberts, 1998: 335, f. (mf).
L. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 173H-I, N (f).

f patagiatus islandicola (Strand, 1906)....................Iceland
Aranea dumetorum i. Strand, 1906e: 282 (Df).

mf sclopetarius (Clerck, 1757)....................Holarctic
Araneus s. Clerck, 1757: 43, pl. 2, f. 3 (Dm).
Araneus sericatus Clerck, 1757: 40, pl. 2, f. 1 (Df).
Aranea undata Olivier, 1789: 206 (D; preoccupied by De Geer, 1778).
Aranea oviger Panzer, 1804: 244, pl. 174, f. 3 (D).
Epeira sericata C. L. Koch, 1833: pl. 1.
Epeira virgata Hahn, 1834: 26, f. 113 (Dmf).
Epeira frondosa Walckenaer, 1842: 65 (Df).
Epeira sericata C. L. Koch, 1844: 110, f. 914-915 (mf).
Epeira sclopetaria Westring, 1851: 34 (Df).
Epeira sericata Blackwall, 1864a: 328, pl. 23, f. 238 (mf).
Epeira umbratica Menge, 1866: 55, pl. 7, f. 7 (m, misidentified, not f).
Epeira sclopetaria Menge, 1866: 57, pl. 6, f. 6 (mf).
Epeira hygrophila Simon, 1874a: 105 (Df).
Epeira sclopetaria Hansen, 1882: 19, pl. 1, f. 34 (mf).
Epeira sclopetaria Emerton, 1884: 303, pl. 33, f. 4, pl. 35, f. 10 (mf).
Epeira sclopetaria Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 132, pl. 5, f. 7 (mf).
Epeira sclopetaria McCook, 1894: 137, pl. 1, f. 9, pl. 2, f. 10-11 (mf).
Epeira sclopetaria Becker, 1896: 34, pl. 8, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira sclopetaria Bösenberg, 1901: 34, pl. 2, f. 19 (mf).
Epeira sclopetaria Emerton, 1902: 160, f. 383 (f).
Araneus sericatus Simon, 1929: 685, 759, f. 1058-1060 (mf).
Aranea undata Wiehle, 1931: 90, f. 130-133 (mf).
Aranea undata Reimoser, 1932: 10, f. 2 (mf).
Aranea sericata Comstock, 1940: 500, f. 511-512 (mf).
Aranea undata Archer, 1940: 46, pl. I, f. 3 (f).
Aranea undata Bristowe, 1941: 488, f. 88 (mf).
Aranea undata Drensky, 1943: 243, f. 28 (mf).
Epeira undata Kaston, 1948: 256, f. 789, 805, 814-815 (mf).
Araneus s. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 136, f. 88B, 89A, 90A (mf).
Cyphepeira sclopetaria Yaginuma & Archer, 1959: 41.
Araneus undatus Saito, 1959: 97, f. 107a-d (mf).
Aranea sclopetaria Zamaraev, 1964: 361, f. 88-90 (mf).
Araneus sericatus Shear, 1967: 8, f. 18-21 (m).
Araneus sericatus Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 582, 596 (mf).
Araneus sericatus Miller, 1971: 212, pl. XL, f. 11-12 (mf).
Araneus sericatus Loksa, 1972: 92, f. 81D, 82E, 83D (mf).
Nuctenea sclopetaria Levi, 1974b: 310, f. 85-88, 103-104, 108, 114-115, 124-125, 128 (Tmf from Araneus).
L. sclopetaria Grasshoff, 1983: 227 (Tmf from Nuctenea).
L. s. Roberts, 1985: 212, f. 95b (mf).
L. sclopetaria Ware & Opell, 1989: 150, f. 2A (m).
Araneus s. Hu & Wu, 1989: 94, f. 70.1-3 (f).
L. s. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 86, f. 195 (mf).
Nuctenea sclopetaria Herreros, 1991: 211, f. 5A-D (mf).
L. s. Horak & Kropf, 1992: 167, f. 1a, 2a, c, e (m).
L. s. Roberts, 1995: 321, f. (mf).
L. sclopetaria Yin et al., 1997: 329, f. 232a-c (f).
L. s. Roberts, 1998: 335, f. (mf).
L. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 173J-K, O (f).

f subinermis Caporiacco, 1940....................Ethiopia
L. s. Caporiacco, 1940c: 821, f. 28 (Df).

mf suspicax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) *....................Mediterranean to Central Asia
Epeira apoclysa Audouin, 1826: 341, pl. 3, f. 1 (m, misidentified).
Epeira cornuta lurida Thorell, 1875c: 9 (Df; nomen oblitum).
Epeira suspicax O. P.-Cambridge, 1876b: 577 (Df).
Araneus suspicax Simon, 1908a: 430.
Epeira folium Kulczyn'ski, 1901b: 329, p. 12, f. 10-14 (m, using nomen dubium).
Araneus folium Lessert, 1910b: 329 (m).
Araneus cornutus orientalis Fage, 1921a: 176, f. 4B-C (Dmf).
Araneus suspicax Simon, 1929: 686, 759 (Dm).
L. dernae Caporiacco, 1934b: 14, f. 5 (Df).
Araneus suspicax Denis, 1947a: 49, pl. II, f. 10-11 (mf).
Araneus folium Beltyukova, 1949: 84, f. 7 (mf, removed from S of L. cornuta).
Araneus folium Azheganova, 1968: 76, f. 152-153 (mf).
Araneus folium Thaler, 1974b: 257, f. 1-2, 5, 7, 10 (mf, S).
Nuctenea cornuta Levi, 1974b: 306, f. 63-66 (f, misidentified).
L. folium Grasshoff, 1983: 226 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
L. folium Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 86, f. 193 (mf).
Araneus folium Mcheidze, 1997: 277, f. 628-629 (mf).
L. s. Levy, 1998a: 347, f. 144-150 (removed mf from S of L. folium, S).

Gen. Lewisepeira Levi, 1993

L. Levi, 1993d: 128, type Bertrana farri Archer, 1958.

In synonymy:
L. lewisi (Archer, 1958, T from Araneus) = L. farri (Archer, 1958) (Levi, 1993d: 132).

mf boquete Levi, 1993....................Panama
L. b. Levi, 1993d: 130, f. 1-6 (Dmf).

mf chichinautzin Levi, 1993....................Mexico
L. c. Levi, 1993d: 135, f. 16-18 (Dmf).

mf farri (Archer, 1958) *....................Jamaica
Bertrana f. Archer, 1958: 11, f. 18-21, 24 (Dmf).
Atea lewisi Archer, 1958: 17, f. 39-40 (Df).
Araneus lewisi Brignoli, 1983c: 263.
L. f. Levi, 1993d: 132, f. 7-13 (Tm from Bertrana, Sf; N.B.: f of Archer, 1958 is an unnamed Chrysometa).

m maricao Levi, 1993....................Puerto Rico
L. m. Levi, 1993d: 134, f. 14-15 (Dm).

Gen. Lipocrea Thorell, 1878

N.B.: removed from the synonymy of Larinia Simon, 1874 and considered a senior synonym of Larinopa Grasshoff, 1970b: 226, type Larinia tabida (L. Koch, 1872) by Levy, 1986: 5; see note under Larinia.

In synonymy:
L. delicata (Rainbow, 1920, T from Larinia) = L. diluta (Thorell, 1887) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 233, sub Larinopa).
L. fasciata (Thorell, 1899, T from Larinia) = L. longissima (Simon, 1881) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 230, sub Larinopa).
L. lutescens (Thorell, 1898, T from Larinia) = L. fusiformis (Thorell, 1877) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 231, sub Larinopa).
L. quadrinotata (Simon, 1889, T from Larinia) = L. fusiformis (Thorell, 1877) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 231, sub Larinopa).
L. quinquepunctata (Tullgren, 1910, T from Larinia) = L. longissima (Simon, 1881) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 230, sub Larinopa).
L. quinquepunctata concolor (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Larinia) = L. longissima (Simon, 1881) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 230, sub Larinopa).
L. tibelloides (Lessert, 1930, T from Larinia) = L. longissima (Simon, 1881) (Grasshoff, 1970b: 230, sub Larinopa).
L. vicina (Kulczyn'ski, 1911, T from Larinia) = L. tabida (L. Koch, 1872) (Chrysanthus, 1961b: 205, sub Larinia).

Nomina dubia:
L. melanosticta (Thorell, 1891: 47, j, Nicobar Is., T from Larinia) -- Grasshoff, 1970b: 217, 234, sub Larinopa.
L. nigrolimbata (Simon, 1909e: 106, j, Vietnam, T from Larinia) -- Grasshoff, 1970b: 217, 234, sub Larinopa.

mf diluta Thorell, 1887....................Myanmar to Australia
L. d. Thorell, 1887: 146 (Dj).
Larinia d. Thorell, 1890b: 24 (Df).
Larinia d. Thorell, 1898: 341 (Dm).
Larinia delicata Rainbow, 1920b: 247, pl. 29, f. 51-54 (Dmf).
Larinopa d. Grasshoff, 1970b: 233, f. 17a-c (Tmf from Larinia, S).

mf epeiroides (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)....................Israel
Argiope e. O. P.-Cambridge, 1872a: 301 (Dmf).
Larinia e. Simon, 1895a: 768.
Larinia chloris Grasshoff, 1970b: 222 (S, rejected).
L. e. Levy, 1986: 7, f. 28-39 (Tmf from Larinia, removed from S).

mf fusiformis (Thorell, 1877) *....................India to Japan, Philippines, Sulawesi
Meta f. Thorell, 1877b: 431 (Df).
L. f. Thorell, 1887: 146.
Larinia quadrinotata Simon, 1889i: 340 (Dj).
Larinia lutescens Thorell, 1898: 342 (Dmf).
Larinia quadrinotata Simon, 1909e: 105 (Df).
Larinopa f. Grasshoff, 1970b: 231, f. 15a-b, 16a-e (Tf from Larinia, Dm, S).
Larinia f. Tanikawa, 1989: 35, f. 8-14 (mf).
Larinia f. Okuma et al., 1993: 23, f. 20C-D (f).
Larinia f. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 612, f. 384a-e, 385a-b (mf).

mf longissima (Simon, 1881)....................Central, East, Southern Africa
Larinia l. Simon, 1881e: 3 (Df).
Larinia fasciata Thorell, 1899: 41 (Df).
Larinia quinquepunctata Tullgren, 1910: 162 (Dj).
Larinia tibelloides Lessert, 1930: 632, f. 11 (Df).
Larinia tibelloides Lessert, 1933: 113, f. 28-30 (Dm).
Larinia quinquepunctata concolor Caporiacco, 1947d: 163 (Dj).
Larinopa l. Grasshoff, 1970b: 230, f. 12a-b, 14a-f (Tf from Larinia, Sm).

mf tabida (L. Koch, 1872)....................Sulawesi to Australia, New Caledonia
Epeira t. L. Koch, 1872a: 105, pl. 8, f. 6 (Df).
Meta soror Thorell, 1877b: 433 (Df).
Epeira t. Keyserling, 1887a: 170, pl. 14, f. 5 (Dm).
L. t. Thorell, 1887: 148.
L. soror Thorell, 1887: 148.
Larinia t. Thorell, 1890a: 25.
Larinia vicina Kulczyn'ski, 1911d: 121, pl. 4, f. 8-9 (Df).
Larinia t. Chrysanthus, 1961b: 205, f. 46-49 (f, S).
Larinopa t. Grasshoff, 1970b: 228, f. 9b, 12c-d, 13a-f (Tmf from Larinia).
Larinia t. Chrysanthus, 1971: 26, f. 42 (m).
Larinia t. Davies, 1988b: 308, f. 29 (mf).

Gen. Macracantha Simon, 1864

N.B.: described as a subgenus of Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833; elevated to genus by Emerit, 1974: 29.

mf arcuata (Fabricius, 1793) *....................India, China to Borneo
Aranea a. Fabricius, 1793: 425 (Df).
Epeira curvicauda Vauthier, 1824: 261, pl. 18, f. 1-6 (Df).
Gasteracantha a. C. L. Koch, 1837a: 34, f. 270 (f).
Plectana curvicauda Walckenaer, 1842: 175.
Plectana a. Walckenaer, 1842: 177.
Plectana a. Doleschall, 1859: 42, pl. 12, f. 3 (f).
M. curvicauda Simon, 1864: 287.
M. arquata Simon, 1864: 287 (lapsus).
Gasteracantha curvicauda Hasselt, 1882: 11.
Gasteracantha beccarii Hasselt, 1882: 11, pl. 4, f. 1 (Dj).
Actinacantha a. Simon, 1886a: 147.
Gasteracantha fabricii Simon, 1899a: 94 (Df).
Gasteracantha a. Simon, 1903h: 301 (Dm).
Gasteracantha a. Simon, 1904b: 282, pl. 16, f. 4 (f).
Gasteracantha a. Dahl, 1914: 242, f. 1 (f).
Gasteracantha a. Tikader, 1982a: 69, f. 139-142 (f).
Gasteracantha a. Yin et al., 1997: 94, f. 23a-c (f).
Gasteracantha a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 281, f. 167N-P, 168A-B, O (f).

Gen. Madacantha Emerit, 1970

M. Emerit, 1970: 843, type Gasteracantha nossibeana Strand, 1916.

mf nossibeana (Strand, 1916) *....................Madagascar
Gasteracantha n. Strand, 1916b: 64 (Df).
Gasteracantha rhomboidea madagascariensis Benoit, 1964a: 50 (S, rejected).
M. n. Emerit, 1970: 853, f. 1A-B, 2A-B, 3B, 4B (Tf from Gasteracantha, Dm).
M. n. Emerit, 1974: 66, f. 23, 24A-C, 25A-B, 26B (mf).

Gen. Madrepeira Levi, 1995

M. Levi, 1995b: 200, type M. amazonica Levi, 1995.

mf amazonica Levi, 1995 *....................Peru, Bolivia, Brazil
M. a. Levi, 1995b: 201, f. 205-216 (Dmf).

Gen. Mahembea Grasshoff, 1970

M. Grasshoff, 1970c: 418, type Larinia hewitti Lessert, 1930.

mf hewitti (Lessert, 1930) *....................Central, East Africa
Larinia hewittii Lessert, 1930: 633, f. 12 (Df).
Larinia h. Lessert, 1938: 444, f. 28-30 (Dm).
M. h. Grasshoff, 1970c: 418, f. 25b, 26a-c, 27a-c (Tmf from Larinia).

Gen. Mangora O. P.-Cambridge, 1889

Transferred to other genera:
M. bituberculata Mello-Leitão, 1939 -- see Mecynogea.
M. insolens Simon, 1909 -- see Prasonica.
M. lintearia (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Larinia.
M. minuscula (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Eustala.
M. nigrotaeniata Simon, 1909 -- see Prasonica.
M. octolineata Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Manogea.
M. spillmanni Lessert, 1933 -- see Prasonica.
M. spinosissima Tullgren, 1910 -- see Umbonata.
M. triangularis Franganillo, 1930 -- see Metepeira.

In synonymy:
M. belligerens Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = M. pia Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (Chickering, 1954: 208).
M. conspicua Chickering, 1963 = M. fascialata Franganillo, 1936 (Levi, 1975b: 128).
M. dentembolus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = M. spinula F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 (Chickering, 1954: 211).
M. floridana Archer, 1951 = M. spiculata (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1975b: 125).
M. hirtipedata (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = M. hirtipes (Taczanowski, 1878) (Levi, 1991a: 177).
M. striatipes Bryant, 1945 = M. fascialata Franganillo, 1936 (Levi, 1975b: 128).

Nomina dubia:
M. aethiopica Strand, 1906b: 618 (f, Ethiopia) -- Grasshoff, 1971b: 295.
M. ornatula (Roewer, 1942a: 504, T from Theridion, replacement name for Theridion ornatum Walckenaer, 1842: 239, f, USA) -- Levi, 1975b: 122.

Nomina nuda:
N. mathani Simon, 1895a: 787.
N. paraensis Simon, 1895a: 794.

mf acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)....................Palearctic
Aranea a. Walckenaer, 1802: 199 (D).
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1805: 60.
Epeira genistae Hahn, 1831a: 11, f. 7 (Dmf).
Zilla genistae C. L. Koch, 1837b: 5.
Zilla decora C. L. Koch, 1837b: 5.
Zilla a. C. L. Koch, 1839a: 139, f. 530-531 (Dmf).
Epeira a. Blackwall, 1864a: 341, pl. 25, f. 246 (mf).
Miranda a. Menge, 1866: 71, pl. 11, f. 16 (mf).
Meta a. Ausserer, 1867: 148.
Epeira a. Thorell, 1873: 454.
Zilla a. O. P.-Cambridge, 1878a: 119, pl. 11, f. 4 (f).
Epeira a. Chyzer & Kulczyn'ski, 1891: 133, pl. 5, f. 22 (mf).
Epeira a. Becker, 1896: 39, pl. 9, f. 2 (mf).
Epeira a. Bösenberg, 1901: 39, pl. 3, f. 27 (mf).
M. a. Lessert, 1910b: 307.
M. a. Simon, 1929: 667, 755, f. 1029 (mf).
M. a. Wiehle, 1931: 23, f. 9, 26-29 (mf).
M. a. Drensky, 1943: 225, f. 6 (mf).
M. a. Locket & Millidge, 1953: 166, f. 110A-D (mf).
M. a. Azheganova, 1968: 87, f. 191-193 (mf).
M. a. Miller, 1971: 214, pl. XL, f. 18-19 (m).
M. a. Loksa, 1972: 108, f. 98A-D (mf).
M. a. Grasshoff, 1973a: 242, f. 1-5 (mf).
M. a. Bakhvalov, 1974: 109, f. 31, 36-38 (mf).
M. a. Punda, 1975b: 40, f. 73-74 (f).
M. a. Levi, 1975b: 117, f. 102-109 (mf).
M. a. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1982: 50: f. III.23, 26 (mf).
M. a. Roberts, 1985: 222, f. 100a (mf).
M. a. Levy, 1987: 252, f. 44-54 (mf).
M. a. Legotai & Sekerskaya, 1989: 225: f. LXIX.23, 26 (mf).
M. a. Hu & Wu, 1989: 101, f. 77.1-6 (mf).
M. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 88, f. 197 (mf).
M. a. Roberts, 1995: 337, f. (mf).
M. a. Mcheidze, 1997: 255, f. 558-561 (mf).
M. a. Yin et al., 1997: 331, f. 233a-f (mf).
M. a. Roberts, 1998: 350, f. (mf).
M. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 173P-Q, 174J (mf).

mf angulopicta Yin et al., 1990....................China
M. a. Yin et al., 1990: 93, f. 234-238 (Dmf).
M. a. Yin et al., 1997: 332, f. 234a-e (mf).
M. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 292, f. 173R-S, 174K-L, Q (mf).

f aragarcensis Soares & Camargo, 1948....................Brazil
M. a. Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 372, f. 27-28 (Df).

f argenteostriata Simon, 1897....................Brazil
M. a. Simon, 1897b: 478 (Df).

mf bimaculata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala, Panama
Epeira b. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 21, pl. 6, f. 12-13 (Dmf).
Epeira b. Keyserling, 1893: 260, pl. 13, f. 19 (mf).
M. b. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 479, pl. 45, f. 10-11 (mf).
M. b. Chickering, 1954: 197, f. 1-5 (mf).

mf calcarifera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................USA to Honduras
M. c. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 479, pl. 45, f. 12-13 (Dmf).
M. c. Levi, 1975b: 132, f. 131-144 (mf).

mf candida Chickering, 1954....................Panama
M. c. Chickering, 1954: 198, f. 6-9 (Dmf).

f crescopicta Yin et al., 1990....................China
M. c. Yin et al., 1990: 95, f. 239-242 (Df).
M. c. Yin et al., 1997: 333, f. 235a-d (f).
M. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 173T-U, 174R (f).
M. c. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 213, f. 128A-D (f).

f decolorata (Keyserling, 1893)....................Brazil
Zilla d. Keyserling, 1893: 306, pl. 15, f. 226 (Df).
Araneus decoloratus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 288.
Zygiella d. Roewer, 1942a: 887.
M. d. Levi, 1974a: 271 (Tf from Zygiella).

m distincta Chickering, 1963....................Honduras
M. d. Chickering, 1963a: 6, f. 8-11 (Dm).

f falconae Schenkel, 1953....................Venezuela
M. f. Schenkel, 1953a: 19, f. 17 (Df).

mf fascialata Franganillo, 1936....................USA to Honduras, Cuba, Hispaniola
M. f. Franganillo, 1936c: 83 (Df).
M. striatipes Bryant, 1945a: 375, f. 17-18 (Dmf).
M. gibberosa Kraus, 1955b: 22, f. 57-58 (f, misidentified).
M. conspicua Chickering, 1963a: 2, f. 1-7 (Dmf).
M. f. Levi, 1975b: 128, f. 110-117 (mf, S).
M. f. Breene et al., 1993: 102, f. 150A-C (mf).

mf fida (Mello-Leitão, 1943)....................Brazil
Theridion fidum Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 169, f. 13, 14 (Dmf).
M. f. Levi, 1967b: 37, f. 42-44 (Tmf from Theridion).

f foliosa Zhu & Yin, 1998....................China
M. f. Zhu & Yin, in Yin et al., 1997: 333, f. 236a-e (Df).
M. f. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 174A-B, S (f).

mf fornicata (Keyserling, 1864)....................Colombia, Argentina
Epeira f. Keyserling, 1864: 134, pl. 7, f. 18-20 (Df).
Epeira f. Keyserling, 1893: 245, pl. 12, f. 183 (f).
M. f. Simon, 1895a: 789, f. 854.
M. f. Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 150, f. 44, pl. VII, f. 32 (Dm).

mf gibberosa (Hentz, 1847)....................USA, Canada
Epeira g. Hentz, 1847: 479, pl. 31, f. 20 (Df).
Epeira g. Emerton, 1884: 317, pl. 34, f. 1, pl. 36, f. 17 (f, Dm).
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1893: 241, pl. 12, f. 180 (mf).
Abbotia g. McCook, 1894: 240, pl. 24, f. 4 (mf).
M. g. Simon, 1895a: 793.
Epeira g. Emerton, 1902: 175, f. 411-413 (f).
Abbotiana g. Strand, 1929: 10.
M. g. Kaston, 1948: 239, f. 743-744, 755-756 (m).
M. g. Archer, 1951a: 15, f. 26 (m).
M. g. Shear, 1967: 11, f. 28-29 (m).
M. g. Levi, 1975b: 130, f. 118-130 (mf).
M. g. Breene et al., 1993: 102, f. 151A-C (mf).
M. g. Hutchinson, Paquin & LeSage, 2000: 46, f. 1-5 (mf).

f hemicraera (Thorell, 1890)....................Malaysia
Epeira h. Thorell, 1890d: 301 (Df).
M. h. Simon, 1895a: 791.

mf herbeoides (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906)....................China, Japan
Aranea h. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 227, pl. 4, f. 30, pl. 11, f. 241 (Dmf).
Aranea h. Strand, 1918: 81, pl. 1, f. 9.
M. h. Yaginuma, 1955a: 16, f. 1-8 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus h. Schenkel, 1963: 143, f. 84a-c (m).
M. h. Yaginuma, 1986a: 107, f. 57.4 (mf).
M. h. Yin et al., 1997: 334, f. 237a-e (mf).
M. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 174C, M-N, T (mf).

mf hirtipes (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Peru
Epeira h. Taczanowski, 1878b: 164, pl. 2, f. 15 (Dmf; preoccupied in Araneus by Fabricius, 1775, sub Aranea).
Araneus h. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 297.
Aranea hirtipedata Roewer, 1942a: 844 (replacement name for Epeira hirtipes).
M. h. Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tmf from Araneus, S unneeded replacement name).

j inconspicua Schenkel, 1936....................China
M. i. Schenkel, 1936b: 98 (Dj).

f insperata Soares & Camargo, 1948....................Brazil
M. i. Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 374, f. 29, 29A (Df).

f lactea Mello-Leitão, 1944....................Argentina
M. l. Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 331, f. 16 (Df).

f leucogasteroides Roewer, 1955 ....................Myanmar
Epeira leucogaster Thorell, 1895: 189 (Df; preoccupied by Marx, 1889).
M. l. Roewer, 1955c: 773 (replacement name).

mf maculata (Keyserling, 1865)....................USA
Epeira m. Keyserling, 1865: 827, pl. 18, f. 24-27 (Dmf).
Epeira m. Keyserling, 1893: 242, pl. 12, f. 181 (mf).
Abbotia m. McCook, 1894: 241, pl. 20, f. 9-10 (mf).
M. m. Simon, 1895a: 791.
M. ornata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 105 (S, rejected).
M. m. Archer, 1951a: 15, f. 32 (m).
M. m. Grasshoff, 1971b: 295, f. 48a-b (m).
M. m. Levi, 1975b: 122, f. 58-68 (mf).

mf melanocephala (Taczanowski, 1874)....................Guyana
Linyphia m. Taczanowski, 1874: 70 (Dmf).
Zilla m. Keyserling, 1881b: 552, pl. 16, f. 4 (mf).
Zilla m. Keyserling, 1893: 302, pl. 15, f. 223 (mf).
Araneus melanocephalus Simon, 1897e: 2.
Zygiella m. Roewer, 1942a: 887.
M. m. Caporiacco, 1948a: 659 (Tf from Zygiella).

mf melanoleuca Mello-Leitão, 1941....................Argentina
M. m. Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 150, f. 45-46 (Dmf).

mf mobilis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Mexico to Panama
Epeira m. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 30, pl. 6, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira m. Keyserling, 1893: 240, pl. 12, f. 179 (f).
M. m. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 479, pl. 45, f. 16-17 (f, Dm).
M. m. Chickering, 1954: 202, f. 10-14 (mf).

mf montana Chickering, 1954....................Panama
M. m. Chickering, 1954: 204, f. 15-17 (Dmf).

f novempupillata Mello-Leitão, 1940....................Brazil
M. 9-pupillata Mello-Leitão, 1940h: 26, f. 6-8 (Df).
M. n. Roewer, 1955c: 774.

mf passiva (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................USA to Guatemala
Epeira p. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 20, pl. 5, f. 4 (Df).
M. p. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 480, pl. 45, f. 19 (f).
M. p. Levi, 1975b: 124, f. 69-79 (f, Dm).

mf pia Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936....................Panama
M. p. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 58, pl. 12, f. 112 (Df).
M. belligerens Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 60, pl. 12, f. 113 (Dm).
M. p. Chickering, 1954: 208, f. 18-21 (f, Sm).

mf picta O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 *....................Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama
M. p. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 14, pl. 3, f. 5-6 (Dmf).
M. p. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 479, pl. 45, f. 14-15 (mf).

mf placida (Hentz, 1847)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira p. Hentz, 1847: 475, pl. 31, f. 12 (Df).
Epeira praetrepida Keyserling, 1881b: 549, pl. 16, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira p. Emerton, 1884: 316, pl. 34, f. 2, pl. 36, f. 10, 13 (f, Dm).
Epeira praetrepida Keyserling, 1893: 232, pl. 11, f. 173 (f).
Epeira p. McCook, 1894: 153, pl. 4, f. 4-5 (mf).
M. p. Simon, 1895a: 786.
Epeira p. Emerton, 1902: 176, f. 414 (f).
M. p. Kaston, 1948: 238, f. 753-754 (f).
M. spiculata Archer, 1951a: 13, f. 28 (m, misidentified).
M. p. Archer, 1951a: 14, f. 29 (f, not f. 30, m, =M. spiculata).
M. p. Levi, 1975b: 126, f. 80-81, 90-101 (mf).

m polypicula Yin et al., 1990....................China
M. p. Yin et al., 1990: 96, f. 243-246 (Dm).
M. polyspicula Yin et al., 1997: 235, f. 238a-d (m).
M. polyspicula Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 174O-P. U (m).

f pozonae Schenkel, 1953....................Venezuela
M. p. Schenkel, 1953a: 20, f. 18 (Df).

f punctipes (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Peru
Epeira p. Taczanowski, 1878b: 166, pl. 2, f. 16 (Df).
Araneus p. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 311.
M. p. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).

f rhombopicta Yin et al., 1990....................China
M. r. Yin et al., 1990: 98, f. 247-250 (Df).
M. r. Yin et al., 1997: 336, f. 239a-d (f).
M. r. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 174D-E, 175A (f).
M. r. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 214, f. 129A-C (f).

f rostrata (Keyserling, 1893)....................Guatemala
Epeira r. Keyserling, 1893: 230, pl. 11, f. 171 (Df).
Araneus rostratus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 313.
M. r. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).

f schneirlai Chickering, 1954....................Panama
M. s. Chickering, 1954: 209, f. 22 (Df).

f semiargentea Simon, 1895....................Sri Lanka
M. s. Simon, 1895a: 791 (Df).

f songyangensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
M. s. Yin et al., 1990: 99, f. 251-253 (Df).
M. s. Yin et al., 1997: 337. f. 240a-c (f).
M. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 174F-G, 175B (f).

mf spiculata (Hentz, 1847)....................USA, China
Epeira s. Hentz, 1847: 475, pl. 31, f. 13 (Df).
M. s. Archer, 1951a: 13, f. 27 (f, removed from S of M. placida, not m, =M. placida).
M. placida Archer, 1951a: 14, f. 30 (m, misidentified).
M. floridana Archer, 1951a: 14, f. 31, 56, 60 (Dmf).
M. s. Levi, 1975b: 125, f. 82-89 (f, Sm).
M. s. Xu & Wang, 1983: 32, f. 1a-b (f).
M. s. Yin et al., 1997: 338, f. 241a-b (f).
M. s. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 174H, 175C (f).

mf spinula F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico to Panama
M. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 480, pl. 45, f. 18 (Dm).
M. dentembolus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 59, pl. 12, f. 114-116 (Df).
M. s. Chickering, 1954: 211, f. 23-26 (m, Sf).

f strenua (Keyserling, 1893)....................Brazil
Epeira s. Keyserling, 1893: 257, pl. 13, f. 192 (Df).
Araneus strenuus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 318.
M. s. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 184 (Tf from Araneus).

m sufflava Chickering, 1963....................Panama
M. s. Chickering, 1963a: 9, f. 12-15 (Dm).

f theridioides Mello-Leitão, 1948....................Guyana
M. t. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 166, f. 9 (Df).

f trilineata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889....................Mexico, Guatemala
M. t. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 14, pl. 3, f. 7 (Df).
M. t. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 480, pl. 45, f. 20 (f).
M. t. Chickering, 1954: 213, f. 27-28 (f).

f tschekiangensis Schenkel, 1963....................China
M. t. Schenkel, 1963: 141, f. 82 (Df).
M. t. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 113, f. 107 (f).
M. t. Yin et al., 1997: 338, f. 242a-b (f).
M. t. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 174I, 175D (f).

f umbrata Simon, 1897....................Peru
M. u. Simon, 1897b: 478 (Df).

f v-signata Mello-Leitão, 1943....................Brazil
M. v. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 184, f. 21 (Df).

f wiedenmeyeri Schenkel, 1953....................Venezuela
M. w. Schenkel, 1953a: 18, f. 16 (Df).

Gen. Manogea Levi, 1997

M. Levi, 1997: 233, type Cyrtophora porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839).

In synonymy:
M. berlandi (Caporiacco, 1954, T from Meta) = M. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1986a: 105, sub Cyrtophora guyanensis).
M. brasilica (Soares & Camargo, 1948, T from Meta) = M. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1986a: 105, sub Cyrtophora guyanensis).
M. espiritosantensis (Soares & Camargo, 1955, T from Meta) = M. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1986a: 105, sub Cyrtophora guyanensis).
M. grammica Simon, 1895 = M. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1980a: 13, sub Cyrtophora guyanensis).
M. guianensis (Mello-Leitão, 1948, T from Mecynogea) = M. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1997: 234).
M. guyanensis (Keyserling, 1881, T from Cyrtophora) = M. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1997: 234).
M. octolineata (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Mangora) = M. porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1997: 234).

mf gaira Levi, 1997....................Colombia, Venezuela
M. g. Levi, 1997: 238, f. 100-106 (Dmf).

mf porracea (C. L. Koch, 1839) *....................Panama to Argentina
Miranda p. C. L. Koch, 1838: 49, f. 368 (Df).
Epeira p. Walckenaer, 1842: 51.
Cyrtophora p. Simon, 1895a: 773.
Araneus poraceus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 310.
Zilla guyanensis Keyserling, 1881b: 554, pl. 16, f. 5 (Dm).
Zilla guyanensis Keyserling, 1893: 301, pl. 15, f. 222 (m).
Cyrtophora grammica Simon, 1895g: 156 (Df).
Araneus guyanensis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 296.
Zygiella guyanensis Roewer, 1942a: 887.
Mangora octolineata Caporiacco, 1947a: 25 (Dm).
Mecynogea guianensis Mello-Leitão, 1948: 167, f. 10 (Df).
Mangora octolineata Caporiacco, 1948a: 659, f. 67 (m).
Meta brasilica Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 380, f. 37-39 (Dmf).
Meta berlandi Caporiacco, 1954: 80, f. 14, 14a-c (Df).
Meta espiritosantensis Soares & Camargo, 1955: 578, f. 4-5 (Dm).
Mecynogea guyanensis Levi, 1980a: 13 (Tm from Zygiella, S).
Cyrtophora guyanensis Levi, 1986a: 106 (Tm from Mecynogea, Sf).
Cyrtophora guianensis Levi, 1991a: 179 (S C. davisi (Hingston, 1932, T from Araneus), rejected).
M. p. Levi, 1997: 234, f. 79-93 (Tf from Cyrtophora, Sm).

mf triforma Levi, 1997....................Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras
M. t. Levi, 1997: 238, f. 94-99 (Dmf).

Gen. Mastophora Holmberg, 1876

In synonymy:
M. fagoides Vellard, 1926 (removed from S of M. corpulenta) = M. carpogaster Mello-Leitão, 1925 (Gertsch, 1955: 232).

f abalosi Urtubey & Báez, 1983....................Argentina
M. a. Urtubey & Báez, 1983: 3, f. 1-11 (Df).

mf archeri Gertsch, 1955....................USA
M. a. Gertsch, 1955: 239, f. 6-9, 36, 45-46 (Dmf).

mf bisaccata (Emerton, 1884)....................USA
Cyrtarachne b. Emerton, 1884: 325, pl. 34, f. 11 (Df).
Cyrtarachne multilineata Atkinson, 1888: 546 (Df).
Ordgarius bisaccatus Keyserling, 1892: 42, pl. 2, f. 35 (f).
Ordgarius bisaccatus McCook, 1894: 198, pl. 12, f. 2-3 (f, Dm).
Glyptocranium bisaccatum Simon, 1895a: 882.
M. b. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 71.
M. b. Kaston, 1948: 232, f. 737-740 (f).
M. b. Gertsch, 1955: 242, f. 19-23, 35, 43-44 (mf).
M. b. Levi, 1978b: 13, f. 18-20 (m).

f carpogaster Mello-Leitão, 1925....................Brazil
M. carpogastra Mello-Leitão, 1925a: 460 (Df).
M. carpogastra Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 72, f. 3, 15 (f).
Glyptocranium fragoides Vellard, 1926: 327 (Df).
M. carpogastra Gertsch, 1955: 232 (S).

f cinerea Mello-Leitão, 1943....................Argentina
M. c. Mello-Leitão, 1943c: 105, f. 4 (Df).

f comma Báez & Urtubey, 1985....................Argentina
M. c. Báez & Urtubey, 1985: 3, f. 1-10 (Df).

f conifera (Holmberg, 1876)....................Argentina
Heterocephala c. Holmberg, 1876: 20 (Df).
M. c. Brèthes, 1909b: 163.
M. c. Canals, 1931a: 18, f. 1-5, pl. 1, f. 2 (f).
M. c. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 71, f. 4, 16 (f).

mf cornigera (Hentz, 1850)....................USA, Mexico
Epeira c. Hentz, 1850: 20, pl. 3, f. 8 (Df).
Cyrtarachne bicurvata Becker, 1879a: 77, pl. 2. f. 16-19 (Df).
Cyrtarachne c. Keyserling, 1879: 300, pl. 4, f. 4 (f).
Ordgarius cornigerus Keyserling, 1892: 40, pl. 2, f. 34 (f).
Ordgarius cornigerus McCook, 1894: 197, pl. 12, f. 1 (f).
Glyptocranium cornigerum Simon, 1895a: 885.
M. c. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 70, f. 9, 20 (f).
M. c. Gertsch, 1955: 233, f. 1-5, 37, 41-42 (f, Dm).

f corpulenta (Banks, 1898)....................Mexico, Brazil
Ordgarius corpulentus Banks, 1898b: 251, pl. 15, f. 8 (Df).
Glyptocranium corpulentum Petrunkevitch, 1911: 347.
M. c. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 72, f. 8 (f).

f cranion Mello-Leitão, 1928....................Brazil
M. c. Mello-Leitão, 1928b: 49, f. 1 (Df).
M. c. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 72, f. 2, 14 (f).

mf dizzydeani Eberhard, 1981....................Colombia
M. d. Eberhard, 1981: 144, f. 1-9 (Dmf).

f extraordinaria Holmberg, 1876 *....................Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina
M. e. Holmberg, 1876: 20 (Df).
M. e. Canals, 1931a: 17, f. 1-5, pl. 1, f. 1 (f).
M. e. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 70, f. 7, 19 (f).

f fasciata Reimoser, 1939....................Costa Rica
M. f. Reimoser, 1939: 356, f. 8 (Df).

m fasciolata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala, Panama
Epeiroides f. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 15, pl. 8, f. 5 (Dm).
Epeiroides f. Keyserling, 1893: 309, pl. 16, f. 228 (m).
Aranea f. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 519, pl. 51, f. 5 (m).
Araneus fasciolatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 291.
M. f. Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tm from Araneus).

f felis Piza, 1976....................Brazil
M. f. Piza, 1976c: 83, f. 1 (Df).

f gasteracanthoides (Nicolet, 1849)....................Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Chile
Epeira g. Nicolet, 1849: 485, pl. 5, f. 7 (Df).
Ordgarius g. Keyserling, 1892: 43, pl. 7, f. 36 (f).
Glyptocranium g. Simon, 1895a: 882, f. 946 (f).
M. g. Porter, 1917: 131, f. 77 (f).
M. g. Canals, 1931a: 19, f. 1-5, pl. 2, f. 4 (f).
M. g. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 69, f. 12, 23 (f).

mf gasteracanthoides oxalidis Archer, 1963....................Chile
M. g. o. Archer, 1963: 19 (Dmf).

f haywardi Birabén, 1946....................Argentina
M. h. Birabén, 1946: 327, f. 1-3 (Df).

f holmbergi Canals, 1931....................Argentina
M. h. Canals, 1931a: 22, f. 1-5, pl. 3, f. 5, pl. 4, f. 7-8 (Df).
M. h. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 73, f. 10, 21 (f).

mf hutchinsoni Gertsch, 1955....................USA
M. cornigera Kaston, 1948: 231, f. 741-742 (f, misidentified).
M. h. Gertsch, 1955: 236, f. 10-14, 39, 47-48 (Dmf).

f intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1945....................Argentina
M. i. Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 240, f. 14-17 (Df).

f lenca Gertsch, 1955....................Honduras
M. l. Gertsch, 1955: 247, f. 28-30, 32-33 (Df).

f longiceps Mello-Leitão, 1940....................Brazil
Masthophora l. Mello-Leitão, 1940a: 57, f. 5a-c (Df).

f melloleitaoi Canals, 1931....................Argentina
M. mello-leitaõi Canals, 1931a: 20, f. 1-5, pl. 2, f. 4 (Df).
M. mello-leitaõi Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 73, f. 5, 17 (f).

f obesa (Banks, 1898)....................Mexico
Ordgarius obesus Banks, 1898b: 250, pl. 15, f. 9 (Df).
Glyptocranium obesum Petrunkevitch, 1911: 347.
M. o. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 72, f. 1, 13 (f).

f obtusa Mello-Leitão, 1936....................Brazil
M. o. Mello-Leitão, 1936b: 134, f. 2 (Df).

f phrynosoma Gertsch, 1955....................USA
M. p. Gertsch, 1955: 245, f. 24-27, 31 (Df).

f pickeli Mello-Leitão, 1931....................Brazil
M. p. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 73, f. 6, 18, 24 (Df).

f pickeli occidentalis Schenkel, 1953....................Venezuela
M. p. o. Schenkel, 1953a: 29 (Df).

f satan Canals, 1931....................Argentina
M. s. Canals, 1931a: 25, f. 1-5, pl. 3, f. 6 (Df).
M. s. Mello-Leitão, 1931b: 73, f. 11, 22 (f).

f vaquera Gertsch, 1955....................Cuba
M. v. Gertsch, 1955: 240, f. 15-18 (Df).

Gen. Mecynogea Simon, 1903

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Allepeira Banks, 1932 by Levi, 1968a: 322.

Transferred to other genera:
M. guianensis Mello-Leitão, 1948 -- see Manogea.
M. guyanensis (Keyserling, 1881) -- see Manogea.

In synonymy:
M. affinitata (Kraus, 1955) = M. lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1980a: 14).
M. basilica (McCook, 1878) = M. lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Archer, 1940: 24, sub Allepeira conferta).
M. bimucronata (Mello-Leitão, 1936, T from Gea) = M. erythromela (Holmberg, 1876) (Levi, 1997: 224).
M. bituberculata (Mello-Leitão, 1939, T from Mangora) = M. erythromela (Holmberg, 1876) (Levi, 1997: 225).
M. conferta (Hentz, 1850) = M. lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 93, sub Allepeira).
M. infelix (Soares & Camargo, 1948) = M. bigibba Simon, 1903 (Levi, 1997: 222).
M. trivittata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) = M. lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1997: 228).
M. tucumana Simon, 1903 = M. erythromela (Holmberg, 1876) (Levi, 1997: 224).
M. wiedenmeyeri (Schenkel, 1953, T from Gea) = M. lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1997: 228).

Nomen dubium:
M. carvalhoi Mello-Leitão, 1944a: 8 (f, Brazil) -- Levi, 1997: 234.

mf apatzingan Levi, 1997....................Mexico
M. a. Levi, 1997: 232, f. 67-72 (Dmf).

mf bigibba Simon, 1903 *....................Brazil, Uruguay
M. b. Simon, 1903d: 25 (Df).
Wixia infelix Soares & Camargo, 1948a: 378, f. 35 (Df).
M. infelix Levi, 1993b: 56 (Tf from Wixia).
M. b. Levi, 1997: 222, f. 1-25 (f, Dm, S).

f buique Levi, 1997....................Brazil
M. b. Levi, 1997: 229, f. 55-58 (Df).

m chavona Levi, 1997....................Colombia
M. c. Levi, 1997: 230, f. 65-66 (Dm).

mf erythromela (Holmberg, 1876)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile
Zilla erythromela Holmberg, 1876: 15 (Df).
M. tucumana Simon, 1903d: 25 (Df).
M. e. Mello-Leitão, 1933b: 33.
M. tucumana Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 145, f. 41-43 (f, Dm).
Gea bimucronata Mello-Leitão, 1936d: 125, pl. 14 (Df).
Mangora bituberculata Mello-Leitão, 1939e: 63, f. 34-37 (Dm).
M. e. Levi, 1997: 224, f. 26-33 (removed f from S of Alpaida leucogramma, contra Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 321, sub Parepeira albostriata, Sm).

mf lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA to Argentina
Linyphia l. Walckenaer, 1842: 263 (Df).
Linyphia conferta Hentz, 1850: 30, pl. 4, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira basilica McCook, 1878a: 133, f. 1-3 (Df).
Argiope trivittata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 51, pl. 4, f. 5-6 (Dmf).
Argiope basilica Marx, 1890: 541.
Hentzia basilica McCook, 1894: 244, pl. 14, f. 2, pl. 23, f. 8 (f).
Cyrtophora basilica Simon, 1895a: 771.
Hentzia trivittata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 523, pl. 51, f. 12-13 (mf).
Allepeira basilica Banks, Newport & Bird, 1932: 23.
Allepeira conferta Archer, 1940: 24 (Tf from Linyphia, S).
Allepeira l. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 93 (Tf from Linyphia, S).
Allepeira l. Exline, 1948: 311, f. 1-13 (mf).
Gea wiedenmeyeri Schenkel, 1953a: 17, f. 15a-b (Df).
Allepeira affinitata Kraus, 1955b: 26, f. 54-56 (Dmf).
Allepeira l. Wiehle, 1967b: 195, f. 53 (f).
M. l. Levi, 1980a: 13, f. 1-15 (mf, S).
M. affinitata Brignoli, 1983c: 274.
M. l. Roth, 1985: B6-4, f. 19-20, 78-79 (mf).
M. l. Breene et al., 1993: 105, f. 158A-C (mf).
M. l. Levi, 1997: 228, f. 40-54 (mf, S).

mf martiana (Archer, 1958)....................Cuba, Hispaniola
Allepeira m. Archer, 1958: 6, f. 12-13, 26 (Dmf).
M. m. Brignoli, 1983c: 274.
M. m. Levi, 1997: 232, f. 73-78 (mf).

mf ocosingo Levi, 1997....................Mexico
M. o. Levi, 1997: 230, f. 59-64 (Dmf).

mf sucre Levi, 1997....................Venezuela, Brazil
M. s. Levi, 1997: 228, f. 34-39 (Dmf).

Gen. Megaraneus Lawrence, 1968

M. Lawrence, 1968: 109, type M. campbelli Lawrence, 1968.

In synonymy:
M. basilissa (Thorell, 1899, T from Caerostris) = M. gabonensis (Lucas, 1858) (Grasshoff, 1984: 764).
M. campbelli Lawrence, 1968 = M. gabonensis (Lucas, 1858) (Grasshoff, 1984: 764).

mf gabonensis (Lucas, 1858) *....................Africa
Epeira g. Lucas, 1858: 420, pl. 12, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira angolensis Brito Capello, 1866: 79, pl. 2, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira chinchoxensis Karsch, 1879a: 333 (Df).
Aranea basilissa Thorell, 1899: 44 (Df).
Cyrtophora angolensis Pocock, 1899e: 853.
Cyrtophora g. Simon, 1907d: 286.
Caerostris basilissa Roewer, 1942a: 888.
M. campbelli Lawrence, 1968: 110, f. 1a-e, 2a-e, g (Dmf).
M. g. Grasshoff, 1984: 763 (Tmf from Cyrtophora, S).

Gen. Melychiopharis Simon, 1895

f cynips Simon, 1895 *....................Brazil
M. c. Simon, 1895a: 907, f. 972-973 (Df).

Gen. Metazygia F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904

Transferred to other genera:
M. albiventer (Keyserling, 1884) -- see Eustala.
M. albonigra (Franganillo, 1931) -- see Larinia.
M. glomerabilis (Keyserling, 1892) - see Metepeira.
M. graphica (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Alpaida.
M. gressa (Keyserling, 1892) -- see Metepeira.
M. helvola (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) -- see Aculepeira.
M. livida Mello-Leitão, 1941 -- see Dictyna under Dictynidae.
M. unguiformis (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Alpaida.

In synonymy:
M. coamensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930, T from Larinia) = M. crewi (Banks, 1903) (Bryant, 1945a: 364, sub Araneus).
M. dilatata (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904, T from Araneus) = M. zilloides (Banks, 1898) (Levi, 1977a: 92).
M. errans (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = M. erratica (Keyserling, 1883) (Levi, 1991a: 177, sub Bertrana).
M. manni Bryant, 1945 = M. gregalis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1995a: 121).
M. maura (Hentz, 1847, T from Singa) = M. calix (Walckenaer, 1842) (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 109, sub Singa).
M. mollybyrnae (McCook, 1894, T from Singa) = M. pallidula (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1972a: 231).
M. moraballii (Hingston, 1932, T from Araneus) = M. dubia (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1995a: 82).
M. mundula (Keyserling, 1892) = M. voluptifica (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1995a: 125).
M. punctata (Keyserling, 1893, T from Zygiella) = M. voluptifica (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1995a: 125).
M. similis Caporiacco, 1947 = M. gregalis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1995a: 121).
M. simplicissima (Keyserling, 1883) = M. pallidula (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1995a: 94).
M. tuceps (Chamberlin, 1925, T from Eustala) = M. gregalis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1995a: 121, after Banks, 1929).

f adisi Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. a. Levi, 1995a: 104, f. 138-141 (Df).

m aldela Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. a. Levi, 1995a: 146, f. 420-422 (Dm).

f amalla Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. a. Levi, 1995a: 120, f. 247-249 (Df).

m arnoi Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. a. Levi, 1995a: 104, f. 142-143 (Dm).

f atalaya Levi, 1995....................Peru
M. a. Levi, 1995a: 110, f. 185-188 (Df).

m atama Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. a. Levi, 1995a: 146, f. 423-424 (Dm).

mf bahama Levi, 1995....................Bahama Is.
M. b. Levi, 1995a: 81, f. 8-14 (Dmf).

f bahia Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. b. Levi, 1995a: 144, f. 409-413 (Df).

f barueri Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. b. Levi, 1995a: 98, f. 100-103 (Df).

mf benella Levi, 1995....................Panama, Colombia
M. b. Levi, 1995a: 122, f. 263-269 (Dmf).

f bolivia Levi, 1995....................Bolivia
M. b. Levi, 1995a: 106, f. 150-153 (Df).

mf calix (Walckenaer, 1842)....................USA
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1842: 90 (Dmf).
Epeira maura Hentz, 1847: 474, pl. 31, f. 8 (Df).
Singa maura Keyserling, 1885: 527, pl. 13, f. 26 (f).
Singa maura Keyserling, 1893: 283, pl. 14, f. 208 (f).
Singa maura McCook, 1894: 234, pl. 19, f. 8 (f).
Argyroepeira maura Banks, 1898b: 257.
Leucauge maura F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 443.
Araneus c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 283.
Araneus maurus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 302.
Singa maura Archer, 1940: 36, pl. I, f. 2 (f).
Singa maura Archer, 1941b: 16, pl. III, f. 1 (Dm).
Singa c. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 109 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
Alpaida c. Levi, 1972a: 231 (Tmf from Singa).
Alpaida c. Levi, 1976: 388, f. 137-144 (mf).
Alpaida c. Roth, 1985: B6-4, f. 21-22 (f).
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 72 (Tmf from Alpaida).

f carimagua Levi, 1995....................Colombia
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 136, f. 333-336 (Df).

f carolinalis (Archer, 1951)....................USA
Epeira c. Archer, 1951a: 40, f. 57 (Df).
M. c. Levi, 1977a: 94, f. 112-117 (Tf from Araneus).

m carrizal Levi, 1995....................Guatemala
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 102, f. 119-120 (Dm).

mf castaneoscutata (Simon, 1895)....................Peru, Brazil
Araneus castaneoscutatus Simon, 1895a: 806 (Df).
M. c. Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tf from Araneus).
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 129, f. 303-308 (f, Dm).

m cazeaca Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 145, f. 416-417 (Dm).

f chenevo Levi, 1995....................Colombia, Guyana
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 110, f. 177-180 (Df).

mf chicanna Levi, 1995....................Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Jamaica
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 90, f. 55-61 (Dmf).

f cienaga Levi, 1995....................Hispaniola
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 136, f. 342-345 (Df).

f corima Levi, 1995....................Colombia
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 111, f. 189-192 (Df).

m corumba Levi, 1995....................Bolivia, Brazil
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 114, f. 213-215 (Dm).

mf crabroniphila Strand, 1916....................Brazil
M. c. Strand, 1916b: 117 (Dmf).
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 112, f. 203-207 (mf).

mf crewi (Banks, 1903)....................Greater Antilles, Virgin Is.
Singa crewii Banks, 1903: 342, pl. 15, f. 8 (Df).
Araneus c. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 387.
Larinia coamensis Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 335, f. 221-224 (Df).
Araneus c. Bryant, 1945a: 364, f. 1, 3 (Tf from Singa, Dm, S).
M. c. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 245 (Tmf from Araneus).
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 99, f. 107-113 (mf).

m cunha Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 146, f. 418-419 (Dm).

mf curari Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. c. Levi, 1995a: 106, f. 144-149 (Dmf).

mf dubia (Keyserling, 1864)....................Costa Rica, Cuba to Galapagos Is., Peru, Brazil
Epeira d. Keyserling, 1864: 123, pl. 4, f. 12-13 (Df).
Epeira d. Keyserling, 1892: 187, pl. 9, f. 138 (f).
Araneus dubius Petrunkevitch, 1911: 290.
Epeira moraballii Hingston, 1932: 363 (Df).
M. d. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).
M. d. Levi, 1995a: 82, f. 15-21 (f, Dm, S).

f ducke Levi, 1995....................Brazil, Bolivia
M. d. Levi, 1995a: 138, f. 365-369 (Df).

mf enabla Levi, 1995....................Venezuela
M. e. Levi, 1995a: 95, f. 81-86 (Dmf).

f erratica (Keyserling, 1883)....................Brazil
Epeira e. Keyserling, 1883a: 197, pl. 15, f. 3 (Df; preoccupied by Olivier, 1789, sub Aranea).
Epeira e. Keyserling, 1892: 161, pl. 8, f. 119 (f).
Araneus erraticus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 291.
Aranea errans Roewer, 1942a: 841 (replacement name).
Bertrana e. Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tf from Araneus, S).
M. e. Levi, 1995a: 140, f. 370-373 (Tf from Bertrana).

f floresta Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. f. Levi, 1995a: 132, f. 314-317 (Df).

mf genaro Levi, 1995....................Peru
M. g. Levi, 1995a: 141, f. 378-384 (Dmf).

mf genialis (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 156, pl. 8, f. 114 (Df).
Araneus g. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 293.
M. geniales Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 186 (Tf from Araneus).
M. g. Levi, 1995a: 118, f. 239-246 (f, Dm).

f goeldii Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. g. Levi, 1995a: 104, f. 133-137 (Df).

mf gregalis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Nicaragua, West Indies to Argentina
Epeira g. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 22, pl. 5, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 177, pl. 9, f. 131 (f, Dm).
M. g. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 501, pl. 47, f. 24 (f).
Aranea g. Strand, 1907j: 227.
Araneus g. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 295.
Eustala tuceps Chamberlin, 1925d: 217 (Df).
M. g. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 327, f. 208-210 (mf).
M. manni Bryant, 1945a: 377, f. 12-13, 23 (Dmf).
M. similis Caporiacco. 1947a: 25 (Df).
M. similis Caporiacco, 1948a: 660, f. 70 (f).
M. g. Levi, 1995a: 121, f. 253-262 (mf, S).

m ikuruwa Levi, 1995....................Guyana
M. i. Levi, 1995a: 120, f. 250-252 (Dm).

mf incerta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Belize to Panama
Epeira i. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 23, pl. 4, f. 15 (Df).
Epeira fecunda O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 26, pl. 6, f. 9-10 (Dmf).
Epeira i. Keyserling, 1892: 163, pl. 8, f. 120 (f).
Epeira fecunda Keyserling, 1892: 164, pl. 8, f. 121 (mf).
Aranea i. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 512, pl. 49, f. 7-8 (mf.
Araneus incertus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 298.
Araneus incertus Kraus, 1955b: 22, f. 62-65 (mf).
M. i. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tmf from Araneus).
M. i. Levi, 1995a: 93, f. 69-73 (mf).

f ipago Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. i. Levi, 1995a: 86, f. 35-38 (Df).

f ipanga Levi, 1995....................Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina
M. i. Levi, 1995a: 107, f. 164-167 (Df).

m isabelae Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. i. Levi, 1995a: 96, f. 91-93 (Dm).

f ituari Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. i. Levi, 1995a: 128, f. 289-291 (Df).

m jamari Levi, 1995....................Brazil, Surinam
M. j. Levi, 1995a: 99, f. 104-106 (Dm).

mf keyserlingi Banks, 1929....................Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Trinidad
M. k. Banks, 1929: 94, pl. 4, f. 63 (Df).
M. k. Levi, 1995a: 89, f. 48-54 (removed f from S of M. zilloides, contra Levi, 1977a: 92, Dm).

mf lagiana Levi, 1995....................Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina
M. l. Levi, 1995a: 134, f. 328-332 (Dmf).

mf laticeps (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)....................Guatemala to Bolivia, Brazil
Epeira l. O. P.-Cambridge, 1889d: 18, pl. 4, f. 16 (Df).
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1892: 175, pl. 8, f. 129 (f).
Aranea l. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 516, pl. 49, f. 21 (Df).
Araneus l. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 299.
M. l. Levi, 1995a: 117, f. 226-230 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

f lazepa Levi, 1995....................Colombia, Venezuela
M. l. Levi, 1995a: 110, f. 181-184 (Df).

f limonal Levi, 1995....................Peru, Brazil, Argentina
M. l. Levi, 1995a: 128, f. 292-294 (Df).

mf lopez Levi, 1995....................Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Brazil
M. l. Levi, 1995a: 137, f. 351-359 (Dmf).

f loque Levi, 1995....................Bolivia
M. l. Levi, 1995a: 136, f. 337-341 (Df).

m manu Levi, 1995....................Peru
M. m. Levi, 1995a: 140, f. 374-377 (Dm).

m mariahelenae Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. m. Levi, 1995a: 132, f. 318-321 (Dm).

f matanzas Levi, 1995....................Cuba
M. m. Levi, 1995a: 113, f. 208-212 (Df).

f moldira Levi, 1995....................Ecuador, Peru
M. m. Levi, 1995a: 144, f. 401-404 (Df).

mf mundulella (Strand, 1916)....................Brazil
Aranea m. Strand, 1916b: 114 (Dmf).
M. m. Grasshoff, 1970b: 218 (Tmf from Larinia per Roewer, 1942a: 771).
M. m. Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tmf from Araneus per Roewer, 1942a: 848; N.B.: species listed twice by Roewer, sub both Araneus and Larinia).
M. m. Levi, 1995a: 118, f. 231-238 (mf).

mf nigrocincta (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904)....................Mexico to Panama
Aranea n. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 513, pl. 49, f. 11-12 (Dmf).
Araneus nigrocinctus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
M. n. Levi, 1995a: 133, f. 322-327 (Tmf from Araneus).

f nobas Levi, 1995....................Ecuador
M. n. Levi, 1995a: 103, f. 129-132 (Df).

mf octama Levi, 1995....................Panama to Peru
M. o. Levi, 1995a: 130, f. 309-313 (Dmf).

m oro Levi, 1995....................Ecuador
M. o. Levi, 1995a: 146, f. 425-428 (Dm).

f pallidula (Keyserling, 1864)....................Mexico to Peru
Epeira p. Keyserling, 1864: 124, pl. 4, f. 14-15 (Df).
Epeira simplicissima Keyserling, 1883a: 203, pl. 15, f. 8 (Df).
Epeira p. Keyserling, 1892: 158, pl. 8, f. 116 (f).
Epeira simplicissima Keyserling, 1892: 169, pl. 8, f. 125 (f).
Singa mollybyrnae McCook, 1894: 229, pl. 19, f. 1 (Df).
Aranea p. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 514, pl. 49, f. 13 (f).
Araneus mollybyrnae Petrunkevitch, 1911: 304.
Araneus pallidulus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 308.
Araneus simplicissimus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 315.
M. p. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 256 (Tf from Araneus).
Araneus palloides Roewer, 1955c: 1715 (replacement name for Epeira pallidula Keyserling, 1863, preoccupied in Araneus by Clerck, 1757, but superfluous because of T by Mello-Leitão, 1941).
M. p. Levi, 1972a: 231 (S).
M. p. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).
M. simplicissima Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tf from Araneus).
M. p. Levi, 1995a: 94, f. 74-80 (f, Dm, S).

f paquisha Levi, 1995....................Venezuela, Peru
M. p. Levi, 1995a: 103, f. 125-128 (Df).

m pastaza Levi, 1995....................Peru
M. p. Levi, 1995a: 92, f. 66-68 (Dm).

mf patiama Levi, 1995....................Peru, Brazil
M. p. Levi, 1995a: 85, f. 29-34 (Dmf).

f peckorum Levi, 1995....................Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil
M. p. Levi, 1995a: 142, f. 391-400 (Df).

mf pimentel Levi, 1995....................Venezuela, Peru
M. p. Levi, 1995a: 85, f. 22-28 (Dmf).

f redfordi Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. r. Levi, 1995a: 96, f. 87-90 (Df).

mf rogenhoferi (Keyserling, 1878)....................Brazil
Zilla r. Keyserling, 1878a: 578, pl. 14, f. 6 (Df).
Zilla r. Keyserling, 1892: 296, pl. 15, f. 219 (f).
Araneus r. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
Zygiella r. Roewer, 1942a: 887.
M. r. Levi, 1974a: 271 (Tf from Zygiella).
M. r. Levi, 1995a: 98, f. 94-99 (f, Dm).

m rothi Levi, 1995....................Colombia
M. r. Levi, 1995a: 145, f. 414-415 (Dm).

f samiria Levi, 1995....................Peru
M. s. Levi, 1995a: 138, f. 360-364 (Df).

mf saturnino Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. s. Levi, 1995a: 111, f. 197-202 (Dmf).

mf sendero Levi, 1995....................Ecuador, Peru
M. s. Levi, 1995a: 114, f. 216-221 (Dmf).

f serian Levi, 1995....................Costa Rica
M. s. Levi, 1995a: 108, f. 172-176 (Df).

m silvestris (Bryant, 1942)....................Puerto Rico
Larinia s. Bryant, 1942b: 5, f. 5, 7, 10-11 (Dm).
Cyclosa s. Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 246 (Tm from Larinia).
M. s. Levi, 1999: 375, f. 430-432 (Tm from Cyclosa).

f souza Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. s. Levi, 1995a: 137, f. 346-350 (Df).

f taman Levi, 1995....................Mexico
M. t. Levi, 1995a: 102, f. 121-124 (Df).

m tanica Levi, 1995....................Guyana
M. t. Levi, 1995a: 128, f. 295-297 (Dm).

f tapa Levi, 1995....................Peru
M. t. Levi, 1995a: 92, f. 62-65 (Df).

mf uma Levi, 1995....................Peru, Brazil
M. u. Levi, 1995a: 116, f. 222-225 (Dmf).

f uraricoera Levi, 1995....................Brazil, Guyana, Surinam
M. u. Levi, 1995a: 108, f. 168-171 (Df).

f uratron Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. u. Levi, 1995a: 111, f. 193-196 (Df).

f valentim Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. v. Levi, 1995a: 144, f. 405-408 (Df).

mf vaupes Levi, 1995....................Colombia, Peru, Brazil
M. v. Levi, 1995a: 129, f. 298-302 (Dmf).

f vaurieorum Levi, 1995....................Guatemala
M. v. Levi, 1995a: 102, f. 114-118 (Df).

f viriosa (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1892: 165, pl. 8, f. 122 (Df).
Araneus viriosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324.
M. v. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 187 (Tf from Araneus).
M. v. Mello-Leitão, 1947b: 248 (N.B.: also listed on p. 240 as a species of Drexelia=Larinia!).
M. v. Levi, 1995a: 126, f. 285-288 (f).

mf voluptifica (Keyserling, 1892)....................Colombia to Argentina
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1892: 152, pl. 7, f. 112 (Dmf).
Zilla punctata Keyserling, 1893: 305, pl. 15, f. 225 (Df).
Epeira mundula Keyserling, 1892: 179, pl. 9, f. 132 (Dmf).
Larinia mundula Simon, 1905e: 10.
Araneus punctatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 311.
Araneus voluptificus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324.
Zygiella punctata Roewer, 1942a: 887.
M. v. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 187 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus mundulus Grasshoff, 1970b: 218 (Tmf from Larinia).
M. mundula Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991: 246 (Tmf from Araneus).
M. v. Levi, 1995a: 125, f. 277-284 (mf, S).

mf voxanta Levi, 1995....................Brazil
M. v. Levi, 1995a: 141, f. 385-390 (Dmf).

mf wittfeldae (McCook, 1894) *....................USA to Costa Rica
Epeira w. McCook, 1894: 168, pl. 7, f. 6-7 (Dmf).
M. w. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 501, pl. 47, f. 22-23 (mf).
Araneus w. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 325.
M. w. Levi, 1977a: 92, f. 90-103 (mf).
M. w. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 62 (m).
M. w. Breene et al., 1993: 106, f. 162A-C (mf).
M. w. Levi, 1995a: 81, f. 1-7 (mf).
M. w. Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 375, f. 19 (m).

mf yobena Levi, 1995....................Colombia to Guyana, Bolivia
M. y. Levi, 1995a: 124, f. 270-276 (Dmf).

mf yucumo Levi, 1995....................Colombia, Peru, Bolivia
M. y. Levi, 1995a: 106, f. 154-163 (Dmf).

mf zilloides (Banks, 1898)....................USA, West Indies to Honduras
Epeira z. Banks, 1898b: 255, pl. 15, f. 2 (Dmf).
Aranea dilitata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 513, pl. 49, f. 9 (Dm).
Aranea z. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 519.
Araneus dilitatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 290.
Araneus z. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 326.
Metazygia albonigra Bryant, 1940: 339, f. 107-109, 111 (Tmf from Larinia, misidentified).
Araneus pallidulus Kraus, 1955b: 24, f. 66 (f, misidentified).
M. z. Levi, 1977a: 92, f. 104-111 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
M. z. Levi, 1995a: 86, f. 39-47 (mf).

Gen. Metepeira F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903

Transferred to other genera:
M. andamanensis Tikader, 1977 -- see Nephilengys under Tetragnathidae.
M. arabesca Mello-Leitão, 1947 -- see Araneus.
M. aurantiifemuris Mello-Leitão, 1942 -- see Araneus.
M. chilensis (Nicolet, 1849) -- see Molinaranea.
M. citrinella (Roewer, 1942) -- see Alpaida.
M. delineata Mello-Leitão, 1943 -- see Araneus.
M. dubitata Soares & Camargo, 1948 -- see Dubiepeira.
M. lathyrina (Holmberg, 1875) -- see Araneus.
M. taperae Mello-Leitão, 1937 -- see Araneus.
M. uniformis (Keyserling, 1879) -- see Araneus.
M. vittata Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1948 -- see Aculepeira.
M. wiedenmeyeri Schenkel, 1953 -- see Alpaida.
M. workmani (Keyserling, 1884) -- see Araneus.

In synonymy:
M. acostai Archer, 1958 = M. triangularis (Franganillo, 1930) (Piel, 2001: 63).
M. bani Archer, 1965 = M. triangularis (Franganillo, 1930) (Piel, 2001: 63).
M. dakota Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = M. grandiosa alpina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941 (Levi, 1977b: 212).
M. dominicana Archer, 1965 = M. vigilax (Keyserling, 1893) (Piel, 2001: 30).
M. douglasi Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941 = M. grinnelli (Coolidge, 1910) (Levi, 1977b: 198).
M. ensenada Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = M. ventura Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 (Levi, 1977b: 204).
M. grinnelli (Coolidge, 1910) = M. spinipes F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 (Piel, 2001: 34).
M. inerma Bryant, 1945 = M. datona Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 (Levi, 1977b: 208).
M. josepha Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = M. crassipes Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 (Levi, 1977b: 202).
M. keyserlingi (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = M. labyrinthea (Hentz, 1847) (Levi, 1977b: 196).
M. latigyna Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = M. compsa (Chamberlin, 1916) (Piel, 2001: 48).
M. nanella Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = M. foxi Gertsch & Ivie, 1936 (Levi, 1977b: 210).
M. palomara Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = M. grandiosa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941 (Levi, 1977b: 210).
M. perezi Archer, 1965 = M. compsa (Chamberlin, 1916) (Piel, 2001: 48).
M. salei (Keyserling, 1864) = M. incrassata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 (Piel, 2001: 68; N.B.: older name suppressed for lack of usage).
M. santa (Chamberlin, 1916) = M. glomerabilis (Keyserling, 1892) (Piel, 2001: 28).
M. seditiosa (Keyserling, 1893) = M. gressa (Keyserling, 1892) (Piel, 2001: 54).
M. triangularis (Franganillo, 1930, T from Mangora) = M. labyrinthea (Hentz, 1847) (Franganillo, 1936c: 75).
M. vaurieorum Archer, 1965 = M. compsa (Chamberlin, 1916) (Piel, 2001: 48).
M. virginensis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = M. compsa (Chamberlin, 1916) (Piel, 2001: 48).

mf arizonica Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942....................USA, Mexico
M. a. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 69, f. 182-187 (Dmf).
M. a. Levi, 1977b: 200, f. 12-13, 39-46 (mf).
M. a. Piel, 2001: 66, f. 206-212 (mf).

mf atascadero Piel, 2001....................Mexico
M. a. Piel, 2001: 67, f. 214-221 (Dmf).

f bengryi (Archer, 1958)....................Jamaica
Singa b. Archer, 1958: 18, f. 38 (Df).
M. b. Levi, 1972a: 230 (Tf from Singa).

f brunneiceps Caporiacco, 1954....................French Guiana
M. beunneiceps Caporiacco, 1954: 102, f. 23, 23a (Df, lapsus).

mf cajabamba Piel, 2001....................Ecuador, Peru
M. c. Piel, 2001: 26, f. 38-45 (Dmf).

mf calamuchita Piel, 2001....................Argentina
M. c. Piel, 2001: 42, f. 100-107 (Dmf).

mf celestun Piel, 2001....................Mexico
M. c. Piel, 2001: 74, f. 243-249 (Dmf).

mf chilapae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936....................Mexico
M. c. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 45, pl. 13, f. 119-121 (Dm).
M. c. Piel, 2001: 78, f. 264-270 (m, Df).

mf comanche Levi, 1977....................USA, Mexico
M. c. Levi, 1977b: 204, f. 61-69 (Dmf).
M. c. Piel, 2001: 62, f. 185-191 (mf).

mf compsa (Chamberlin, 1916)....................Puerto Rico to Argentina
Araneus c. Chamberlin, 1916: 252, pl. 19, f. 6 (Df).
M. virginensis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 70, f. 188-190 (Dmf).
M. latigyna Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 70, f. 191-192 (Df).
M. c. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 71, f. 193-195 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).
M. perezi Archer, 1965b: 132, f. 14, 16 (Dmf).
M. vaurieorum Archer, 1965b: 133, f. 15, 19 (Dmf).
M. vaurieorum Lopez, 1993: 10, f. 11 (m).
M. c. Piel, 2001: 48, f. 5, 129-140 (mf, S).

mf crassipes Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942....................USA, Mexico
M. c. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 66, f. 171-173 (Dmf).
M. josepha Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 64, f. 165 (Df).
M. c. Levi, 1977b: 202, f. 47-52 (mf, S).
M. c. Piel, 2001: 77, f. 2, 257-263 (mf).

mf datona Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942....................USA, Greater Antilles
M. d. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 68, f. 196 (Df).
M. inerma Bryant, 1945a: 378, f. 20 (Df).
M. d. Levi, 1977b: 208, f. 78-86 (f, Dm, S).
M. d. Piel, 2001: 20, f. 7-13 (mf).

mf desenderi Baert, 1987....................Galapagos Is.
M. d. Baert, 1987b: 145, f. 16-21 (Dmf).
M. d. Piel, 2001: 21, f. 15-21 (mf).

mf foxi Gertsch & Ivie, 1936....................USA, Canada
M. f. Gertsch & Ivie, 1936: 20, f. 42-44 (Dmf).
M. f. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 71, f. 197-198 (m).
M. nanella Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 71, f. 199 (Df).
M. f. Levi, 1977b: 210, f. 87-96 (mf, S).

mf galatheae (Thorell, 1891)....................Chile, Argentina
Epeira g. Thorell, 1891: 53 (Df).
M. g. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Araneus).
M. g. Piel, 2001: 43, f. 110-120 (f, Dm).

mf glomerabilis (Keyserling, 1892)....................Colombia to Paraguay, Brazil
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 154, pl. 8. f. 113 (Dmf).
Araneus g. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 294.
Aranea santa Chamberlin, 1916: 254, pl. 19, f. 10 (Df).
M. santa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 67 (Tf from Araneus).
M. g. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 68, f. 181 (Tmf from Araneus).
Metazygia g. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tmf from Metepeira).
M. g. Piel, 2001: 28, f. 46-52 (Tmf from Metazygia, S).

mf gosoga Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935....................USA, Mexico
M. g. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935b: 21, pl. 10, f. 82-83 (Df).
M. g. Levi, 1977b: 209, f. 28-36 (f, Dm).
M. g. Piel, 2001: 59, f. 171-177 (mf).

mf grandiosa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941....................North America
M. g. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941b: 17, f. 24-26 (Df).
M. palomara Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 72, f. 200-204 (Dmf).
M. g. Levi, 1977b: 210, f. 112-116 (m, Sf).
M. g. Piel, 2001: 23, f. 22-28 (mf).

mf grandiosa alpina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942....................North America
M. dakota Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 73, f. 205-207 (Dmf).
M. alpina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 74 (Df).
M. g. a. Levi, 1977b: 212, f. 99-100, 106-111 (f reduced to subspecies, Sm).
M. g. a. Piel, 2001: 24, f. 29-35 (mf).

mf grandiosa palustris Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942....................USA, Canada
M. palustris Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 73, f. 208-210 (Dmf).
M. g. p. Levi, 1977b: 212, f. 97-98, 101-105 (mf, reduced to subspecies).

mf gressa (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
Epeira g. Keyserling, 1892: 166, pl. 8, f. 123 (Df).
Epeira seditiosa Keyserling, 1893: 212, pl. 10, f. 157 (Dm).
Araneus gressus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 295.
Araneus seditiosus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 314.
Eustala seditosa Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 179 (Tm from Araneus).
Metazygia g. Mello-Leitão, 1943a: 187 (Tf from Araneus).
M. g. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Metazygia).
M. seditiosa Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tm from Eustala).
M. g. Piel, 2001: 54, f. 149-156 (f, Sm).

mf inca Piel, 2001....................Peru
M. i. Piel, 2001: 58, f. 164-170 (Dmf).

mf incrassata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903....................Mexico
Epeira salei Keyserling, 1864: 93, pl. 4, f. 10-11 (Df; N.B.: suppressed by Piel, 2001: 68 for lack of usage).
Epeira salei Keyserling, 1892: 196, pl. 9, f. 145 (f).
M. i. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 460, pl. 43, f. 11 (Df).
Aranea sallei F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 519.
Araneus salei Petrunkevitch, 1911: 314.
M. salei Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tf from Araneus).
M. i. Piel, 2001: 68, f. 222-228 (f, Dm, S).

mf jaimaicensis Archer, 1958....................Hispaniola, Jamaica, Grand Cayman Is.
M. j. Archer, 1958: 16, f. 33 (Df).
M. j. Piel, 2001: 86, f. 293-299 (removed f from S of M. minima, contra Levi, 1977b: 206, Dm).

mf karkii (Tullgren, 1901)....................Chile, Argentina
Araneus k. Tullgren, 1901b: 219, pl. 17, f. 4 (Df).
M. k. Piel, 2001: 46, f. 121-128 (removed f from S of M. labyrinthea, Dm).

mf labyrinthea (Hentz, 1847)....................North America
Epeira l. Hentz, 1847: 471, pl. 31, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira crucifera Keyserling, 1864: 132, pl. 6, f. 11-12 (Df; preoccupied by Lucas, 1835).
Epeira solitudinis Holmberg, 1881b: 122, pl. 3, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira l. Emerton, 1884: 314, pl. 34, f. 8, pl. 36, f. 11 (f, Dm).
Epeira l. Keyserling, 1893: 215, pl. 10, f. 160 (mf).
Epeira l. McCook, 1894: 171, pl. 7, f. 10-12 (mf).
Epeira l. Emerton, 1902: 174, f. 408-410 (f).
M. l. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 458, pl. 43, f. 6-7 (mf).
Araneus labyrintheus Simon, 1904e: 95.
Araneus cruciferus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 287.
Araneus solitudinis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 317.
M. l. Chamberlin, 1924b: 648, f. 91-92.
M. l. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 319, f. 194-196 (mf).
M. l. Franganillo, 1936c: 75 (S).
M. l. Comstock, 1940: 476, f. 476 (m).
M. l. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 63, f. 161-164 (mf).
Aranea keyserlingi Roewer, 1942a: 861 (replacement name for Epeira crucifera).
M. l. Muma, 1943: 95, pl. XIV, f. 1 (f).
M. l. Kaston, 1948: 226, f. 704, 724 (m).
Araneus labyrintheus Bücherl, 1959: 295, f. 19-21 (f).
M. l. Levi, 1977b: 196, f. 1-11, 14-20 (mf, S).
M. l. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 63 (m).
M. l. Piel, 2001: 7, f. 6 (m).

mf lacandon Piel, 2001....................Mexico
M. l. Piel, 2001: 37, f. 76-83 (Dmf).

f lima Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942....................Peru
M. l. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 67, f. 180 (Df).

mf maya Piel, 2001....................Mexico to Costa Rica
M. m. Piel, 2001: 56, f. 157-163 (Dmf).

mf minima Gertsch, 1936....................USA to Honduras
M. m. Gertsch, 1936a: 10, f. 31 (Dm).
M. m. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 67, f. 174 (Df).
M. m. Levi, 1977b: 206, f. 70-77 (mf, S now rejected).
M. m. Piel, 2001: 82, f. 278-285 (mf).

mf nigriventris (Taczanowski, 1878)....................Peru, Bolivia
Epeira n. Taczanowski, 1878b: 151, pl. 1, f. 6 (Dmf).
Epeira n. Keyserling, 1893: 217, pl. 10, f. 161 (mf).
Araneus n. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
M. n. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 74, f. 211-214 (Tmf from Araneus).
M. n. Piel, 2001: 38, f. 84-91 (mf).

mf olmec Piel, 2001....................Mexico to Panama
M. o. Piel, 2001: 60, f. 178-184 (Dmf).

mf pacifica Piel, 2001....................Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
M. p. Piel, 2001: 84, f. 286-292 (Dmf).

mf petatlan Piel, 2001....................Mexico
M. p. Piel, 2001: 80, f. 271-277 (Dmf).

mf pimungan Piel, 2001....................USA
M. p. Piel, 2001: 62, f. 192-198 (Dmf).

mf rectangula (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile, Argentina
Epeira r. Nicolet, 1849: 500 (Df).
M. r. Piel, 2001: 32, f. 60-66 (removed f from S of M. labyrinthea, Dm).

mf revillagigedo Piel, 2001....................Mexico
M. r. Piel, 2001: 73, f. 236-242 (Dmf).

mf roraima Piel, 2001....................Colombia, Brazil, Guyana
M. r. Piel, 2001: 53, f. 141-148 (Dmf).

mf spinipes F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 *....................USA, Mexico
M. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 459, pl. 43, f. 9-10 (Dmf).
Epeira labyrinthea grinnelli Coolidge, 1910: 281 (Df).
Araneus s. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 317.
M. douglasi Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941b: 18, f. 21-23 (Df).
M. douglasi Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 66, f. 169-170 (Dm).
M. grinnelli Levi, 1977b: 198, f. 21-27, 37-38 (elevated f from subspecies, Sm).
M. s. Piel, 2001: 34, f. 67-75 (mf, S).

mf tarapaca Piel, 2001....................Peru, Chile
M. t. Piel, 2001: 40, f. 3, 92-99 (Dmf).

mf triangularis (Franganillo, 1930)....................Cuba, Hispaniola
Mangora t. Franganillo, 1930: 21, f. 7 (Df).
M. acostai Archer, 1958: 15, f. 36 (Df).
M. t. Archer, 1958: 15, f. 37 (f).
M. bani Archer, 1965b: 132, f. 11, 13, 17 (Dmf).
M. t. Piel, 2001: 63, f. 199-205 (removed f from S of M. labyrinthea, Sm).

mf uncata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903....................Guatemala to Costa Rica
M. u. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903a: 459, pl. 43, f. 8 (Dm).
M. u. Piel, 2001: 76, f. 250-256 (m, Df).

mf ventura Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942....................USA, Mexico
M. v. Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 67, f. 175-179 (Dmf).
M. ensenada Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 65, f. 166-168 (Dm).
M. v. Levi, 1977b: 204, f. 53-60 (mf, S).
M. v. Piel, 2001: 71, f. 229-235 (mf).

mf vigilax (Keyserling, 1893)....................Hispaniola, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina
Epeira v. Keyserling, 1893: 211, pl. 10, f. 156 (Dm).
Araneus v. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324.
M. dominicana Archer, 1965b: 132, f. 12, 18 (Df).
M. v. Levi, 1991a: 180 (Tm from Araneus).
M. v. Piel, 2001: 30, f. 53-59 (m, Sf).

f ypsilonota Mello-Leitão, 1940....................Brazil
M. y. Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 205 (Df).

Gen. Micrathena Sundevall, 1833

N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Ildibaha Keyserling, 1892 by Levi, 1985: 440 and of Thaumastobella Mello-Leitão, 1945a: 263, type T. mourei Mello-Leitão, 1945 by Scharff, 1991: 155.

Transferred to other genera:
M. beta Caporiacco, 1947 -- see Linyphiidae incertae sedis.
M. conspicua Mello-Leitão, 1929 -- see Chaetacis.
M. necopinata Chickering, 1960 -- see Chaetacis.

In synonymy:
M. acanthomasta (Mello-Leitão, 1945) = M. spitzi Mello-Leitão, 1932 (Levi, 1985: 551).
M. aciculata Simon, 1897 = M. crassa (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 474).
M. aculeata (Fabricius, 1775) = M. spinosa (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1985: 581).
M. acutoides (Taczanowski, 1879) = M. triangularispinosa (De Geer, 1778) (Levi, 1985: 537).
M. acutospina (Keyserling, 1863) = M. lucasi (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 496).
M. alata (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. plana (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 509).
M. albomaculata (Keyserling, 1892) = M. flaveola (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1985: 544).
M. alpha Caporiacco, 1947 = M. acuta (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1985: 542).
M. amplexa Mello-Leitão, 1944 = M. furcata (Hahn, 1822) (Levi, 1985: 568).
M. armata (Olivier, 1789) = M. militaris (Fabricius, 1775) (Bryant, 1940: 376).
M. asciata (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. digitata (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1985: 475).
M. bergi Simon, 1901 = M. crassispina (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 494).
M. bifissa (Keyserling, 1892) = M. brevispina (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 522).
M. bifurcata (Hahn, 1835) = M. furcata (Hahn, 1822) (Levi, 1985: 568).
M. browningi Chickering, 1960 = M. schenkeli Mello-Leitão, 1939 (Levi, 1985: 539).
M. brunnea Mello-Leitão, 1941 = M. guerini (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 449).
M. bryantae Chickering, 1964 = M. forcipata (Thorell, 1859) (Levi, 1985: 594).
M. bullata (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. digitata (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1985: 475).
M. cala Chamberlin, 1916 = M. fidelis (Banks, 1909) (Levi, 1985: 477, contra Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 266, who placed M. c. as a synonym of M. elongata instead).
M. carvalhoi Mello-Leitão, 1944 = M. pungens (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1985: 599).
M. catenulata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = M. funebris (Marx, 1898) (Levi, 1985: 586).
M. caucaensis Strand, 1908 = M. bicolor (Keyserling, 1863) (Levi, 1985: 534).
M. coleophora Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = M. schreibersi (Perty, 1833) (Chickering, 1961: 452).
M. comstocki Archer, 1951 = M. sagittata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1978a: 432).
M. cornigera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) = M. sexspinosa (Hahn, 1822) (Chickering, 1961: 456).
M. cuminamensis Mello-Leitão, 1930 = M. miles Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1985: 482).
M. cylindracea Franganillo, 1930 = M. forcipata (Thorell, 1859) (Bryant, 1940: 372).
M. dahli Reimoser, 1917 = M. triangularispinosa (De Geer, 1778) (Levi, 1985: 537).
M. defensa (Butler, 1873) = M. vigorsi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 557).
M. difissa (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. furcata (Hahn, 1822) (Levi, 1985: 568).
M. disjuncta Chickering, 1961 = M. duodecimspinosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) (Levi, 1985: 506).
M. duplicata (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. schreibersi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 554).
M. fericula (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) = M. flaveola (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1985: 544).
M. flabellata (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. furcata (Hahn, 1822) (Levi, 1985: 568).
M. flavomaculata (Keyserling, 1863) = M. forcipata (Thorell, 1859) (Chickering, 1964a: 257).
M. gamma Caporiacco, 1947 = M. schenkeli Mello-Leitão, 1939 (Levi, 1985: 539).
M. gentilicia Chickering, 1964 = M. schenkeli Mello-Leitão, 1939 (Levi, 1985: 539).
M. gertschi Chickering, 1964 = M. triangularis (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 512).
M. gladiola (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. flaveola (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1985: 544).
M. granulata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = M. funebris (Marx, 1898) (Levi, 1978a: 426).
M. hamata Chickering, 1960 = M. spinosa (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1985: 581).
M. henseli Reimoser, 1917 = M. nigrichelis Strand, 1908 (Levi, 1985: 455).
M. hyatti Chickering, 1960 = M. digitata (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1985: 475).
M. imbellis Simon, 1895 = M. saccata (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 490).
M. inaequalis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = M. lucasi (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 496).
M. inermis (Schenkel, 1953) = M. acuta (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1985: 542).
M. insolita Chickering, 1961 = M. evansi Chickering, 1960 (Levi, 1985: 536).
M. joinvillicola Strand, 1915 = M. lucasi (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 496).
M. lepida Chickering, 1964 = M. evansi Chickering, 1960 (Levi, 1985: 536).
M. lesserti Mello-Leitão, 1939 = M. schreibersi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 555).
M. levii Chickering, 1964 = M. evansi Chickering, 1960 (Levi, 1985: 536).
M. longicauda (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) = M. horrida (Taczanowski, 1873) (Chickering, 1961: 424).
M. lordotica Mello-Leitão, 1941 = M. rubicundula (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 454).
M. luctuosa (Taczanowski, 1873) = M. pungens (Walckenaer, 1842) (Chickering, 1960d: 85).
M. macilenta Chickering, 1961 = M. duodecimspinosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) (Levi, 1985: 506).
M. maculata (Banks, 1900) = M. funebris (Marx, 1898) (Levi, 1978a: 426).
M. mansueta Chickering, 1960 = M. brevispina (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 522).
M. maronica (Taczanowski, 1873) = M. plana (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 509).
M. mathani Simon, 1897 = M. triangularispinosa (De Geer, 1778) (Levi, 1985: 537).
M. melloleitaoi Archer, 1971 = M. macfarlanei Chickering, 1961 (Levi, 1985: 498).
M. miles nigra Caporiacco, 1948 = M. miles Simon, 1895 (Levi, 1985: 482).
M. mirifica Chickering, 1961 = M. excavata (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 516).
M. misionesica (Mello-Leitão, 1945) = M. spitzi Mello-Leitão, 1932 (Levi, 1985: 550).
M. modica Chickering, 1961 = M. quadriserrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (Levi, 1985: 518).
M. mourei (Mello-Leitão, 1945) = M. saccata (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Scharff, 1991: 155).
M. multituberculata Caporiacco, 1947 = M. horrida (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1985: 596).
M. munsonae Archer, 1971 = M. triangularispinosa (De Geer, 1778) (Levi, 1985: 537).
M. mutilloides (Simon, 1895) = M. vigorsi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 557).
M. myrmeciaeformis (Taczanowski, 1872) = M. schreibersi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 554).
M. nigrior Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = M. gracilis (Walckenaer, 1806) (Chickering, 1961: 421).
M. nitida Chickering, 1964 = M. plana (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 509).
M. occidentalis (Taczanowski, 1879) = M. lucasi (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 496).
M. patruelis alba Franganillo, 1930 = M. cubana (Banks, 1909) (Levi, 1985: 491).
M. patruelis luteomaculata Strand, 1908 = M. mitrata (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1985: 486).
M. patruelis mediovittata Strand, 1908 = M. mitrata (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1985: 486).
M. patruelis rufa Franganillo, 1930 = M. cubana (Banks, 1909) (Levi, 1985: 491).
M. perlata Simon, 1895 = M. spinosa (Linnaeus, 1758) (Levi, 1985: 581).
M. peruana (Taczanowski, 1879) = M. mitrata (Hentz, 1850) (Levi, 1985: 486).
M. petersi (Taczanowski, 1872) = M. sexspinosa (Hahn, 1822) (Levi, 1985: 585).
M. pfannli Reimoser, 1917 = M. furva (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1985: 476).
M. pilosa (Taczanowski, 1873) = M. triangularis (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 512).
M. planata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = M. clypeata (Walckenaer, 1805) (Mello-Leitão, 1940c: 176).
M. praeterita Chickering, 1964 = M. schenkeli Mello-Leitão, 1939 (Levi, 1985: 539).
M. pubescens Simon, 1895 = M. furcula (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) (Levi, 1985: 483).
M. racemina (Butler, 1873) = M. horrida (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1985: 596).
M. reduviana (Walckenaer, 1842, removed from S of M. patruelis) = M. gracilis (Walckenaer, 1805) (Levi, 1978a: 433).
M. reduviana alba Franganillo, 1930 = M. cubana (Banks, 1909) (Levi, 1985: 491).
M. reduviana rufa Franganillo, 1936 = M. cubana (Banks, 1909) (Levi, 1985: 491).
M. retracta Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = M. saccata (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 490, contra Chickering, 1961: 445).
M. rouxi (Mello-Leitão, 1939, T from Chaetacis) = M. quadriserrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (Levi, 1985: 518).
M. rubrocincta (Butler, 1873) = M. rufopunctata (Butler, 1873) (Levi, 1985: 486).
M. rubrospinosa (Keyserling, 1892) = M. brevispina (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 522).
M. rufa (Taczanowski, 1873, removed from S of M. spinosa) = M. triangularispinosa (De Geer, 1778) (Levi, 1985: 537).
M. ruschii (Mello-Leitão, 1945) = M. triangularis (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 512).
M. sagittata emertoni Archer, 1951 = M. sagittata (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1978a: 432).
M. sanctispiritus Brignoli, 1983 = M. lindenbergi Mello-Leitão, 1940 (Levi, 1985: 502).
M. sedes (Gétaz, 1893, removed from S of M. sexspinosa) = M. brevipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) (Levi, 1985: 578).
M. serrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = M. parallela (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) (Levi, 1985: 508).
M. silvicola Badcock, 1932 = M. swainsoni (Perty, 1833) (Mello-Leitão, 1946b: 39).
M. simoni Petrunkevitch, 1910 = M. horrida (Taczanowski, 1873) (Levi, 1985: 596).
M. sordida (Taczanowski, 1873) = M. triangularis (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 512).
M. subflava Chickering, 1961 = M. excavata (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 516).
M. subspinosa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = M. duodecimspinosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) (Levi, 1985: 506).
M. subtilis (Taczanowski, 1873) = M. schreibersi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 555).
M. tenuis (Taczanowski, 1873) = M. schreibersi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 555).
M. tigris Mello-Leitão, 1932 = M. fissispina (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 478).
M. timida Caporiacco, 1947 = M. saccata (C. L. Koch, 1836) (Levi, 1985: 490).
M. tovarensis Simon, 1897 = M. crassa (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 474).
M. trapa (Gétaz, 1893) = M. lucasi (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 496).
M. tucumana Simon, 1897 = M. furva (Keyserling, 1892) (Levi, 1985: 476).
M. uncata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 = M. quadriserrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (Levi, 1985: 518).
M. vespoides (Walckenaer, 1842) = M. schreibersi (Perty, 1833) (Levi, 1985: 554).
M. vitiosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890) = M. flaveola (C. L. Koch, 1839) (Levi, 1985: 544).
M. xanthopyga Simon, 1895 = M. crassa (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1985: 474).

Homonym replaced:
M. parallela Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see M. lindenbergi.

Nomina dubia:
M. bisicata (Walckenaer, 1842: 192, f, Brazil, originally in Plectana) -- Levi, 1985: 446.
M. mastonota Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 209 (f, Brazil) -- Levi, 1985: 446.

mf acuta (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Trinidad to Argentina
Plectana a. Walckenaer, 1842: 172 (Df).
Acrosoma acutum Keyserling, 1864: 71, pl. 2, f. 4 (f).
Acrosoma acutum Keyserling, 1892: 28, pl. 1, f. 25 (f).
M. a. Simon, 1895a: 853.
M. alpha Caporiacco, 1947a: 26 (Djm).
Ildibaha inermis Schenkel, 1953a: 28, f. 25a-b (Dm).
M. a. Levi, 1985: 542, f. 498-507 (f, Sm).

mf agriliformis (Taczanowski, 1879)....................Costa Rica to Bolivia
Acrosoma a. Taczanowski, 1879: 119 (Dmf; N.B.: "nicht zu deuten" per Roewer).
Araneus a. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 278.
M. a. Levi, 1985: 469, f. 94-101 (Tmf from Araneus).

f alvarengai Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. a. Levi, 1985: 517, f. 364-368 (Df).

mf anchicaya Levi, 1985....................Colombia, Ecuador
M. a. Levi, 1985: 575, f. 654-661 (Dmf).

mf annulata Reimoser, 1917....................Brazil, Paraguay
M. a. Reimoser, 1917: 149, pl. 9, f. 31 (Df).
M. a. Levi, 1985: 532, f. 440-447 (f, Dm).

f armigera (C. L. Koch, 1837)....................Brazil, Peru, Guyana
Acrosoma armigerum C. L. Koch, 1837a: 11, f. 257 (Df).
Plectana a. Walckenaer, 1842: 184.
M. a. Simon, 1895a: 860.
M. a. Reimoser, 1917: 138, pl. 9, f. 28 (Df).
M. a. Levi, 1985: 499, f. 261-265 (f).

mf atuncela Levi, 1985....................Colombia
M. a. Levi, 1985: 451, f. 31-39 (Dmf).

mf balzapamba Levi, 1985....................Ecuador
M. b. Levi, 1985: 552, f. 556-563 (Dmf).

f bananal Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. b. Levi, 1985: 517, f. 359-363 (Df).

mf banksi Levi, 1985....................Cuba
M. militaris Bryant, 1940: 376, f. 154 (f; not m).
M. b. Levi, 1985: 562, f. 589-596 (Dmf).

mf bicolor (Keyserling, 1864)....................Colombia, Peru
Acrosoma b. Keyserling, 1864: 73, pl. 2, f. 6 (Df).
Acrosoma b. Keyserling, 1892: 20, pl. 1, f. 16 (f).
M. b. Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. caucaensis Strand, 1908c: 4 (Df).
M. b. Chickering, 1960d: 67, f. 4-7 (f).
M. b. Levi, 1985: 534, f. 448-455 (f, Dm).

mf bifida (Taczanowski, 1879)....................Peru
Acrosoma b. Taczanowski, 1879: 112, pl. 1, f. 29 (Df).
M. b. Simon, 1895a: 851.
M. b. Levi, 1985: 454, f. 40-47 (f, Dm).

mf bimucronata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1899)....................Mexico to Panama
Acrosoma bimucronatum O. P.-Cambridge, 1899a: 302, pl. 36, f. 14 (Df).
M. b. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 538, pl. 51, f. 23 (f).
M. b. Chickering, 1961: 396, f. 1-5 (f).
M. b. Levi, 1985: 484, f. 176-182 (f, Dm).

f bogota Levi, 1985....................Colombia
M. b. Levi, 1985: 459, f. 84-88 (Df).

mf brevipes (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890)....................Mexico to Panama
Acrosoma b. O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 62, pl. 8, f. 10 (Dm).
Acrosoma b. Keyserling, 1892: 12, pl. 1, f. 9 (m).
Acrosoma sedes Gétaz, 1893: 105 (Df).
M. b. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 531, pl. 50, f. 8 (m).
M. sedes F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 540.
Acrosoma sedes Banks, 1929: 92, pl. 3, f. 36 (f).
M. b. Chickering, 1961: 398, f. 6-8 (m).
M. b. Levi, 1985: 578, f. 675-682, 723 (m, Df).

mf brevispina (Keyserling, 1864)....................Panama to Argentina
Acrosoma brevi-spinum Keyserling, 1864: 70, pl. 2, f. 3 (Df).
Acrosoma b. Butler, 1873b: 429.
Acrosoma brevi-spinum Keyserling, 1892: 25, pl. 1, f. 22 (f).
Acrosoma bifissum Keyserling, 1892: 30, pl. 1, f. 27 (Df).
Acrosoma rubrospinosum Keyserling, 1892: 30, pl. 2, f. 28 (Df).
M. bifissa Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. rubrospinosa Petrunkevitch, 1911: 377.
M. bifissa Reimoser, 1917: 95, pl. 3, f. 5 (Df).
M. bifissa Chickering, 1960d: 68, f. 8-11 (f).
M. b. Chickering, 1960d: 68, f. 12-14 (f).
M. mansueta Chickering, 1960d: 83, f. 66-70 (Dm).
M. b. Levi, 1985: 522, f. 386-393 (f, Sm).

mf clypeata (Walckenaer, 1805) *....................Panama to Peru
Epeira c. Walckenaer, 1805: 67 (D).
M. c. Sundevall, 1833b: 14.
M. c. C. L. Koch, 1837a: 38, f. 272 (f).
Plectana c. Walckenaer, 1842: 197.
M. c. Taczanowski, 1879: 109 (Dm).
M. c. Simon, 1895a: 859, f. 897 (f).
M. c. Reimoser, 1917: 90, pl.2, f. 3 (f).
M. planata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 54, pl. 15, f. 132-133, pl. 16, f. 139 (Dmf).
M. c. Mello-Leitão, 1940c: 176 (S).
M. c. Chickering, 1961: 400, f. 14-20 (mf).
M. c. Levi, 1985: 526, f. 418-425 (mf).

mf coca Levi, 1985....................Colombia to Brazil
M. c. Levi, 1985: 584, f. 704-711, 725, 729 (Dmf).

f coroico Levi, 1985....................Bolivia
M. c. Levi, 1985: 494, f. 230-234 (Df).

mf crassa (Keyserling, 1864)....................Costa Rica to Argentina
Acrosoma crassum Keyserling, 1864: 78, pl. 2, f. 11 (Df).
Acrosoma crassum Keyserling, 1892: 19, pl. 1, f. 15 (f).
M. xanthopyga Simon, 1895a: 854, f. 915 (Df).
M. c. Simon, 1895a: 860.
M. tovarensis Simon, 1897b: 468 (Df).
M. aciculata Simon, 1897b: 469 (Df).
M. xanthopyga Simon, 1897b: 470 (Df).
M. c. Reimoser, 1917: 110, pl. 6, f. 14 (f).
M. tovarensis Chickering, 1960c: 5, f. 13-14 (m).
M. c. Chickering, 1960d: 71, f. 21-25 (f).
M. c. Chickering, 1961: 402, f. 21-25 (f).
M. c. Levi, 1985: 474, f. 115-121 (f, Dm, S).

mf crassispina (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina
Acrosoma crassispinum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 55, f. 209 (Df).
Plectana c. Walckenaer, 1842: 180.
M. c. Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 906 (f).
M. bergi Simon, 1901h: 121 (Df).
M. c. Levi, 1985: 494, f. 235-241 (f, Dm, S).

mf cubana (Banks, 1909)....................Cuba
Acrosoma c. Banks, 1909b: 163, pl. 45, f. 2 (Df).
M. reduviana alba Franganillo, 1930: 32 (Df).
M. reduviana rufa Franganillo, 1936c: 98 (D).
M. c. Bryant, 1940: 371, f. 137-138, 144, 152-153 (f only).
M. forcipata Bryant, 1940: 372, f. 141, 146 (m only, misidentified).
M. c. Chickering, 1964a: 256, f. 4-10 (f only).
M. forcipata Chickering, 1964a: 257, f. 16 (m only, misidentified).
M. patruelis alba Brignoli, 1983c: 248.
M. patruelis rufa Brignoli, 1983c: 248.
M. c. Levi, 1985: 491, f. 218-224 (f, Tm from M. forcipata, S).

f cyanospina (Lucas, 1835)....................Colombia to Brazil
Epeira c. Lucas, 1835a: 70, pl. 140, f. 3 (Df).
Plectana c. Walckenaer, 1842: 178.
Meganopla c. Simon, 1864: 292.
Acrosoma cyanospinum Butler, 1873b: 420.
M. c. Simon, 1895a: 849, f. 896 (f).
M. c. Chickering, 1960d: 73, f. 26-28 (f).
M. c. Levi, 1985: 566, f. 620-624 (f).

mf decorata Chickering, 1960....................Colombia
M. d. Chickering, 1960d: 73, f. 29-32 (Df).
M. d. Levi, 1985: 549, f. 534-542 (f, Dm).

f degeeri (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Surinam
Plectana degeerii Walckenaer, 1842: 174 (Df).
Acrosoma d. Butler, 1873b: 425.
M. d. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 368 (N.B.: omitted by Levi, 1985).

mf digitata (C. L. Koch, 1839)....................Brazil
Acrosoma digitatum C. L. Koch, 1839a: 128, f. 523 (Df).
Plectana bullata Walckenaer, 1842: 191 (Df).
Plectana asciata Walckenaer, 1842: 194 (Df).
Acrosoma asciatum Butler, 1873b: 426.
Acrosoma bullatum Butler, 1873b: 427.
M. asciata Petrunkevitch, 1911: 366.
M. bullata Petrunkevitch, 1911: 367.
M. d. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 369.
M. d. Reimoser, 1917: 119, pl. 7, f. 18 (f).
M. d. Chickering, 1960d: 75, f. 33-37 (f).
M. hyatti Chickering, 1960d: 80, f. 58-62 (Df).
M. d. Levi, 1985: 475, f. 122-128 (f, Dm, S).

mf donaldi Chickering, 1961....................Costa Rica to Colombia
M. d. Chickering, 1961: 405, f. 31-34 (Dm).
M. d. Levi, 1985: 580, f. 683-690, 727 (m, Df).

mf duodecimspinosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890)....................Guatemala to Colombia
Acrosoma 12-spinosum O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 63, pl. 8, f. 12 (Df).
Acrosoma 12-spinosa Keyserling, 1892: 18, pl. 1, f. 14 (f).
M. subspinosa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 535, pl. 51, f. 17 (Df).
M. d. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 535, pl. 51, f. 18 (f).
M. d. Reimoser, 1917: 108, pl. 5, f. 12 (f).
M. disjuncta Chickering, 1961: 403, f. 26-30 (Dm).
M. d. Chickering, 1961: 408, f. 35-45 (mf).
M. macilenta Chickering, 1961: 432, f. 103-109 (Dm).
M. subspinosa Chickering, 1961: 463, f. 194-197 (f).
M. d. Levi, 1985: 505, f. 290-303 (f, Sm).

f elongata (Keyserling, 1863)....................Colombia
Acrosoma elongatum Keyserling, 1864: 75, pl. 2, f. 8 (Df).
Acrosoma elongatum Keyserling, 1892: 22, pl. 1, f. 19 (f).
M. e. Simon, 1895a: 864.
M. e. Reimoser, 1917: 97.
M. e. Chickering, 1960d: 76, f. 38-40 (f).
M. e. Levi, 1985: 459, f. 89-93 (f).

f embira Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. e. Levi, 1985: 552, f. 551-555 (Df).

mf evansi Chickering, 1960....................Panama, Trinidad to Brazil
M. e. Chickering, 1960d: 77, f. 41-45 (Dm).
M. insolita Chickering, 1961: 428, f. 94-98 (Df).
M. lepida Chickering, 1964a: 264, f. 30-34 (Df).
M. levii Chickering, 1964a: 267, f. 35-40 (Dm).
M. e. Levi, 1985: 536, f. 7, 456-470 (m, Sf).

mf excavata (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Panama to Brazil
Acrosoma excavatum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 80, f. 227 (Df).
M. e. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 369.
M. e. Reimoser, 1917: 108, pl. 5, f. 9 (f).
M. mirifica Chickering, 1961: 437, f. 117-121 (Dm).
M. subflava Chickering, 1961: 461, f. 189-193 (Df).
M. e. Levi, 1985: 516, f. 347-353 (f, Sm).

f exlinae Levi, 1985....................Peru
M. e. Levi, 1985: 514, f. 342-346 (Df).

mf fidelis (Banks, 1909)....................Costa Rica to Argentina
Acrosoma f. Banks, 1909a: 212 (Df).
M. f. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 370.
M. cala Chamberlin, 1916: 261, pl. 20, f. 6 (Df).
M. f. Chickering, 1961: 411, f. 46-49 (f).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 477, f. 136-143 (f, Dm, S).

mf fissispina (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Brazil, French Guiana
Acrosoma fissispinum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 54, f. 208 (Df).
Plectana f. Walckenaer, 1842: 189.
M. f. Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 903 (f).
M. f. Reimoser, 1917: 120, pl. 7, f. 20 (f).
M. tigris Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 87, f. 5 (Df).
M. f. Chickering, 1960b: 2, f. 1-3 (f).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 478, f. 149-155 (f, Dm, S).

mf flaveola (Perty, 1839)....................Costa Rica to Argentina
Acrosoma aculeatum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 58, f. 211 (Df, preoccupied).
Acrosoma flaveolum Perty, in C. L. Koch, 1839a: 126, f. 522 (Df).
Plectana f. Walckenaer, 1842: 182.
Plectana gladiola Walckenaer, 1842: 182.
Acrosoma gladiola Butler, 1873b: 424.
Acrosoma vitiosum O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 63, pl. 8, f. 14 (Dm).
Acrosoma fericulum O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 64, pl. 8, f. 13 (Df).
Acrosoma flaveolum Keyserling, 1892: 8, pl. 1, f. 5 (f).
Acrosoma vitiosa Keyserling, 1892: 10, pl. 1, f. 7 (m).
Acrosoma fericula Keyserling, 1892: 13, pl. 1, f. 10 (f).
Ildibaha albomaculata Keyserling, 1892: 31, pl. 2, f. 29 (Df).
M. vitiosa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 532, pl. 50, f. 11 (m).
M. gladiola F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 537.
M. fericula F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 539.
M. f. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 370.
M. kochi Mello-Leitão, 1915b: 143 (D).
M. f. Reimoser, 1917: 146, pl. 9, f. 30 (f).
Ildibaha fericula Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 94.
M. f. Chickering, 1961: 413, f. 50-54 (f).
M. gladiola Chickering, 1961: 419, f. 67-71 (f).
M. vitiosa Chickering, 1961: 466, f. 206-210 (m).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 544, f. 8, 508-520 (f, Sm).

mf forcipata (Thorell, 1859)....................Mexico, Cuba, Hispaniola
Acrosoma forcipatum Thorell, 1859: 300 (Df).
Acrosoma flavo-maculatum Keyserling, 1864: 77, pl. 2, f. 10 (Df).
Acrosoma flavo-maculatum Keyserling, 1892: 24, pl. 1, f. 21 (f).
M. flavomaculata Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 909 (f).
M. f. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 370.
M. cylindracea Franganillo, 1930: 32 (Df).
M. f. Bryant, 1940: 372, f. 149, 151 (removed f from S of M. sexspinosa, S; not m, = M. cubana).
M. bryantae Chickering, 1964a: 254, f. 1-3 (Dm).
M. f. Chickering, 1964a: 257, f. 11-15 (f only, S).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 594, f. 761-769 (f, Sm).

?? forcipata argentata Franganillo, 1930....................Cuba
M. cylindracea a. Franganillo, 1930: 32 (D; N.B.: omitted by Roewer).
M. laminaris Franganillo, 1930: 31 (D; synonymy per Bonnet).

mf funebris (Marx, 1898)....................USA to Costa Rica
Acrosoma funebre Marx, in Banks, 1898b: 249 (Df).
Acrosoma maculata Banks, 1900a: 100 (Df).
M. granulata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 532, pl. 50, f. 12 (Dm).
M. catenulata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 538, pl. 51, f. 24 (Df).
M. f. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 370.
M. maculata Petrunkevitch, 1911: 373.
M. catenulata Chickering, 1961: 398, f. 9-13 (f).
M. f. Chickering, 1961: 414, f. 55-59 (f).
M. granulata Chickering, 1961: 423, f. 78-82 (m).
M. f. Levi, 1978a: 426, f. 16-27 (f, Sm).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 586, f. 732-740 (mf, S).
M. f. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 56 (m).

mf furcata (Hahn, 1822)....................Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay
Epeira furcata Hahn, 1822: 2, pl. 11, f. A (Df).
Acrosoma bifurcata Hahn, 1835: 65, f. 158 (Df).
Acrosoma bifurcatum C. L. Koch, 1839a: 124, f. 521 (Df; N.B.: sexspinosa in legend, preoccupied).
Plectana difissa Walckenaer, 1842: 181.
Plectana flabellata Walckenaer, 1842: 192 (Df).
Plectana bifurcata Walckenaer, 1842: 195.
Acrosoma gilvulum C. L. Koch, 1844: 67, f. 886 (Df).
Acrosoma flabellatum Butler, 1873b: 425.
Acrosoma difissum Holmberg, 1883b: 236.
M. bifurcata Simon, 1895a: 911.
M. difissa Petrunkevitch, 1911: 369.
M. flabellata Petrunkevitch, 1911: 370.
M. difissa Reimoser, 1917: 113, pl. 6, f. 15 (f).
M. amplexa Mello-Leitão, 1944b: 332, f. 17-18 (Dm).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 568, f. 625-632 (f removed from S of M. sexspinosa, Sm).

mf furcula (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890)....................Guatemala to Brazil
Acrosoma f. O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 60, pl. 8, f. 11 (Df).
Acrosoma f. Keyserling, 1892: 17, pl. 1, f. 13 (f).
M. pubescens Simon, 1895a: 854, f. 917-918 (Df).
M. pubescens Simon, 1897b: 470 (Df).
M. f. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 539, pl. 51, f. 25 (f).
M. pubescens Chickering, 1960c: 5, f. 9-10 (m).
M. f. Chickering, 1961: 416, f. 60-66 (f, Dm).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 483, f. 169-175 (mf, S).

mf furva (Keyserling, 1892)....................Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina
Acrosoma furvum Keyserling, 1892: 7, pl. 1, f. 4 (Dm).
M. tucumana Simon, 1897e: 7 (Df).
M. f. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 371.
M. pfannli Reimoser, 1917: 111, pl. 5, f. 13 (Df).
M. f. Chickering, 1960d: 78, f. 46-49 (m).
M. f. Levi, 1985: 476, f. 129-135 (m, Sf).

f gaujoni Simon, 1897....................Ecuador, Colombia
M. g. Simon, 1897b: 466 (Df).
M. g. Chickering, 1960c: 2, f. 2-3 (f).
M. g. Levi, 1985: 478, f. 144-148 (f).

f glyptogonoides Levi, 1985....................Mexico
M. g. Levi, 1985: 594, f. 756-760 (Df).

mf gracilis (Walckenaer, 1805)....................North, Central America
Epeira g. Walckenaer, 1805: 65 (D).
Plectana g. Walckenaer, 1842: 193 (Df).
Plectana reduviana Walckenaer, 1842: 201 (Df).
Acrosoma matronale C. L. Koch, 1844: 68, f. 887 (Df).
Epeira rugosa Hentz, 1850: 21, pl. 3, f. 10 (Df).
Acrosoma gracile Butler, 1873b: 425.
Acrosoma reduvianum Butler, 1873b: 426.
Acrosoma rugosum Emerton, 1884: 326, pl. 38, f. 10 (f, Dm).
Acrosoma gracile McCook, 1894: 212, pl. 21, f. 1-4 (f, Dm).
M. matronalis Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 902 (f).
M. reduviana Simon, 1895a: 854, f. 914 (f).
Acrosoma rugosum Emerton, 1902: 189, f. 439 (mf).
M. g. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 528, pl. 50, f. 3, pl. 51, f. 16 (mf).
M. g. Reimoser, 1917: 87, pl. 1, f. 1 (mf).
M. sexacantha Franganillo, 1930: 32 (D; synonymy per Bonnet).
M. nigrior Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 58, pl. 16, f. 134-135 (Df).
M. g. Chickering, 1961: 421, f. 72-77 (mf, S).
M. g. Levi, 1978a: 433, f. 55-68 (mf, S).
M. g. Levi, 1985: 595, f. 770-773 (mf).
M. g. Breene et al., 1993: 100, f. 144A-C (mf).

mf guanabara Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. g. Levi, 1985: 505, f. 283-289 (Dmf).

mf guayas Levi, 1985....................Ecuador
M. g. Levi, 1985: 575, f. 646-653 (Dmf).

mf guerini (Keyserling, 1864)....................Colombia
Acrosoma guerinii Keyserling, 1864: 79, pl. 2, f. 12 (Df).
Acrosoma g. Keyserling, 1892: 22, pl. 1, f. 18 (f).
M. g. Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. g. Reimoser, 1917: 124, pl. 7, f. 21 (f).
M. brunnea Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 265, f. 2 (Df).
M. g. Chickering, 1960d: 79, f. 50-51 (f).
M. g. Levi, 1985: 449, f. 10-17 (f, Dm, S).

f gurupi Levi, 1985....................Brazil, Surinam
M. g. Levi, 1985: 459, f. 79-83 (Df).

f hamifera Simon, 1897....................Ecuador to Brazil
M. h. Simon, 1897b: 467 (Df).
M. h. Chickering, 1960c: 3, f. 4-5 (f).
M. h. Levi, 1985: 570, f. 633-637 (f).

mf horrida (Taczanowski, 1873)....................Greater Antilles, Mexico to Argentina
Acrosoma h. Taczanowski, 1873: 281, pl. 6, f. 31 (Df).
Acrosoma mammillatum Butler, 1873b: 427 (Df).
Acrosoma raceminum Butler, 1873b: 427 (Df).
Acrosoma longicauda O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 61, pl. 8, f. 9 (Dm).
Acrosoma longicauda Keyserling, 1892: 15, pl. 1, f. 11 (m).
M. h. Simon, 1895a: 851, f. 898, 919 (f).
M. mammillata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 529.
M. longicauda F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 530, pl. 50, f. 5 (m).
M. h. Petrunkevitch, 1910: 212, pl. 21, f. 9-11 (f).
M. simoni Petrunkevitch, 1910: 213 (D).
M. racemina Petrunkevitch, 1911: 376.
M. h. Reimoser, 1917: 85, pl. 2, f. 2 (f).
M. h. Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 79, f. 2a.
M. mammillata Bryant, 1940: 374, f. 142, 147, 155 (mf).
M. h. Chickering, 1961: 424, f. 83-88 (mf, S).
M. h. Levi, 1985: 596, f. 774-783 (mf, S).

?? horrida tuberculata Franganillo, 1930....................Cuba
M. mammillata t. Franganillo, 1930: 31 (D; N.B.: omitted by Roewer).

f huanuco Levi, 1985....................Peru
M. h. Levi, 1985: 514, f. 337-341 (Df).

mf jundiai Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. j. Levi, 1985: 532, f. 432-439 (Dmf).

mf kirbyi (Perty, 1833)....................Colombia to Brazil
Acrosoma k. Perty, 1833: 195, pl. 38, f. 11 (Df).
Acrosoma oblonga Taczanowski, 1873: 275, pl. 6, f. 26 (Df).
M. k. Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 904 (f).
M. oblonga Simon, 1895a: 860.
M. oblonga Petrunkevitch, 1910: 213, pl. 21, f. 12-13 (f).
M. k. Reimoser, 1917: 135, pl. 9, f. 26 (f).
M. k. Levi, 1985: 500, f. 266-270 (f).
M. k. Bonaldo, 1990: 89, f. 1-2 (Dm).

f kochalkai Levi, 1985....................Colombia
M. k. Levi, 1985: 452, f. 26-30 (Df).

mf lata Chickering, 1960....................Brazil
M. l. Chickering, 1960b: 5, f. 8-12 (Df).
M. l. Levi, 1985: 565, f. 608-615 (f, Dm).

f lenca Levi, 1985....................Mexico
M. l. Levi, 1985: 524, f. 405-409 (Df).

mf lepidoptera Mello-Leitão, 1941....................Costa Rica to Colombia
M. l. Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 266, f. 3 (Df).
M. l. Levi, 1985: 548, f. 525-533 (f, Dm).

f lindenbergi Mello-Leitão, 1940....................Brazil
M. l. Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 208 (Df).
M. parallela Mello-Leitão, 1940d: 209 (Df, preoccupied).
M. sanctispiritus Brignoli, 1983c: 249 (replacement name).
M. l. Levi, 1985: 502, f. 271-275 (f, S).

mf lucasi (Keyserling, 1864)....................Mexico to Brazil
Acrosoma lucasii Keyserling, 1864: 68, pl. 2, f. 1 (Df).
Acrosoma acuto-spinum Keyserling, 1864: 69, pl. 2, f. 2 (Df).
Acrosoma occidentalis Taczanowski, 1879: 111, pl. 1, f. 28 (Df).
Acrosoma l. Keyserling, 1892: 27, pl. 1, f. 24 (f).
Acrosoma trapa Gétaz, 1893: 105 (Df).
M. occidentalis Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. trapa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 539.
M. l. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 373.
M. occidentalis Reimoser, 1917: 112, pl. 6, f. 16 (f).
Acrosoma acutospina Keyserling, 1892: 26, pl. 1, f. 23 (f).
M. acutospina Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. inaequalis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 535, pl. 50, f. 20 (Df).
M. joinvillicola Strand, 1916b: 121 (Df).
M. acutospina Chickering, 1960d: 66, f. 1-3 (f).
M. l. Chickering, 1960d: 82, f. 63-65 (f).
M. occidentalis Chickering, 1960d: 85, f. 74-75 (f).
M. inaequalis Chickering, 1961: 427, f. 89-93 (f).
M. l. Levi, 1985: 496, f. 242-251 (f, Dm, S).

mf macfarlanei Chickering, 1961....................Panama to Brazil
M. m. Chickering, 1961: 430, f. 99-102 (Df).
M. melloleitaoi Archer, 1971: 157, f. 6 (Df).
M. m. Levi, 1985: 498, f. 252-260 (f, Dm, S).

f margerita Levi, 1985....................Mexico
M. m. Levi, 1985: 592, f. 746-750 (Df).

f marta Levi, 1985....................Colombia
M. m. Levi, 1985: 517, f. 354-358 (Df).

f miles Simon, 1895....................Brazil, Guyana, Peru
M. m. Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 907 (Df).
M. m. Simon, 1897b: 468 (Df).
M. cuminamensis Mello-Leitão, 1930b: 62, f. 16 (Df).
M. miles nigra Caporiacco, 1948a: 667 (Dj).
M. m. Levi, 1985: 482, f. 164-168 (f, S).

mf militaris (Fabricius, 1775)....................Greater Antilles
Aranea m. Fabricius, 1775: 416 (Df).
Aranea armata Olivier, 1789: 205 (Df).
Aranea taurus Fabricius, 1793: 424 (Df).
Plectana m. Walckenaer, 1842: 174.
Plectana furcata Walckenaer, 1842: 176.
Plectana armata Walckenaer, 1842: 179.
Acrosoma armatum C. L. Koch, 1844: 65, f. 885 (f).
Acrosoma furcata Butler, 1873b: 421.
Acrosoma militare Butler, 1873b: 423.
M. armata Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 910 (f).
M. m. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 373.
M. m. Petrunkevitch, 1926: 53, f. 12-15 (f).
M. m. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 257, f. 108 (f).
M. m. Bryant, 1940: 376, f. 140, 145 (Dm, S; not f, = M. banksi).
M. m. Chickering, 1964a: 269, f. 41-50 (mf).
M. m. Levi, 1985: 563, f. 597-607 (mf).

mf mitrata (Hentz, 1850)....................USA to Brazil
Epeira m. Hentz, 1850: 22, pl. 3, f. 11 (Df).
Acrosoma peruana Taczanowski, 1879: 116, pl. 1, f. 32 (Df).
Acrosoma m. Emerton, 1884: 327, pl. 38, f. 9 (Df).
Acrosoma reduvianum McCook, 1894: 213, pl. 23, f. 6-7 (mf, misidentified).
M. peruana Simon, 1895a: 861.
Acrosoma m. Emerton, 1902: 189, f. 438 (f).
M. m. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 538 (m).
M. patruelis luteomaculata Strand, 1908c: 4 (Df).
M. patruelis mediovittata Strand, 1908c: 4 (Df).
M. m. Chickering, 1961: 435, f. 110-116 (mf).
M. m. Levi, 1978a: 428, f. 28-40 (mf).
M. m. Levi, 1985: 486, f. 188, 192-198, pl. 3 (mf, S).

mf molesta Chickering, 1961....................Nicaragua to Panama
M. m. Chickering, 1961: 441, f. 127-132 (Df).
M. m. Levi, 1985: 523, f. 393-404 (f, Dm).

mf nigrichelis Strand, 1908....................Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
M. fissispina n. Strand, 1908c: 4 (Df).
M. henseli Reimoser, 1917: 121, pl. 7, f. 19 (Df).
M. henseli Camargo, 1950a: 450, f. 1a-c, 2a-f (Dm).
M. henseli Chickering, 1960d: 79, f. 52-57 (mf).
M. n. Levi, 1985: 455, f. 1-2, 6, 53-60 (f, Sm, elevated from subspecies).

f ornata Mello-Leitão, 1932....................Brazil
M. o. Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 86, f. 4 (Df).
M. o. Levi, 1985: 546, f. 521-524 (f).

mf parallela (O. P.-Cambridge, 1890)....................Costa Rica, Panama
Acrosoma parallelum O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 60, pl. 8, f. 15 (Dm).
Acrosoma parallelum Keyserling, 1892: 16, pl. 1, f. 12 (m).
M. p. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 533, pl. 50, f. 13 (m).
M. serrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 534, pl. 50, f. 19 (Df).
M. p. Chickering, 1961: 443, f. 133-137 (m).
M. serrata Chickering, 1961: 455, f. 169-173 (f).
M. p. Levi, 1985: 508, f. 304-310 (m, Sf).

mf patruelis (C. L. Koch, 1839)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Acrosoma patruele C. L. Koch, 1839a: 130, f. 524 (Df).
Plectana patruela Walckenaer, 1842: 182.
M. p. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 533, pl. 50, f. 15-16 (f, Dm).
M. p. Reimoser, 1917: 102, pl. 4, f. 7 (mf).
M. p. Chickering, 1961: 445, f. 138-145 (mf).
M. p. Levi, 1985: 489, f. 199-206 (mf).

mf peregrinatorum (Holmberg, 1883)....................Brazil, Argentina
Acrosoma p. Holmberg, 1883b: 232 (Df).
M. p. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 375.
M. peregrinatora Levi, 1985: 530, f. 426-431 (f).
M. p. Lise, 1995: 221, f. 1-5 (Dm).

f petrunkevitchi Levi, 1985....................Mexico
M. p. Levi, 1985: 576, f. 662-666 (Df).

mf pichincha Levi, 1985....................Ecuador
M. p. Levi, 1985: 578, f. 667-674, 722 (Dmf).

mf pilaton Levi, 1985....................Ecuador
M. p. Levi, 1985: 450, f. 18-25 (Dmf).

mf plana (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Virgin Is. to Argentina
Acrosoma planum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 81, f. 228 (Df).
Plectana p. Walckenaer, 1842: 188.
Plectana alata Walckenaer, 1842: 193 (Df).
Acrosoma alatum Butler, 1873b: 425.
Acrosoma maronica Taczanowski, 1873: 272, pl. 6, f. 24 (Df).
M. p. Simon, 1895a: 852.
M. alata Simon, 1895a: 859.
M. maronica Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. p. Reimoser, 1917: 109, pl. 5, f. 11 (f).
M. nitida Chickering, 1964a: 272, f. 51-56 (Dm).
M. p. Levi, 1985: 509, f. 311-325 (f, Sm).

mf pungens (Walckenaer, 1842)....................Colombia to Bolivia
Plectana p. Walckenaer, 1842: 173 (Df).
Acrosoma p. Keyserling, 1864: 72, pl. 2, f. 5 (f).
Acrosoma luctuosa Taczanowski, 1873: 267, pl. 5, f. 21 (Df).
Acrosoma p. Keyserling, 1892: 29, pl. 1, f. 26 (f).
M. p. Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. luctuosa Petrunkevitch, 1911: 373.
M. p. Reimoser, 1917: 134, pl. 8, f. 25 (f).
M. carvalhoi Mello-Leitão, 1944a: 9 (Df).
M. p. Chickering, 1960d: 85, f. 76-79 (f, S).
M. p. Levi, 1985: 598, f. 784-791 (f, Dm, S).

mf pupa Simon, 1897....................Colombia, Ecuador
M. p. Simon, 1897b: 469 (Dmf).
M. p. Chickering, 1960c: 5, f. 11-12 (f).
M. p. Levi, 1985: 470, f. 102-109 (mf).

mf quadriserrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico to Venezuela
M. q. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 534, pl. 50, f. 18 (Df).
M. uncata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 533, pl. 50, f. 14 (Dm).
M. q. Reimoser, 1917: 94, pl. 3, f. 4 (f).
Chaetacis rouxi Mello-Leitão, 1939e: 68, f. 45-47 (Df).
M. modica Chickering, 1961: 439, f. 122-126 (Dm).
M. q. Chickering, 1961: 448, f. 146-149 (f).
M. uncata Chickering, 1961: 466, f. 202-205 (m).
M. q. Levi, 1985: 518, f. 369-375 (f, Sm).

mf raimondi (Taczanowski, 1879)....................Peru, Ecuador
Acrosoma raimondii Taczanowski, 1879: 118 (Df).
M. r. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 376.
M. r. Levi, 1985: 480, f. 156-163 (f, Dm).

mf reali Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. r. Levi, 1985: 458, f. 66-73 (Dmf).

f reimoseri Mello-Leitão, 1935....................Brazil
M. r. Mello-Leitão, 1935a: 97, f. 14 (Df).
M. r. Levi, 1985: 565, f. 616-619 (f).

f rubicundula (Keyserling, 1864)....................Colombia, Ecuador
Acrosoma rubicundulum Keyserling, 1864: 74, pl. 2, f. 7 (Df).
Acrosoma rubicundulum Keyserling, 1892: 21, pl. 1, f. 17 (f).
M. r. Simon, 1895a: 860.
M. lordotica Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 267, f. 4 (Df).
M. r. Chickering, 1960d: 87, f. 80-82 (f).
M. r. Levi, 1985: 454, f. 48-52 (f, S).

f rufopunctata (Butler, 1873)....................Jamaica
Acrosoma rufopunctatum Butler, 1873b: 423 (Df).
Acrosoma rubrocinctum Butler, 1873b: 423 (Df).
M. rubrocincta Petrunkevitch, 1911: 377.
M. r. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 377.
M. r. Chickering, 1964a: 277, f. 64-67 (f).
M. r. Levi, 1985: 486, f. 183-187 (f, S).

mf saccata (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Honduras to Brazil
Acrosoma saccatum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 59, f. 212 (Df).
Plectana s. Walckenaer, 1842: 191.
M. imbellis Simon, 1895a: 854, f. 916 (Df).
M. s. Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. imbellis Simon, 1897b: 469 (Df).
M. s. Reimoser, 1917: 123, pl. 3, f. 22 (f).
M. retracta Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 57, pl. 14, f. 131 (Df).
Thaumastobella mourei Mello-Leitão, 1945a: 263, f. 1-3 (Df).
M. timida Caporiacco, 1947a: 26 (Dj).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 490, f. 189-191, 207-217 (mf, S).
M. s. Scharff, 1991: 155 (S).

mf sagittata (Walckenaer, 1842)....................North, Central America
Plectana s. Walckenaer, 1842: 174 (Df).
Epeira spinea Hentz, 1850: 21, pl. 3, f. 9 (Df).
Acrosoma bovinum Thorell, 1859: 301 (Df).
Acrosoma sagittatum Butler, 1873b: 424.
Acrosoma spineum Emerton, 1884: 326, pl. 38, f. 5-8 (f, Dm).
Acrosoma s. McCook, 1894: 214, pl. 21, f. 8-9 (mf).
Acrosoma spineum Emerton, 1902: 189, f. 437, 440-442 (mf).
M. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 536, pl. 20-21 (mf).
M. s. Reimoser, 1917: 140, pl. 9, f. 29 (mf).
M. s. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 259, f. 111-114 (mf).
M. s. Kaston, 1948: 219, f. 690-693 (m).
M. comstocki Archer, 1951a: 10, f. 15-17 (Dmf).
M. sagittata emertoni Archer, 1951a: 10, f. 18, 22 (Dmf).
M. s. Archer, 1951a: 10, f. 19-21 (mf).
M. s. Chickering, 1961: 449, f. 150-156 (mf).
M. s. Wiehle, 1967b: 193, f. 37 (f).
M. s. Levi, 1978a: 430, f. 41-54 (mf, S).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 559, f. 582-588 (mf).
M. s. Breene et al., 1993: 100, f. 145A-C (mf).

mf schenkeli Mello-Leitão, 1939....................Trinidad to Paraguay
M. s. Mello-Leitão, 1939e: 71, f. 51-53 (Df).
M. gamma Caporiacco, 1947a: 26 (Dm).
M. gamma Caporiacco, 1948a: 669, f. 82 (m).
M. browningi Chickering, 1960d: 70, f. 15-20 (Dm).
M. gentilicia Chickering, 1964a: 259, f. 17-22 (Df).
M. praeterita Chickering, 1964a: 274, f. 57-63 (Df).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 539, f. 480-489 (f, Sm).

mf schreibersi (Perty, 1833)....................Nicaragua to Brazil
Acrosoma schreibersii Perty, 1833: 194, pl. 38, f. 9 (Df).
Acrosoma spinosum C. L. Koch, 1836a: 56, f. 210 (Df).
Plectana macrocantha Walckenaer, 1842: 183 (Df).
Plectana duplicata Walckenaer, 1842: 194 (Df).
Plectana vespoides Walckenaer, 1842: 196 (Df).
Acrosoma macracanthum Butler, 1873b: 420.
Acrosoma vespoides Butler, 1873b: 422.
Acrosoma duplicatum Butler, 1873b: 426.
Acrosoma macrocantha Taczanowski, 1873: 269.
Acrosoma tenuis Taczanowski, 1873: 276, pl. 6, f. 27 (Df).
Acrosoma subtilis Taczanowski, 1873: 279, pl. 6, f. 29 (Df).
Acrosoma myrmeciaeformis Taczanowski, 1873: 280, pl. 6, f. 30 (Df).
M. s. Simon, 1895a: 848, f. 895 (f).
M. tenuis Simon, 1895a: 860.
M. subtilis Simon, 1895a: 861.
Ildibaha myrmeciaeformis Simon, 1895a: 862.
M. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 536, pl. 51, f. 19 (f).
M. duplicata Petrunkevitch, 1911: 369.
M. vespoides Petrunkevitch, 1911: 380.
M. s. Reimoser, 1917: 137, pl. 9, f. 27 (f).
M. coleophora Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936a: 56, pl. 16, f. 136 (Dm).
M. lesserti Mello-Leitão, 1939e: 69, f. 48-50 (Df).
Ildibaha subtilis Mello-Leitão, 1949: 8 (Tf from Micrathena).
M. s. Chickering, 1961: 452, f. 157-168 (f, Sm).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 554, f. 9, 564-572 (mf, S).

mf sexspinosa (Hahn, 1822)....................Mexico to Brazil
Epeira s. Hahn, 1822: 2, pl. 11, f. B (Df).
Acrosoma s. Hahn, 1834: 18, f. 107 (f; N.B.: furcata in legend).
Acrosoma militare C. L. Koch, 1837a: 12, f. 258 (Df).
Plectana squamosa Walckenaer, 1842: 185 (Df).
Acrosoma obtusospinum Keyserling, 1864: 76, pl. 2, f. 9 (Df).
Acrosoma petersii Taczanowski, 1873: 277, pl. 6, f. 28 (Dmf).
Keyserlingia cornigera O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 58, pl. 4, f. 2 (Dm).
Acrosoma calcaratum O. P.-Cambridge, 1890a: 62, pl. 8, f. 8 (Dm).
Acrosoma petersi Keyserling, 1892: 9, pl. 1, f. 6 (f).
Acrosoma calcaratum Keyserling, 1892: 11, pl. 1, f. 8 (m).
Acrosoma obtusispinum Keyserling, 1892: 23, pl. 1, f. 20 (f).
M. s. Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 908 (f).
M. obtusospina F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 531, pl. 50, f. 9 (f).
M. cornigera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 532, pl. 50, f. 10 (m).
M. petersi F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 539.
M. s. Reimoser, 1917: 126, pl. 8, f. 23 (f).
M. s. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 258, f. 109-110 (f).
M. s. Chickering, 1961: 456, f. 174-180 (mf, S).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 584, f. 712-719, 721, 726, 730-731 (mf, S).

f shealsi Chickering, 1960....................Argentina
M. s. Chickering, 1960b: 8, f. 13-17 (Df).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 458, f. 74-78 (f).

f similis Bryant, 1945....................Hispaniola
M. s. Bryant, 1945a: 415, f. 8, 43-44 (Df).
M. s. Chickering, 1964a: 279, f. 68-71 (f).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 494, f. 225-229 (f).

f soaresi Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. s. Levi, 1985: 581, f. 691-695, 724 (Df).

mf spinosa (Linnaeus, 1758)....................Surinam to Brazil
Aranea s. Linnaeus, 1758: 624 (Df).
Aranea s. Fabricius, 1775: 435 (D).
Aranea aculeata Fabricius, 1775: 435 (Df).
Aranea elongato-spinosa De Geer, 1778: 323, pl. 39, f. 11-12 (Df).
Aranea s. Olivier, 1789: 205 (D).
Epeira aculeata Latreille, 1806: 103.
Plectana s. Walckenaer, 1842: 172.
Plectana aculeata Walckenaer, 1842: 180.
Acrosoma s. Taczanowski, 1873: 264.
Acrosoma aculeatum Butler, 1873b: 421.
M. perlata Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 905 (Df).
M. perlata Simon, 1897b: 467 (Df).
M. aculeata Petrunkevitch, 1911: 364.
M. s. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 379.
M. s. Mello-Leitão, 1939e: 72, f. 54-55 (f).
M. multituberculata Caporiacco, 1947a: 25 (Df).
M. multituberculata Caporiacco, 1948a: 665, f. 75-78 (f).
M. hamata Chickering, 1960b: 3, f. 4-7 (Dm).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 581, f. 696-703, 720, 728 (f, Sm).

f spinulata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico
M. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 530, pl. 50, f. 7 (Df).
M. s. Chickering, 1961: 459, f. 181-184 (f).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 592, f. 751-755 (f).

mf spitzi Mello-Leitão, 1932....................Brazil, Argentina
M. s. Mello-Leitão, 1932a: 79, f. 2 (Df).
Ildibaha acanthomasta Mello-Leitão, 1945a: 264, f. 4-6 (Df).
Ildibaha misionesica Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 238, f. 12-13 (Df).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 550, f. 543-550 (f, Dm).

f striata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico, Guatemala
M. s. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 530, pl. 50, f. 6 (Df).
M. s. Chickering, 1961: 460, f. 185-188 (f).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 591, f. 741-745 (f).

mf stuebeli (Karsch, 1886)....................Colombia, Ecuador
Acrosoma stübeli Karsch, 1886f: 340 (Df).
M. spathulifera Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 912 (Df).
M. s. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 379.
M. s. Reimoser, 1917: 118, pl. 6, f. 17 (f).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 504, f. 276-282 (f, Dm).

mf swainsoni (Perty, 1833)....................Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina
Acrosoma swainsonii Perty, 1833: 194, pl. 38, f. 10 (Df).
Acrosoma s. C. L. Koch, 1839a: 121, f. 519 (f).
M. prudens Simon, 1895a: 860 (Df).
M. s. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 379.
M. s. Reimoser, 1917: 99, pl. 3, f. 6 (f, Dm).
M. paraguayensis Mello-Leitão, 1931c: 95 (Df).
M. silvicola Badcock, 1932: 24, f. 19 (Dmf).
M. s. Mello-Leitão, 1946b: 39 (S).
M. s. Chickering, 1960d: 87, f. 83-90 (mf).
M. s. Levi, 1985: 571, f. 638-645 (mf).

f teresopolis Levi, 1985....................Brazil
M. t. Levi, 1985: 456, f. 61-65 (Df).

mf triangularis (C. L. Koch, 1836)....................Trinidad to Brazil
Acrosoma triangulare C. L. Koch, 1836a: 78, f. 226 (Df).
Plectana t. Walckenaer, 1842: 188.
Acrosoma pilosa Taczanowski, 1873: 271, pl. 5, f. 23 (Df).
Acrosoma sordida Taczanowski, 1873: 273, pl. 6, f. 25 (Df).
Acrosoma gibbosa Taczanowski, 1879: 113, pl. 1, f. 30 (f).
M. t. Simon, 1895a: 854, f. 913 (f).
M. gibbosa Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. sordida Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. pilosa Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. sordida Petrunkevitch, 1910: 214, pl. 21, f. 14-15 (f).
M. sordida Reimoser, 1917: 105, pl. 5, f. 8 (f).
M. t. Reimoser, 1917: 107, pl. 5, f. 10 (f).
Acrosoma ruschii Mello-Leitão, 1945a: 266, f. 7-9 (Df).
M. gertschi Chickering, 1964a: 261, f. 23-29 (Dm).
M. ruschi Brignoli, 1983c: 249.
M. t. Levi, 1985: 512, f. 326-336 (f, Sm).

mf triangularispinosa (De Geer, 1778)....................Trinidad to Bolivia
Aranea t. De Geer, 1778: 321, pl. 39, f. 9-10 (Df).
Acrosoma rufa Taczanowski, 1873: 265, pl. 5, f. 20 (Df).
Acrosoma acutoides Taczanowski, 1879: 114, pl. 1, f. 31 (Df).
M. acutoides Simon, 1895a: 861.
M. mathani Simon, 1897b: 468 (Df).
M. rufa Petrunkevitch, 1911: 377.
M. dahli Reimoser, 1917: 150, pl. 9, f. 32 (Df).
M. perlata Chickering, 1960c: 3, f. 7-8 (m, misidentified).
M. munsonae Archer, 1971: 158, f. 8 (Df).
M. t. Levi, 1985: 537, f. 471-479 (f removed from S of M. spinosa, m was previously mismatched with M. perlata, S).

mf triserrata F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico to Belize
M. t. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 534, pl. 50, f. 17 (Df).
M. t. Chickering, 1961: 464, f. 198-201 (f).
M. t. Levi, 1985: 520, f. 376-385 (f, Dm).

mf tziscao Levi, 1985....................Mexico
M. t. Levi, 1985: 526, f. 410-417 (Dmf).

mf ucayali Levi, 1985....................Peru, Brazil
M. u. Levi, 1985: 540, f. 490-497 (Dmf).

mf vigorsi (Perty, 1833)....................Colombia to Brazil
Acrosoma vigorsii Perty, 1833: 194, pl. 38, f. 8 (Df).
Acrosoma v. C. L. Koch, 1839a: 123, f. 520 (f).
Plectana v. Walckenaer, 1842: 186.
Acrosoma defensum Butler, 1873b: 420 (Df).
Ildibaha mutilloides Simon, 1895a: 850, f. 899-900 (Dmf).
M. v. Simon, 1895a: 852, f. 901 (f).
Ildibaha mutilloides Simon, 1897b: 471 (Dmf).
M. v. Petrunkevitch, 1910: 214, pl. 21, f. 16-19 (f).
M. defensa Petrunkevitch, 1911: 368.
M. v. Reimoser, 1917: 132, pl. 8, f. 24 (f).
M. v. Levi, 1985: 557, f. 573-581 (f, Sm).

f zilchi Kraus, 1955....................Mexico to El Salvador
M. z. Kraus, 1955b: 29, f. 76-78 (Df).
M. z. Chickering, 1961: 468, f. 211-213 (f).
M. z. Levi, 1985: 472, f. 110-114 (f).

Gen. Micrepeira Schenkel, 1953

M. Schenkel, 1953a: 26, type M. albomaculata Schenkel, 1953.

f albomaculata Schenkel, 1953 *....................Venezuela
M. a. Schenkel, 1953a: 27, f. 24a-c (Df).
M. a. Levi, 1995b: 200, f. 200-204 (f).

mf fowleri Levi, 1995....................Ecuador, Peru, Brazil
M. f. Levi, 1995b: 194, f. 162-170 (Dmf).

mf hoeferi Levi, 1995....................Peru, Brazil, French Guiana
M. h. Levi, 1995b: 196, f. 171-181 (Dmf).

f pachitea Levi, 1995....................Peru
M. p. Levi, 1995b: 198, f. 187-191 (Df).

f smithae Levi, 1995....................Surinam
M. s. Levi, 1995b: 198, f. 192-195 (Df).

f tubulofaciens (Hingston, 1932)....................Guyana, French Guiana
Epeira t. Hingston, 1932: 366 (Df).
Epeirella t. Mello-Leitão, 1948: 164 (Tf from Araneus).
S. t. Quintero, 1974: 311, f. 1-5 (Tf from Epeirella).
M. t. Levi, 1995b: 197, f. 182-186 (Tf from Spilasma).

f velso Levi, 1995....................Costa Rica
M. v. Levi, 1995b: 198, f. 196-199 (Df).

Gen. Micropoltys Kulczyn'ski, 1911

f placenta Kulczyn'ski, 1911 *....................New Guinea
M. p. Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 504, pl. 20, f. 68, 74 (Df).

Gen. Milonia Thorell, 1890

j albula O. P.-Cambridge, 1899....................Singapore
M. a. O. P.-Cambridge, 1899b: 520, pl. 29, f. 2 (Dj).

f brevipes Thorell, 1890 *....................Sumatra
M. b. Thorell, 1890a: 180 (Df).

m hexastigma (Hasselt, 1882)....................Sumatra
Epeira h. Hasselt, 1882: 23 (Dm).
M. h. Thorell, 1892c: 461.

f obtusa Thorell, 1892....................Singapore
M. o. Thorell, 1892a: 248 (Df).
M. o. Workman, 1896: 51, pl. 51 (f).

f singaeformis (Hasselt, 1882)....................Sumatra
Epeira s. Hasselt, 1882: 23, pl. 2, f. 2 (Df).
M. singiformis Thorell, 1892c: 461.

j tomosceles Thorell, 1895....................Myanmar
M. t. Thorell, 1895: 199 (Dj).

m trifasciata Thorell, 1890....................Java, Borneo
M. t. Thorell, 1890a: 183 (Dm).

Gen. Molinaranea Mello-Leitão, 1940

N.B.: implicitly revalidated by Levi, 1991a: 177, contra Archer, 1951a: 21, who regarded it as a junior synonym of Eriophora, and Archer, 1963: 25, who regarded it as a junior synonym of Parawixia, and Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1963: 107, who regarded it as a junior synonym of Araneus.

Transferred to other genera:
M. albisecta (Mello-Leitão, 1936) -- see Ocrepeira.
M. setosa Mello-Leitão, 1948 -- see Parawixia.

In synonymy:
M. affinitata (Roewer, 1942, T from Parawixia) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. aysenensis (Tullgren, 1902) = M. clymene (Nicolet, 1849) (Levi, 2001: 456).
M. chilensis (Nicolet, 1849) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. cinaberina (Nicolet, 1849) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
N. cinaberina tigrina (Archer, 1963) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. dorsatula (Roewer, 1942, T from Parawixia) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. flaviventris (Nicolet, 1849, T from Araneus) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1963: 107, sub Araneus cinnabarinus).
M. globigera (Hogg, 1913, T from Araneus) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1974: 86, sub Araneus cinnabarinus).
M. molinai Mello-Leitão, 1940 (T from Araneus) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1963: 107, sub Araneus cinnabarinus; Archer, 1963: 25, sub Parawixia wagenknechti).
M. naevia (Nicolet, 1849, T from Parawixia) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. obliterata (Nicolet, 1849, T from Parawixia) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. patagonica (Tullgren, 1901) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. quadrimaculosa (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Archer, 1963: 25, sub Parawixia flaviventris).
M. quadripunctatula (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Levi, 2001: 451).
M. valdiviensis (Nicolet, 1849, T from Araneus) = M. clymene (Nicolet, 1849) (Levi, 2001: 456).
M. vallentini (Hogg, 1913, T from Araneus) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1974: 86, sub Araneus cinnabarinus).
M. wagenknechti (Mello-Leitão, 1940, T from Eriophora) = M. magellanica (Walckenaer, 1847) (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1963: 107, sub Araneus cinnabarinus).

mf clymene (Nicolet, 1849)....................Chile, Argentina
Epeira clymene Nicolet, 1849: 503 (Df).
Epeira thalia Nicolet, 1849: 503 (Df).
Epeira nigrata Nicolet, 1849: 504 (Df).
Epeira inflata Nicolet, 1849: 504 (Df).
Epeira erudita Nicolet, 1849: 505 (Df).
Epeira hispida Nicolet, 1849: 505 (Df).
Epeira valdiviensis Nicolet, 1849: 506 (Df).
Araneus clymene Simon, 1895a: 802.
Araneus aysenensis Tullgren, 1902: 32, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
Parawixia c. Archer, 1963: 23 (Tf from Araneus).
Parawixia c. nigrata Archer, 1963: 24 (placed as subspecies, not recognized by Levi, 2001: 456).
Parawixia aysenensis Archer, 1963: 25 (Tf from Araneus).
M. aysenensis Levi, 1991a: 177 (Tf from Parawixia).
M. c. Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Parawixia).
M. c. Levi, 2001: 456, f. 23-32, pl. 1A (f, Dm).

mf fernandez Levi, 2001....................Juan Fernandez Is.
M. f. Levi, 2001: 458, f. 40-47 (Dmf).

mf magellanica * (Walckenaer, 1847)....................Chile, Argentina, Juan Fernandez Is., Falkland Is.
Epeira m. Walckenaer, 1847a: 467 (Df)
Epeira chilensis Nicolet, 1849: 487 (Df).
Epeira cinaberina Nicolet, 1849: 490, pl. 5, f. 9 (Df).
Epeira flaviventris Nicolet, 1849: 494 (Df).
Epeira quadripunctata Nicolet, 1849: 495 (Df; preoccupied by Linnaeus, 1758).
Epeira obliterata Nicolet, 1849: 496 (Dmf).
Epeira affinis Nicolet, 1849: 498 (Df; preoccupied by Blackwell, 1846).
Epeira naevia Nicolet, 1849: 499 (Dm).
Epeira dorsalis Nicolet, 1849: 499 (Df; preoccupied by Fabricius, 1775).
Epeira quadrimaculata Nicolet, 1849: 507 (Df; preoccupied by De Geer, 1778 sub Aranea).
Epeira flaviventris Simon, 1884l: 121, pl. 3, f. 2-4 (f).
Epeira flaviventris Simon, 1887h: E10, pl. 2, f. 2 (f).
Araneus flaviventris Simon, 1901b: 19.
Araneus patagonicus Tullgren, 1901b: 218 (Dj).
Araneus chilensis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 285.
Araneus cinnaberinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 285.
Araneus quadrimaculatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 311.
Araneus vallentini Hogg, 1913: 37, pl. 1, f. 3 (Df).
Araneus globiger Hogg, 1913: 39, pl. 1, f. 4 (Dm).
Eriophora wagenknechti Mello-Leitão, 1940g: 236, f. 24a-b (Df).
M. molinai Mello-Leitão, 1940g: 238, f. 25a-b (Dm).
Aranea affinitata Roewer, 1942a: 836 (replacement name for Epeira affinis Nicolet, 1849).
Aranea dorsatula Roewer, 1942a: 841 (replacement name for Epeira dorsalis Nicolet, 1849).
Aranea quadrimaculosa Roewer, 1942a: 850 (replacement name for Epeira quadrimaculata Nicolet, 1849).
Aranea quadripunctatula Roewer, 1942a: 850 (replacement name for Epeira quadripunctata Nicolet, 1849).
Araneus cinnabarinus Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1963: 107 (Sm).
Parawixia affinitata Archer, 1963: 24 (Tf from Araneus).
Parawixia cinnaberina Archer, 1963: 24 (Tf from Araneus).
Parawixia cinnaberina tigrina Archer, 1963: 24 (Dmf).
Parawixia dosatula Archer, 1963: 24 (Tf from Araneus).
Parawixia wagenknechti Archer, 1963: 25 (Tf from Eriophora, S).
Parawixia flaviventris Archer, 1963: 25 (Tf from Araneus).
Parawixia obliterata Archer, 1963: 25 (Tf from Araneus).
Parawixia naevia Archer, 1963: 25 (Tf from Araneus).
Metepeira chilensis Archer, 1963: 26 (Tf from Araneus).
Araneus cinnabarinus Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1974: 86, f. 43-46 (mf, S).
M. chilensis Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Metepeira).
M. patagonica Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tj from Araneus).
M. cinaberina Levi, 1991a: 179 (Tf from Parawixia).
M. m. Levi, 2001: 451, f. 1-22, pl. 1B-D (mf, S).

mf mammifera (Tullgren, 1902)....................Chile
Araneus mammiferus Tullgren, 1902: 34, pl. 3, f. 5 (Df).
Lariniacantha m. Archer, 1963: 26 (Tf from Araneus).
M. m. Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Lariniacantha =Alpaida).
M. m. Levi, 2001: 461, f. 66-73 (f, Dm).

mf phaethontis (Simon, 1896)....................Chile, Argentina
Araneus p. Simon, 1896e: 67 (Df).
M. p. Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).
M. p. Levi, 2001: 460, f. 56-65 (f, Dm).

mf surculorum (Simon, 1896)....................Chile
Araneus s. Simon, 1896e: 67 (Df).
M. s. Levi, 1991a: 178 (Tf from Araneus).
M. surculora Levi, 2001: 458, f. 48-55 (f, Dm).

mf vildav Levi, 2001....................Chile
M. v. Levi, 2001: 457, f. 33-39 (Dmf).

Gen. Nanduti Mello-Leitão, 1945

N. Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 241, type N. roseus Mello-Leitão, 1945.

m roseus MeIlo-Leitão, 1945 *....................Argentina
•anduti r. Mello-Leitão, 1945b: 241, f. 18 (Dm).

Gen. Nemoscolus Simon, 1895

f affinis Lessert, 1933....................Congo
N. a. Lessert, 1933: 108, f. 22-23 (Df).

f caudifer Strand, 1906....................West Africa
N. c. Strand, 1906h: 55 (Df).

m cotti Lessert, 1933....................Mozambique
N. c. Lessert, 1933: 109, f. 24 (Dm).

f elongatus Lawrence, 1947....................South Africa
N. e. Lawrence, 1947: 19, f. 11a-b (Df).

f kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947....................Uganda
N. k. Caporiacco, 1947d: 161 (Df).

f lateplagiatis Simon, 1907....................Guinea-Bissau
N. l. Simon, 1907d: 287 (Df).

mf laurae (Simon, 1868) *....................Western Mediterranean
Singa l. Simon, 1868a: 452 (Dmf).
Cyclosa l. Simon, 1874a: 44, pl. 1, f. 7 (mf).
N. l. Simon, 1895a: 784.
N. l. Simon, 1929: 711, 769, f. 1112 (mf).
N. l. Morano & Ferrández, 1986: 173, f. 1-4 (mf).
N. l. Wunderlich, 1992a: 86, f. 368 (m).

mf niger Caporiacco, 1936....................Libya
N. n. Caporiacco, 1936a: 101, f. 1 (Dmf).

f obscurus Simon, 1897....................South Africa
N. o. Simon, 1897b: 476 (Df).

f rectifrons Roewer, 1961....................Senegal
N. r. Roewer, 1961b: 55, f. 16a-e (Df).

m semilugens Denis, 1966....................Libya
N. s. Denis, 1966e: 122, f. 32 (Dm).

f tubicola (Simon, 1887)....................South Africa
Cyclosa t. Simon, 1887b: 373, pl. 6, f. 5 (Df).
N. t. Simon, 1910b: 193.

j turricola Berland, 1933....................Mali
N. t. Berland, 1933a: 250, f. 1-4 (Dj).

f vigintipunctatus Simon, 1897....................South Africa
N. v. Simon, 1897b: 475 (Df).

f waterloti Berland, 1920....................Madagascar
N. w. Berland, 1920a: 385, f. 1-5 (Df).

Gen. Nemosinga Caporiacco, 1947

N. Caporiacco, 1947d: 165, type N. atra Caporiacco, 1947.

m atra Caporiacco, 1947 *....................Tanzania
N. a. Caporiacco, 1947d: 165, f. 26 (Dm).

m atra bimaculata Caporiacco, 1947....................Tanzania
N. a. b. Caporiacco, 1947d: 166 (Dm).

m strandi Caporiacco, 1947....................Tanzania
N. s. Caporiacco, 1947d: 167, f. 27 (Dm).

Gen. Nemospiza Simon, 1903

f conspicillata Simon, 1903 *....................South Africa
N. c. Simon, 1903d: 26 (Df).

Gen. Neoarchemorus Mascord, 1968

N. Mascord, 1968: 10, type N. speechleyi Mascord, 1968.

mf speechleyi Mascord, 1968 *....................New South Wales
N. s. Mascord, 1968: 10, f. 1-9 (Dmf).

Gen. Neogea Levi, 1983

N. Levi, 1983: 328, type Araneus egregius Kulczyn'ski, 1911.

In synonymy:
N. diadema (Hogg, 1920, T from Gea) = N. nocticolor (Thorell, 1887) (Levi, 1983: 331).
N. guttata (Thorell, 1890, T from Gea) = N. nocticolor (Thorell, 1887) (Levi, 1983: 331).
N. lalita (Sherriffs, 1928, T from Argiope) = N. nocticolor (Thorell, 1887) (Levi, 1983: 332).
N. lugens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1899, T from Gea) = N. nocticolor (Thorell, 1887) (Levi, 1983: 331).

mf egregia (Kulczyn'ski, 1911) *....................New Guinea
Araneus egregius Kulczyn'ski, 1911c: 479, pl. 20, f. 51 (Df).
N. e. Levi, 1983: 331, f. 389-390, 393-397 (Tf from Araneus, Dm).

mf nocticolor (Thorell, 1887)....................India to Sumatra
Gea n. Thorell, 1887: 170 (Df).
Gea guttata Thorell, 1890a: 107 (Dj).
Gea lugens O. P.-Cambridge, 1899b: 520, pl. 29, f. 3 (Df).
Gea diadema Hogg, 1919: 92, pl. 9, f. 6 (Df).
Argiope lalita Sherriffs, 1928: 186, f. 3-7 (Dmf).
Argiope lalita Tikader, 1982a: 113, f. 211-214 (f).
N. n. Levi, 1983: 331, f. 391-392, 398-406 (Tf from Gea, Sm).

m yunnanensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
N. y. Yin et al., 1990: 5, f. 10-13 (Dm).
N. y. Yin et al., 1997: 92, f. 22a-d (m).
N. y. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 175E-G (m).

Gen. Neoscona Simon, 1864

N.B.: listed by Roewer as a synonym of Araneus Clerck, 1757, but accepted by all recent authors; considered a senior synonym of Chinestela Chamberlin, 1924 by Archer, 1958: 17; of Cubanella Franganillo, 1926 by Franganillo, 1936c: 76 (by transfer of type species); and of Afraranea Archer, 1951a: 21, type Araneus sanguipes Thorell, 1899 (but based on a misidentification by Archer of N. penicillipes) but not of Eriovixia Archer, 1951 (contra Berman & Levi, 1971: 469) by Grasshoff, 1986: 4.

Transferred to other genera:
N. chasisa Zhu & Song, 1994 -- see Araneus.
N. elliptica Tikader & Bal, 1981 -- see Araneus.
N. enshiensis Yin & Zhao, 1994 -- see Eriovixia.
N. excelsus (Simon, 1889) -- see Eriovixia.
N. fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Alenatea.
N. griseomaculata
Yin & Wang, 1982 -- see Araneus.
N. hainanensis Yin et al., 1990 -- see Eriovixia.
N. laglaizei (Simon, 1877) -- see Eriovixia.
N. menglunensis Yin et al., 1990 -- see Eriovixia.
N. poonaensis Tikader & Bal, 1981 -- see Eriovixia.
N. redempta (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936) -- see Ocrepeira.
N. rhinura (Pocock, 1899) -- see Eriovixia.
N. variabilis (Keyserling, 1863) -- see Alpaida.
N. yunnanensis Yin et al., 1990 -- see Eriovixia.

In synonymy:
N. aballensis albozonata (Caporiacco, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. aballensis angustifolia (Caporiacco, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. aballensis bimaculata (Caporiacco, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. aballensis foliata (Caporiacco, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. aballensis nigricans (Caporiacco, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. aballensis subconcolor (Caporiacco, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. accentuata (Thorell, 1899, T from Araneus) = N. chiarinii (Pavesi, 1883) (Grasshoff, 1986: 42).
N. adiantoides (Taczanowski, 1878, T from Araneus) = N. oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 486).
N. airensis (Denis, 1955, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. albobitriangulosa Caporiacco, 1939 (T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. alternidens (Schenkel, 1936, T from Araneus) = N. vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) (Grasshoff, 1986: 95).
N. amulensis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (T from Araneus) = N. orizabensis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (Berman & Levi, 1971: 484).
N. annulella (Strand, 1907, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1980: 398, sub Afraranea).
N. arkansa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = N. crucifera (Lucas, 1839) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 480, sub N. hentzi).
N. artifex (Tullgren, 1910) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1980: 406).
N. bettoni (Pocock, 1898, T from Araneus) = N. blondeli (Simon, 1885) (Grasshoff, 1986: 36).
N. bioculata (Thorell, 1899, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. blanda (Blackwall, 1865, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. cerviniventris (Simon, 1884, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1980: 397, sub Afraranea).
N. conifera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (T from Araneus) = N. oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 488).
N. cooksoni (Butler, 1877, T from Araneus) = N. oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 486, contra Roth & Craig, 1970: 120).
N. crucifera albimaculata (Strand, 1908, T from Araneus) = N. crucifera (Lucas, 1839) (Grasshoff, 1986: 62).
N. crucifera ladislausi (Strand, 1908, T from Araneus) = N. crucifera (Lucas, 1839) (Grasshoff, 1986: 62).
N. crucifera ochroleucella (Strand, 1908, T from Araneus) = N. crucifera (Lucas, 1839) (Grasshoff, 1986: 62).
N. crucifera pyramidella (Strand, 1908, T from Araneus) = N. crucifera (Lucas, 1839) (Grasshoff, 1986: 62).
N. cruciferoides (Tullgren, 1910) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1980: 398, sub Afraranea).
N. danensis (Strand, 1906) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. doenitzi (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) = N. adianta (Walckenaer, 1802) (Grasshoff, 1986: 118; Yaginuma, 1986c: 199).
N. dripaca Roberts, 1983 = N. angulatula (Schenkel, 1937) (Grasshoff, 1986: 106).
N. edwardiana (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. alberti (Strand, 1913) (Grasshoff, 1986: 51).
N. eximia Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936 (T from Araneus) = N. utahana (Chamberlin, 1919) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 485).
N. fernandensis (Simon, 1907, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. formicae (Tullgren, 1910, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. gerhardti (Caporiacco, 1949, T from Araneus) = N. blondeli (Simon, 1885) (Grasshoff, 1986: 36).
N. gisti (Chamberlin, 1924) = N. scylla (Karsch, 1879) (Song, 1988: 129).
N. granatae (Caporiacco, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. haematocnemis (Pocock, 1899, removed from S of Araneus sanguipes Thorell, 1899) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. haploscapus (Pocock, 1898, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. hentzi (Keyserling, 1864) = N. crucifera (Lucas, 1839) (Grasshoff, 1986: 62).
N. hoffmanni (Schenkel, 1937, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. immodesta Caporiacco, 1941 = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Caporiacco, 1949a: 416, sub N. submodesta neumanni).
N. irritans Caporiacco, 1947 = N. vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) (Grasshoff, 1986: 95).
N. jonesi Archer, 1951 = N. utahana (Chamberlin, 1919) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 485).
N. katangae (Giltay, 1935, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. kersteni (Gerstäcker, 1873, removed from S of N. rufipalpis) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. kibonotensis (Tullgren, 1910, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1980: 398, sub Afraranea).
N. koratsensis (Dönitz & Strand, 1906, T from Araneus) = N. nautica (L. Koch, 1875) (Yaginuma, 1955a: 17).
N. lambarenensis (Simon, 1907, T from Araneus) = N. rapta (Thorell, 1899) (Grasshoff, 1986: 100).
N. lanuginosa (Lenz, 1886, T from Araneus) = N. moreli (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1986: 56).
N. lapillula (Simon, 1907, T from Araneus) = N. chiarinii (Pavesi, 1883) (Grasshoff, 1986: 42).
N. larbada Roberts, 1983 = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. lativulva Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = N. oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 488).
N. leimenstolli (Strand, 1906, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. locuples (Butler, 1879, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. marcuzzii (Caporiacco, 1955, T from Araneus) = N. nautica (L. Koch, 1875) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 498).
N. marshalli (Pocock, 1898, T from Araneus) = N. vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) (Grasshoff, 1986: 95).
N. melanopa (Gerstäcker, 1873, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. mensamontis (Pocock, 1900, T from Araneus) = N. hirta (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Grasshoff, 1986: 91).
N. mesonauta (Simon, 1907, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. minima F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 (T from Araneus) = N. arabesca (Walckenaer, 1842) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 476).
N. minoriscylla Yin et al., 1990 = N. multiplicans (Chamberlin, 1924) (Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1715).
N. mutilata (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Araneus) = N. chiarinii (Pavesi, 1883) (Grasshoff, 1986: 42).
N. naiba Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1929 (T from Araneus) = N. oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864) (Levi, 1973: 478, contra Berman & Levi, 1971: 476).
N. nebraskensis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 = N. crucifera (Lucas, 1839) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 480, sub N. hentzi).
N. neotheis (Petrunkevitch, 1911) = N. moreli (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1986: 56).
N. nidicola (Franganillo, 1926) = N. moreli (Vinson, 1863) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 490, sub N. neotheis).
N. nigrita (Thorell, 1899, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. nigrostriatus (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1980: 398, sub Afraranea).
N. nigrostriatus nigrovittatus (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1980: 398, sub Afraranea).
N. nocturnella (Roewer, 1942, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1980: 397, sub Afraranea).
N. occidanea (Simon, 1907, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. opima (L. Koch, 1878) = N. punctigera (Doleschall, 1857) (Yaginuma, 1967b: 89, sub Araneus lugubris).
N. pachana (Pocock, 1898, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. parascylla (Schenkel, 1963, T from Araneus) = N. punctigera (Doleschall, 1857) (Grasshoff, 1986: 117).
N. parva Schmidt, 1973 = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. perplicata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Levy, 1998a: 336).
N. platyparomma Caporiacco, 1939 (T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. potteri (Simon, 1901, T from Araneus) = N. chiarinii (Pavesi, 1883) (Grasshoff, 1986: 42).
N. recta (Franganillo, 1930) = N. moreli (Vinson, 1863) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 491, sub N. neotheis).
N. restiaria (Tullgren, 1910, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. restiaria obscura (Tullgren, 1910, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. rufofemorata (Simon, 1884) = N. vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) (Grasshoff, 1986: 95).
N. salaeria Chamberlin, 1920 (T from Araneus) = N. oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 488).
N. sanguipes antepicta (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. sanguipes constrictifascia (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. sanguipes decoratella (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. sanguipes indistinctepicta (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. sanguipes lanceolatella (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. sanguipes monotonia (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. sanguipes nigrofoliata (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. sanguipes recurvata (Strand, 1913, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. scylla nigromaculata (Yaginuma, 1941, T from Araneus) = N. scylla (Karsch, 1879) (Nishikawa, 1977c: 32).
N. seca Roberts, 1983 = N. moreli (Vinson, 1863) (Grasshoff, 1986: 56).
N. singularis (Banks, 1898, T from Araneus) = N. arabesca (Walckenaer, 1842) (Levi, 1991a: 180).
N. slateri (Butler, 1879, T from Araneus) = N. punctigera (Doleschall, 1857) (Grasshoff, 1980: 403, sub Afraranea).
N. spasskyi (Brignoli, 1983, T from Araneus) = N. tedgenica (Bakhvalov, 1978) (Marusik, Tarabaev & Litovchenko, 1991: 20).
N. spenceri (Pocock, 1898, T from Araneus) = N. vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) (Grasshoff, 1986: 95).
N. subbituberculata (Thorell, 1899, T from Araneus) = N. triangula (Keyserling, 1864) (Grasshoff, 1986: 84).
N. submodesta (Strand, 1906, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. taruensis (Pocock, 1898, T from Araneus) = N. blondeli (Simon, 1885) (Grasshoff, 1986: 36).
N. temeraria (Tullgren, 1910, T from Araneus) = N. vigilans (Blackwall, 1865) (Grasshoff, 1986: 95).
N. tristimoniae (Petrunkevitch, 1911, T from Araneus) = N. nautica (L. Koch, 1875) (Berman & Levi, 1971: 498).
N. tuckeri Caporiacco, 1949 = N. alberti (Strand, 1913) (Grasshoff, 1986: 51).
N. tullgreni (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. tullgreni obscuratus (Caporiacco, 1947, T from Araneus) = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. varians (Thorell, 1899, T from Araneus) = N. penicillipes (Karsch, 1879) (Grasshoff, 1986: 78).
N. wiehlei Caporiacco, 1949 = N. subfusca (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Grasshoff, 1986: 15).
N. xizangensis Yin et al., 1990 = N. achine (Simon, 1906) (Yin et al., 1997: 364).

Homonym replaced:
N. nigrita fernandensis (Simon, 1907, T from Araneus) -- see N. simoni.

Nomina dubia:
N. benjamina (Walckenaer, 1842: 42, f, USA, originally in Epeira, T from Araneus) -- Berman & Levi, 1971: 477.
N. mutabilis (Walckenaer, 1842: 73, f, USA, originally in Epeira, S of N. benjamina per Roewer) -- Berman & Levi, 1971: 480.
N. nidificans (Hingston, 1932: 367, f, Guyana, originally in Epeira, T from Araneus by Mello-Leitão, 1948: 170, f, Guyana) -- Levi, 1991a: 181, 1995b: 209.
N. nigrovariata Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 258 (f, Colombia) -- Levi, 1993a: 224.
N. parallela Franganillo, 1931: 44 (f, Cuba) -- Berman & Levi, 1971: 491.
N. rubicunda (Walckenaer, 1842: 43, f, USA, originally in Epeira, omitted by Roewer) -- Berman & Levi, 1971: 480.
N. sacra (Walckenaer, 1842: 33, mf, USA, originally in Epeira, T from Araneus) -- Berman & Levi, 1971: 482.
N. vulgaris (Hentz, 1847: 469, pl. 30, f. 6, f, USA, originally in Epeira, removed from S of Araneus oviger) -- Berman & Levi, 1971: 498.

mf achine (Simon, 1906)....................India, China
Araneus a. Simon, 1906c: 309 (Df).
N. a. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 39, f. 85-90 (Tmf from Araneus).
N. a. Tikader, 1982a: 278, f. 555-560 (mf).
N. a. Hu & Li, 1987a: 330, f. 12.1-4, 13.1-2 (mf).
N. xizangensis Yin et al., 1990: 131, f. 325-331 (Dmf).
N. a. Yin et al., 1997: 364, f. 259a-i (mf, S).
N. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 175H-J, 178N, 180D (mf).
N. a. Hu, 2001: 464, f. 304.1-4 (mf).

mf adianta (Walckenaer, 1802)....................Palearctic
Aranea a. Walckenaer, 1802: 199 (D).
Aranea marmorea Panzer, 1804: 243, pl. 19, f. 12 (misidentified).
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1805: 60.
Epeira segmentata Sundevall, 1833a: 247 (Dmf).
Miranda pictilis C. L. Koch, 1837b: 4 (D).
Miranda pictilis C. L. Koch, 1838: 50, f. 369 (Df).
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 52 (Df).
Epeira a. Westring, 1861: 51 (Dm).
Epeira a. Blackwall, 1864a: 348, pl. 25, f. 251 (mf).
Miranda a. Menge, 1866: 69, pl. 11, f. 15 (mf).
Epeira a. Thorell, 1870a: 23.
Epeira byzanthina Pavesi, 1876b: 12 (Df).
Epeira turcica Simon, 1879c: 36 (Df).
Epeira mimula L. Koch, 1882: 625, pl. 20, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira a. Becker, 1896: 38, pl. 9, f. 1 (mf).
Epeira a. Bösenberg, 1901: 32, pl. 2, f. 17 (mf).
Meta doenitzi Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 180, pl. 11, f. 238-239 (Dmf).
Aranea a. japonica Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 219, pl. 4, f. 27 (Df).
Aranea doenitzi Strand, 1907k: 182.
Araneus adiantus Lessert, 1910b: 331.
Epeira triangulata Franganillo, 1913: 127 (Df).
Epeira triangulata Franganillo, 1918a: 63 (Dm).
Araneus a. Simon, 1929: 693, 762, f. 1072-1073 (mf).
Aranea a. Wiehle, 1931: 103, f. 156-160 (mf).
Meta doenitzi Saito, 1933b: 49, pl. 3, f. 15.
Meta doenitzi Nakatsudi, 1942a: 307, f. 28 (f).
Aranea a. Drensky, 1943: 244, f. 24 (mf).
N. a. Archer, 1951c: 4, f. 5 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus adiantus Locket & Millidge, 1953: 141, f. 93D-F (mf).
N. a. Yaginuma, 1955a: 18, pl. I, f. 2 (f).
N. doenitzi Yaginuma, 1955a: 18, pl. I, f. 1, 18 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus adiantus Saito, 1959: 85, f. 88a-d (f).
N. doenitzi Yaginuma, 1960: 56, f. 52.2 (mf).
N. doenitzi Lee, 1966: 42, f. 12c-e (mf).
Araneus adiantus Azheganova, 1968: 74, f. 146, 167 (mf).
Araneus adiantum Miller, 1971: 211, pl. XXXIX, f. 18-19 (m).
N. doenitzi Yaginuma, 1971: 56, f. 52.1 (mf).
N. a. Yaginuma, 1971: 57, f. 53 (f).
Araneus adiantus Tyschchenko, 1971: 198, f. 594 (f).
Araneus adiantum Loksa, 1972: 84, f. 75, 76A-C (mf).
Araneus adiantus Izmailova, 1972c: 52, f. 4 (f).
Araneus adiantus Bakhvalov, 1974: 111, f. 81-85 (mf).
N. a. Punda, 1975b: 44, f. 71-72 (f).
N. doenitzi Yin, 1978: 4, f. 11A-D (mf).
N. adiantum Yin, 1978: 6, f. 14A-E (mf).
N. adiantum Paik & Namkung, 1979: 46, f. 28 (f).
N. doenitzi Paik & Namkung, 1979: 46, f. 29.1-2 (mf).
N. doenitzi Song, 1980: 102, f. 48a-d (mf).
N. adiantum Song, 1980: 106, f. 51a-e (mf).
N. byzantina Ledoux & Canard, 1981: 12, f. 28 (m).
Araneus a. japonica Oliger, 1981: 3, f. 1 (f).
N. doenitzi Oliger, 1981: 6, f. 9-11 (mf).
N. adiantum Hu, 1984: 120, f. 120.1-2 (f).
N. a. Roberts, 1985: 214, f. 96b (mf).
N. adiantum Guo, 1985: 67, f. 2-20.1-3 (mf).
N. a. Zhu et al., 1985: 79, f. 67a-h (mf).
N. doenitzi Yaginuma, 1986a: 103, f. 55.3 (f).
N. adiantum Grasshoff, 1986: 66, f. 85-89 (mf, S).
N. adiantum Yaginuma, 1986c: 190, 199 (S).
N. adiantum Zhang, 1987: 82, f. 66.1-4 (mf).
N. a. Chikuni, 1989b: 72, f. 31 (mf).
N. adiantum Feng, 1990: 88, f. 63.1-4 (mf).
N. adiantum Chen & Gao, 1990: 64, f. 79a-b (mf).
N. a. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 88, f. 198 (mf).
N. a. Zhao, 1993: 240, f. 113a-d (mf).
N. a. Roberts, 1995: 324, f. (mf).
Araneus adiantus Mcheidze, 1997: 272, f. 633-634 (mf).
N. a. Yin & Kim, 1997: 58, f. 2A-G (mf).
N. a. Yin et al., 1997: 345, f. 243a-g (mf).
N. a. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1714, f. 15a-c (mf).
N. a. Levy, 1998a: 339, f. 108-116 (mf).
N. a. Kim, 1998a: 1, f. 1A-G (mf).
N. a. Roberts, 1998: 337, f. (mf).
N. a. Tanikawa, 1998b: 140, f. 9, 18-24 (mf).
N. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 293, f. 175K-L, 178O (mf).
N. a. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 216, f. 130A-E (mf).

f adianta persecta (Schenkel, 1936)....................China
Araneus doenitzi persectus Schenkel, 1936b: 110, f. 39 (Df).

mf alberti (Strand, 1913)....................Central, Southern Africa
Aranea a. Strand, 1913a: 375 (Df).
Aranea edwardiana Strand, 1913a: 377 (Df).
N. tuckeri Caporiacco, 1949a: 416, f. 59a-b (Df).
N. a. Caporiacco, 1949a: 416 (Tf from Araneus).
N. a. Grasshoff, 1986: 51, f. 64-70 (f, Dm, S).

mf amamiensis Tanikawa, 1998....................Japan
N. a. Tanikawa, 1998b: 142, f. 10, 25-31 (Dmf).

mf angulatula (Schenkel, 1937)....................Madagascar, Aldabra, Kenya
Araneus angulatulus Schenkel, 1937: 383, f. 4 (Df).
N. dripaca Roberts, 1983: 275, f. 199-201, 211-212 (Dm).
N. a. Grasshoff, 1986: 106, f. 153-159 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

mf arabesca (Walckenaer, 1842) *....................North, Central America, West Indies
Epeira a. Walckenaer, 1842: 74 (Dmf).
Epeira trivittata Keyserling, 1864: 95, pl. 5, f. 6-9 (Df).
Epeira trivittata Emerton, 1884: 311, pl. 33, f. 16, pl. 36, f. 2-3, 5, 8 (f, Dm).
Epeira trivittata Keyserling, 1892: 172, pl. 8, f. 127 (f).
Epeira a. McCook, 1894: 148, pl. 1, f. 8, pl. 2, f. 6-7 (mf).
Epeira singularis Banks, 1898b: 252, pl. 15, f. 4 (Df).
Epeira trivittata Emerton, 1902: 166, f. 393-395 (mf).
N. minima F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 471, pl. 44, f. 11,-2 (Dmf).
N. a. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 472, pl. 44, f. 13-14 (mf).
Epeira minima Banks, 1909a: 211.
Araneus a. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 279.
Araneus minimus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 303.
Araneus singularis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 316.
N. minima Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936b: 20, f. 30.
N. a. Comstock, 1940: 510, f. 527 (f).
N. a. Muma, 1943: 97, pl. XIV, f. 2-3 (Tmf from Araneus).
N. a. Kaston, 1948: 245, f. 750, 771-773, 775 (f).
N. minima Kaston, 1948: 245, f. 751, 776 (f).
N. a. Berman & Levi, 1971: 474, f. 1-3, 5-6, 8, 10, 14-42, 125-126 (mf, S).
N. minima Barrion et al., 1988: 250, f. 3, 4a-f (f, probably misidentified).
N. a. Barrion et al., 1988: 389, f. 1a-g, 9a (f, probably misidentified).
N. minima Barrion et al., 1988: 392, f. 2a-g, 9b (f, probably misidentified).
N. a. Coddington, 1990: 14, f. 65 (m).
N. a. Levi, 1991a: 180 (S).
N. a. Levi, 1993a: 230, f. 14-17 (mf).
N. a. Breene et al., 1993: 106, f. 164A-C (mf).

f bengalensis Tikader & Bal, 1981....................India
N. b. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 15, f. 22-25 (Df).
N. b. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 24, f. 25-27 (f).
N. b. Tikader, 1982a: 246, f. 474-477 (f).

mf bihumpi Patel, 1988....................India
N. b. Patel, 1988a: 1029, f. 1a-f (Dmf).

mf blondeli (Simon, 1885)....................Africa
Epeira b. Simon, 1885d: 369 (Df).
Araneus bettoni Pocock, 1898g: 510, pl. 41, f. 4 (Df).
Araneus taruensis Pocock, 1898g: 511, pl. 41, f. 5, pl. 42, f. 1 (Df).
Araneus b. Simon, 1907d: 290, f. 1B (f).
Araneus gerhardti Caporiacco, 1949a: 420, f. 60a-b (Dm).
N. b. Grasshoff, 1986: 36, f. 7-8, 44-54 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

mf bucheti (Lessert, 1930)....................Congo
Araneus b. Lessert, 1930: 650, f. 23-25 (Dmf).
Afraranea b. Archer, 1951a: 22 (Tmf from Araneus).

m bucheti avakubiensis (Lessert, 1930)....................Congo
Araneus b. a. Lessert, 1930: 652 (Dm).

f bucheti flexuosa (Lessert, 1930)....................Congo
Araneus b. f. Lessert, 1930: 652 (Df).

mf cereolella (Strand, 1907)....................Congo, East Africa, Madagascar
Aranea c. Strand, 1907d: 732 (Dmf).
Aranea c. Strand, 1907o: 54 (Dmf).
Aranea c. Tullgren, 1910: 163, pl. 4, f. 110 (mf).
Araneus cereolellus Lessert, 1930: 647, f. 21 (mf).
Afraranea c. Archer, 1951a: 22 (Tmf from Araneus).

mf cereolella setaceola (Strand, 1913)....................Central Africa
Aranea c. s. Strand, 1913a: 373 (Df).
Araneus cereolellus s. Lessert, 1930: 640, f. 22 (f, Dm).

f cheesmanae (Berland, 1938)....................New Hebrides
Araneus cheesmannae Berland, 1938: 175, f. 133-136 (Df; patronym for Ms. Cheesman).
Afraranea c. Archer, 1951a: 22 (Tf from Araneus).

mf chiarinii (Pavesi, 1883)....................West, Central, East Africa
Epeira c. Pavesi, 1883: 14 (Df).
Aranea accentuata Thorell, 1899: 53 (Df).
Araneus potteri Simon, 1901d: 19 (Df).
Araneus lapillulus Simon, 1907d: 292, f. 1D (Df).
Araneus potteri Lessert, 1915a: 31, pl. 2, f. 48-49, 56-58 (Dm).
Araneus mutilatus Caporiacco, 1947d: 172, f. 29 (Dm).
N. c. Grasshoff, 1986: 42, f. 55-59 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

f chrysanthusi Tikader & Bal, 1981....................Bhutan
N. c. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 13, f. 18-21 (Df).
N. c. Tikader, 1982a: 244, f. 470-473 (f).

mf crucifera (Lucas, 1839)....................North America, Canary Is., Madeira, Hawaii
Epeira c. Lucas, 1838: 42, pl. 6, f. 3 (Df).
Epeira lentiginosa Blackwall, 1862a: 378 (Df).
Epeira hentzii Keyserling, 1864: 97, pl. 5, f. 10-11 (Df).
Epeira c. Kulczyn'ski, 1899: 394, pl. 8, f. 88-97 (f, Dm).
Aranea c. albimaculata Strand, 1908c: 3 (Df).
Aranea c. ladislausi Strand, 1908c: 3 (Df).
Aranea c. ochroleucella Strand, 1908c: 3 (Df).
Aranea c. pyramidella Strand, 1908c: 3 (Df).
N. benjamina Comstock, 1940: 511, f. 534 (f).
N. arkansa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 77, f. 217-218 (Df).
N. nebraskensis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 77, f. 219-220 (Df).
N. sacra Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944: 108 (Tmf from Araneus, S, rejected).
N. benjamina Kaston, 1948: 246, f. 752, 777-778 (f).
N. hentzii Berman & Levi, 1971: 478, f. 51-58, 128 (mf, removed from S of N. benjamina, S).
N. hentzi Kaston, 1977: 30, f. 22 (m).
N. c. Grasshoff, 1986: 62, f. 79-84 (Tmf from Araneus, S).

f dhruvai Patel & Nigam, 1994....................India
N. d. Patel & Nigam, 1994: 203, f. 2a-e (Df).

mf dhumani Patel & Reddy, 1993....................India
N. d. Patel & Reddy, 1993a: 3, f. 2a-h (Dmf).

mf domiciliorum (Hentz, 1847)....................USA
Epeira d. Hentz, 1847: 469, pl. 30, f. 7 (Df).
Epeira d. McCook, 1881: 173, f. 13 (f).
Epeira d. Emerton, 1884: 312, pl. 33, f. 17, pl. 36, f. 1, 4 (f, Dm).
Epeira benjamini Keyserling, 1892: 134, pl. 7, f. 100 (f).
Epeira benjamina McCook, 1894: 147, pl. 1, f. 7, pl. 2, f. 4-5 (mf).
N. benjamina F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 479, pl. 44, f. 9-10 (mf).
Araneus benjaminus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 282.
N. d. Archer, 1940: 48, pl. II, f. 2 (f, removed from S of N. benjamina).
N. benjamina Muma, 1943: 98, pl. XIV, f. 4-5 (f).
N. d. Berman & Levi, 1971: 477, f. 43-50, 127 (mf).
N. d. Kaston, 1977: 30, f. 21 (m).

m dostinikea Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
N. d. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 618, f. 389a-g (Dm).

mf hirta (C. L. Koch, 1844)....................Central, Southern Africa
Epeira hirta C. L. Koch, 1844: 69, f. 888 (Df).
Aranea hirta Strand, 1913a: 371.
Araneus mensamontis Pocock, 1900e: 324 (Df).
Aranea mensamontis Strand, 1907n: 623.
N. h. Grasshoff, 1986: 91, f. 136-140 (Tf from Araneus, Dm, S).

f goliath (Benoit, 1963)....................Ivory Coast
Singafrotypa g. Benoit, 1963b: 30, f. 1-2 (Df; N.B.: omitted by Brignoli).
N. g. Kuntner & Hormiga, 2002: 137 (Tf from Singafrotypa).

mf holmi (Schenkel, 1953)....................China, Korea
Araneus h. Schenkel, 1953b: 45, f. 21a-f (Dm).
N. adiantum Song, Yu & Shang, 1981: 83, f. 5-6 (m, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Wang, 1981: 96, f. 37A-B (m, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Hu, 1984: 121, f. 121.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Guo, 1985: 68, f. 2-21.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Zhu et al., 1985: 80, f. 68a-f (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Song, 1987: 169, f. 130 (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Zhang, 1987: 84, f. 68.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Hu & Wu, 1989: 105, f. 80.1-4 (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Feng, 1990: 89, f. 64.1-5 (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Chen & Gao, 1990: 65, f. 80a-b (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Chen & Zhang, 1991: 114, f. 108.1-6 (mf, misidentified).
N. doenitzi Zhao, 1993: 245, f. 115a-c (mf, misidentified).
N. h. Yin & Kim, 1997: 58, f. 2a-g (Tm from Araneus, f had been misidentified as N. doenitzi by Chinese authors).
N. h. Yin et al., 1997: 349, f. 246a-h (mf).
N. doenitzi Kim, 1998a: 1, f. 1a-g (mf).
N. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 175R-T, 178S, 180G (mf).
N. h. Hu, 2001: 466, f. 306.1-6 (mf).
N. h. Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 217, f. 131A-F (mf).

f jinghongensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
N. j. Yin et al., 1990: 117, f. 288-290 (Df).
N. j. Yin et al., 1997: 356, f. 252a-f (f).
N. j. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 175U-V, 176A, 180H (f).

mf kisangani Grasshoff, 1986....................Congo
N. k. Grasshoff, 1986: 28, f. 31-35 (Dmf).

mf kivuensis Grasshoff, 1986....................Congo
N. k. Grasshoff, 1986: 109, f. 160-164 (Dmf).

f kunmingensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
N. k. Yin et al., 1990: 121, f. 295-300 (Df).
N. k. Yin et al., 1997: 365, f. 260a-g (f).
N. k. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 176B-D, 180I (f).

f lactea (Saito, 1933)....................Taiwan
Araneus lacteus Saito, 1933b: 55, pl. 3, f. 30 (Df).
Araneus lacteus Lee, 1966: 39, f. 10e-g (f).
Araneus lacteus Yoshida, 1978b: 10, f. 28-30 (f).
Araneus lacteus Hu, 1984: 94, f. 87 (f).
N. lacteus Yin et al., 1997: 357, f. 253a-c (Tf from Araneus).
N. lacteus Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 176E-G (f).

f leucaspis (Schenkel, 1963)....................China
Araneus l. Schenkel, 1963: 159, f. 94a-d (Df).
N. l. Yin et al., 1997: 358, f. 254a-d (Tf from Araneus).
N. l. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 176H, 180J (f).

mf maculaticeps (L. Koch, 1871)....................Japan, Samoa
Epeira m. L. Koch, 1871: 78, pl. 5, f. 5 (Dm).
Epeira bertkaui Keyserling, 1890: 233, pl. 21, f. 1 (Df).
Araneus m. Berland, 1929b: 63, f. 52-53 (mf).
Araneus bertkaui Saito, 1933b: 53, pl. 3, f. 13.
Afraranea m. Archer, 1951a: 22 (Tmf from Araneus).

mf marcanoi Levi, 1993....................Hispaniola
N. m. Levi, 1993a: 226, f. 1-9 (Dmf).

mf melloteei (Simon, 1895)....................China, Taiwan, Japan
Araneus mellotteei Simon, 1895a: 812 (Df; patronym for Mellotée).
Aranea m. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 218, pl. 11, f. 223 (f, Dm).
Araneus m. Saito, 1933b: 55, pl. 3, f. 37.
Araneus m. Yaginuma, 1940: 123, f. 2.1-4 (f).
N. m. Yaginuma, 1955a: 19, pl. I, f. 11, 17 (Tmf from Araneus).
N. m. Yaginuma, 1960: 57, f. 53 (f).
N. m. Lee, 1966: 41, f. 11i-j (f).
N. m. Yaginuma, 1971: 57, f. 53 (f).
N. m. Matsumoto, 1973b: 41, f. 11, 13 (f).
N. m. Yaginuma, 1986a: 103, f. 55.2 (f).
N. m. Song, 1987: 172, f. 132 (f).
N. m. Zhang, 1987: 86, f. 70.1-2 (f).
N. mellotteei Chikuni, 1989b: 73, f. 35 (mf).
N. mellotteei Feng, 1990: 91, f. 66.1-4 (mf).
N. mellotteei Chen & Gao, 1990: 66, f. 82a-b (mf).
N. mellotteei Zhao, 1993: 254, f. 117a-b (mf).
N. mellotteei Yin et al., 1997: 366, f. 261a-f (mf).
N. mellotteei Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1715, f. 16a-b (m).
N. mellotteei Tanikawa, 1998b: 151, f. 37, 54-61 (mf).
N. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 176I-J, 179A (mf).
N. mellotteei Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 218, f. 132A-E (mf).

mf menghaiensis Yin et al., 1990....................China
N. m. Yin et al., 1990: 119, f. 291-294 (Df).
N. m. Yin et al., 1997: 358, f. 255a-h (f, Dm).
N. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 299, f. 176K-M, 179B, 180K (mf).

mf modesta (Simon, 1890)....................Yemen
Epeira m. Simon, 1890a: 104 (Dmf, preoccupied).
Aranea modestella Strand, 1907m: 422 (replacement name).
N. m. Levy, 1998a: 338 (Tmf from Araneus).

mf molemensis Tikader & Bal, 1981....................Bangladesh, India to Philippines, Indonesia
N. m. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 22, f. 40-44 (Dmf).
N. m. Tikader, 1982a: 257, f. 510-514 (mf).
N. m. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 627, f. 396a-e (f).

mf moreli (Vinson, 1863)....................Cuba to Argentina, Africa to Seychelles
Epeira morelii Vinson, 1863: 166, 309, pl. 4, f. 4 (Dm).
Epeira m. Simon, 1885d: 370 (Df).
Epeira lanuginosa Lenz, 1886: 389 (Df).
Epeira theisii Keyserling, 1893: 246, pl. 12, f. 184 (mf, misidentified).
Epeira theisii McCook, 1894: 166, pl. 6, f. 8-9 (mf, misidentified).
Araneus neotheis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 305 (Dmf).
Cubanella nidicola Franganillo, 1926a: 56, f. 2-3 (Dmf).
Cubanella nidicola Franganillo, 1926c: 15, f. 5-7 (m).
Cubanella recta Franganillo, 1930: 22, f. 8 (Dmf).
N. neotheis Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 324.
N. nidicola Franganillo, 1936c: 76, f. 34 (f).
N. recta Franganillo, 1936c: 77, f. 35-36.
N. neotheis Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936b: 21, f. 31 (f).
N. nidicola Bryant, 1940: 511.
N. neotheis Berman & Levi, 1971: 490, f. 12, 91-100, 130-131 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
N. m. Grasshoff, 1980: 407 (removed mf from S of N. theis).
N. seca Roberts, 1983: 275, f. 202-204, 213-214 (Dm).
N. m. Grasshoff, 1986: 56, f. 71-78 (mf, S).
N. neotheis Barrion et al., 1988: 394, f. 3a-g, 9c (f).
N. m. Levi, 1993a: 232, f. 18-21 (mf).

mf mukerjei Tikader, 1980....................India
N. m. Tikader, 1980b: 247, f. 1-23 (Dmf).
N. m. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 17, f. 11-12, 26-30 (mf).
N. m. Tikader, 1982a: 248, f. 60-61, 478-500 (mf).

mf multiplicans (Chamberlin 1924)....................China, Korea
Aranea multiplicans Chamberlin, 1924a: 18, pl. 5, f. 35 (Dmf).
N. scylla Song, 1988: 129, f. 8A-B only (f, S, rejected).
N. minoriscylla Yin et al., 1990: 123, f. 301-309 (Dmf).
N. minoriscylla Yin et al., 1997: 367, f. 262a-i (mf).
N. m. Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1715, f. 17a-c (removed mf from S of N. scylla, contra Song, 1988: 129, S).
N. minoriscylla Tanikawa, 1998b: 158, f. 83-85, 87 (f).
N. m. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 300, f. 176N-O (f).
N. minoriscylla Namkung & Kim, 1999: 213, f. 1I-L (f).

f murthyi Patel & Reddy, 1990....................India
N. m. Patel & Reddy, 1990c: 157, f. 1-5 (Df).

mf nautica (L. Koch, 1875)....................Cosmotropical
Epeira tristis Taczanowski, 1873: 131 (Df; preoccupied by Blackwall, 1862).
Epeira n. L. Koch, 1875b: 17, pl. 2, f. 2 (Dmf).
Epeira pullata Thorell, 1877b: 385 (Df).
Epeira volucripes Keyserling, 1885: 528, pl. 13, f. 27 (Dmf).
Epeira volucripes Keyserling, 1892: 199, pl. 9, f. 147 (mf).
Epeira volucripes McCook, 1894: 162, pl. 6, f. 1-2 (mf).
Araneus nauticus Pocock, 1900a: 228.
N. volucripes F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 473, pl. 44, f. 18 (f).
Aranea camerunensis Strand, 1906h: 62 (Df).
Aranea n. Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 222, 403, pl. 4, f. 31, pl. 11, f. 197, pl. 12, f. 299 (mf).
Aranea koratsensis Dönitz & Strand, in Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 384, pl. 4, f. 25 (Df).
Araneus nauticus Simon, 1907d: 290, f. 1A (f).
Araneus tristimoniae Petrunkevitch, 1911: 320 (replacement name for Epeira tristis Taczanowski).
N. n. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 320, f. 197-199 (mf).
N. n. Comstock, 1940: 513, f. 536 (f).
N. vulgaris Archer, 1940: 50, pl. II, f. 4 (f).
Araneus marcuzzii Caporiacco, 1955: 355, f. 35a-c (Df).
N. n. Yaginuma, 1955a: 17, pl. I, f. 5, 15 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
Araneus nauticus Saito, 1959: 90, text-f. 7.1-2, f. 104a-d (f).
N. n. Yaginuma, 1960: 56, f. 52.3 (mf).
N. n. Lee, 1966: 41, f. 11d-f (mf).
N. n. Yaginuma, 1971: 56, f. 52.3 (mf).
N. n. Berman & Levi, 1971: 498, f. 13, 111-120, 132 (mf, S).
Araneus nauticus Chrysanthus, 1971: 29, f. 48-51 (f).
N. n. Yin, 1978: 5, f. 12A-D (mf).
N. n. Song, 1980: 103, f. 49a-d (mf).
N. n. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 12, f. 14-17 (f).
N. n. Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 27, f. 34-36 (f).
N. n. Tikader, 1982a: 242, f. 466-469 (f).
N. n. Hu, 1984: 122, f. 123.1-2 (mf).
N. n. Guo, 1985: 69, f. 2-22.1-4 (mf).
N. n. Zhu et al., 1985: 81, f. 69a-d (f).
N. n. Yaginuma, 1986a: 105, f. 55.6 (mf).
N. n. Grasshoff, 1986: 46, f. 5, 60-63 (mf).
N. n. Chikuni, 1989b: 72, f. 33 (mf).
N. n. Feng, 1990: 92, f. 67.1-6 (mf).
N. n. Chen & Gao, 1990: 67, f. 83a-b (mf).
N. n. Chen & Zhang, 1991: 115, f. 109.1-5 (mf).
N. n. Levi, 1993a: 228, f. 10-13 (mf).
N. n. Zhao, 1993: 253, f. 116a-c (mf).
N. n. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 629, f. 397a-h (f).
N. n. Yin et al., 1997: 351, f. 247a-g (mf).
N. n. Tanikawa, 1998b: 145, f. 33, 39-45 (mf).
N. n. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 300, f. 176P-R, 179C, 180L (mf).
N. n. Hu, 2001: 467, f. 307.1-3 (f).

f novella (Simon, 1907)....................Bioko
Araneus novellus Simon, 1907d: 294, f. 3A (Df).
N. n. Grasshoff, 1986: 104, f. 151-152 (Tf from Araneus).

mf oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864)....................USA to Peru, Galapagos Is.
Epeira o. Keyserling, 1864: 121, pl. 5, f. 15-16 (Df).
Epeira cooksonii Butler, 1877: 76, pl. 13, f. 2 (Df).
Epeira adiantoides Taczanowski, 1878b: 148, pl. 1, f. 4 (Dmf).
Epeira vertebrata McCook, 1888b: 196, f, 6-10 (Dmf).
Epeira oaxensis Keyserling, 1893: 238, pl. 12, f. 178 (f).
Epeira vertebrata McCook, 1894: 151, pl. 3, f. 6-7, pl. 4, f. 1, pl. 5, f. 4 (mf).
Araneus adiantoides Simon, 1897e: 2.
N. conifera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 409, pl. 44, f. 6-7 (Dmf).
N. o. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 468, pl. 44, f. 4-5 (mf).
N. cooksoni F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 473, pl. 44, f. 16 (f).
Araneus coniferus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 286.
Araneus o. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 307.
Araneus cooksoni Petrunkevitch, 1911: 286.
N. salaeria Chamberlin, 1920c: 167, f. 1-2 (Dmf).
N. naiba Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1929: 104, pl. 4, f. 46-48 (Df).
N. o. Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 322, f. 200-204 (mf).
Aranea naiba Roewer, 1942a: 862.
Aranea salaeria Roewer, 1942a: 863.
N. lativulva Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942a: 78, f. 221-222 (Df).
N. o. Berman & Levi, 1971: 486, f. 4, 9, 11, 78-90, 129 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
N. o. Levi, 1973: 478 (S).
N. o. Barrion et al., 1988: 396, f. 4a-g, 9d (f, probably misidentified).
N. o. Levi, 1993a: 233, f. 22-25 (mf).

f odites (Simon, 1906)....................India
Araneus o. Simon, 1906c: 308 (Df).
N. o. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 36, f. 77-80 (Tf from Araneus).
N. o. Tikader, 1982a: 274, f. 547-550 (f).

m oriemindoroana Barrion & Litsinger, 1995....................Philippines
N. o. Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 624, f. 393a-f (Dm).

f orientalis (Urquhart, 1887)....................New Zealand
Epeira orientalis Urquhart, 1887: 79, pl. 7, f. 3 (Dmf).
N. o. Court & Forster, 1988: 98, f. 501-503 (removed f from S of Araneus brouni; m of Urquhart, 1886 probably = Eriophora heroine).

mf orizabensis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904....................Mexico
N. o. F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 473, pl. 44, f. 17 (Df).
N. amulensis F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904: 472, pl. 44, f. 15 (Df).
Araneus amulensis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 278.
Araneus o. Petrunkevitch, 1911: 307.
N. o. Berman & Levi, 1971: 484, f. 7, 59-67, 133 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).

f pavida (Simon, 1906)....................India, China
Araneus pavidus Simon, 1906c: 309 (Df).
Araneus pavidus Dyal, 1935: 184, pl. 16, f. 126 (f).
N. p. Tikader & Bal, 1981: 38, f. 81-94 (Tf from Araneus).
N. p. Tikader, 1982a: 276, f. 551-554 (f).
N. p. Hu & Li, 1987a: 333, f. 14.1-4 (f).
N. p. Yin et al., 1997: 369, f. 263a-d (f).
N. p. Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 300, f. 176S-U, 180M (f).
N. p. Hu, 2001: 467, f. 308.1-4 (f).

mf penicillipes (Karsch, 1879)....................West, Central Africa
Epeira p. Karsch, 1879e: 836, pl. 11, f. 6 (Dm).
Araneus pachanus Pocock, 1898e: 447, pl. 13, f. 9 (Df).
Aranea bioculata Thorell, 1899: 44 (Df).
Aranea varians Thorell, 1899: 49 (Dmf).
Araneus haematocnemis Pocock, 1899e: 850, pl. 56, f. 8 (Df).
Aranea leimenstolli Strand, 1906h: 57 (Dm).
Araneus varians Simon, 1907d: 289.
Aranea haematocnemis Strand, 1913a: 380.
Aranea haematocnemis antepicta Strand, 1913a: 380 (Df).
Aranea haematocnemis constrictifascia Strand, 1913a: 381 (Df).