Manual for Standard Views

Please send corrections & nicer example images to ramirez@macn.gov.ar
v0.72 modified 9/11/2006


key for standard views

ID#. required

ID#. conditionally required


Preparation 1. Female in alcohol

33. habitus (female): dorsal view (photo)

Tip: no legs



37. habitus (female): ventral view (photo)

Tip: no legs



377. habitus with legs (female): lateral view (photo)

Tip: with legs



35. habitus (female): lateral view (photo)

Tip: no legs



365. cephalothorax and base of appendages (female): ventral view (photo)

Tip: including coxae, trochanters, chelicera and pedicel


49. carapace (female): dorsal view (photo)



104. leg I (female): prolateral view (photo)

Tip: this can be imaged before mounting for SEM


370. trochanter > leg I (female): ventral view (photo)

Tip: make sure the notch area is visible


372. leg IV (female): retrolateral view (photo)

Tip: this can be imaged before mounting for SEM


369. trochanter > leg IV (female): ventral view (photo)

Tip: make sure the notch area is visible


241. 3rd abdominal segment (posterior booklungs and tracheae) (female): dorsal view, complete posterior respiratory system (photo)

Tip: ex digestion; add analytical drawings if necessary

Zoom and check: recommended details of spiracle area and ctaenidia

It is difficult to get all strucures in focus for tracheae, a drawing is often necessary as well.



Preparation 2. Carapace, endites, labium (female)

43. labrum (female): anterior-proper view (SEM)

Tip: elevated labra often require an oblique lateral view



44. labium (female): ventral-posterior view (SEM)

Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 78



47. sternum (female): ventral view (SEM)

Tip: include pedicel

Zoom and check: if complex sclerites, then add SV 237


51. carapace (female): dorsal view (SEM)



53. carapace (female): proper view, detail texture (SEM)

Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 67



359. hairs carapace (female): proper view, closeup one seta (SEM)

Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 67


358. scales carapace (female): proper view, closeup one seta (SEM)

Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 67

May use standard legs and segments to illustrate setae, but include extra images if something different occurs elsewhere.


61. eyes (female): dorsal view (SEM)



57. eyes (female): anterior view (SEM)



65. eyes (female): lateral view (SEM)

Tip: include all clypeus

Additional structures you may found there: if suprapalpal (?) glands present, add SV 6



6. lateral pore pit (suprapalpal) > cephalic area (female): proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: absence usually documented in SV 65



67. fovea > carapace (female): dorsal-proper view (SEM)

Tip: Fovea area, even if fovea not present

Zoom and check: ultrastructure of carapace cuticle (fingerprint, etc.), hairs, and scales; if not adequately resolved in this view, add SV 53, SV 358, SV 359



77. coxa-endite > palp (female): dorsal-anterior view (SEM)

Zoom and check: full extention of serrula, if teeth not well resolved add SV 79

The endites could go in the carapace preparation…

…or dissected with the palp


78. coxa-endite > palp (female): ventral-posterior view (SEM)

Tip: both left and right, including labium

Zoom and check: labium adequately resolved; if not, add SV 44



79. serrula > coxa-endite > palp (female): dorsal-lateral view (SEM)

Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 77

Zoom and check: serrula teeth well resolved


Document absence of serrula.


234. pedicel (1st abdominal segment) (female): dorsal view (SEM)

Comments: Charles has asked for an oblique view; consider some examples and decide



237. pedicel (1st abdominal segment) (female): ventral view (SEM)

Conditionally required: default view taken together with sternum in SV 47; add this view if complex



Preparation 3. Chelicera (female)

68. chelicera (female): anterior view (SEM)


When chelicerae are fused they could be mounted together


70. chelicera (female): posterior view (SEM)

Tip: If the venom gland comes out with the chelicera, mount and then take a whole image of chelicera plus venom gland


Try to avoid closed fangs


69. chelicera (female): ectal view (SEM)

Additional structures you may found there: stridulatory file, add SV 8 if necessary; cheliceral boss striae, if present add SV 7



7. cheliceral boss > paturon (female): lateral-anterior view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 69



8. stridulatory files > paturon > chelicera > appendages cephalothorax (female): lateral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 69


71. promargin > paturon (female): anterior-ventral view (SEM)

Comments: views differ in non-Araneomorphae

Get all relevant setae in frame and in focus.

Include complete fang in frame.


72. retromargin > paturon (female): posterior-ventral view (SEM)

Tip: including the whole fang

Zoom and check: Whole fang, all retromarginal teeth, denticles on furrow, and the setae close to the fang base. If the venom opening is not shown, check for absence. If there are denticles on furrow, consider a view from other angle.

Additional structures you may found there: denticles on furrow


Oblique views often more informative than pure posterior.


73. cheliceral gland (female): proper view (SEM)

Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 72

The cheliceral gland often needs a much higher contrast than the rest of the shots.



Preparation 4. Palp (female)

361. palp (female): prolateral view (SEM)

Tip: SEM of entire mount



97. tarsus > palp (female): dorsal view (SEM)



99. tarsus > palp (female): retrolateral view (SEM)



103. claw > palp (female): retrolateral-apical view (SEM)

When present!
Tip: retrolateral side shaved; this view should give the tridimensional aspect of the claw and show the teeth

Zoom and check: teeth



101. tarsus > palp (female): apical view (SEM)

Tip: retrolateral side shaved

Zoom and check: document absence of claw


Document absence or reduction of claws.



Preparation 5. Leg I, female

360. leg I (female): prolateral view (SEM)

Tip: general SEM of the entire preparation



126. tarsus > leg I (female): dorsal view (SEM)


Include entire tarsus


129. tarsus > leg I (female): ventral view (SEM)



128. tarsus > leg I (female): retrolateral view (SEM)



132. claws > leg I (female): retrolateral-apical view (SEM)

Tip: retrolateral side shaved, two images show teeth of all claws (or complete with extra images)

Shave one side to fully expose the claws.

Also shave the retrolateral claw tuft to expose insertions. Take the setae off a small group at a time, otherwise the pad may tear off.


130. claws > leg I (female): apical view (SEM)

Tip: retrolateral side shaved, two images show teeth of all claws (or complete with extra images)



217. hairs appendages (female): proper view, closeup one seta (SEM)

Tip: generic; by default use tibia I lateral

Look for diversity in setae.


219. scales appendages (female): proper view, closeup one seta (SEM)

When present!
Tip: generic; by default use tibia I lateral



221. scopular setae (female): retrolateral-proper view, closeup one seta (SEM)

When present!
Tip: generic; by default use tarsus I

Get well exposed base and tenent surface in focus. This image might be used as SV 219 as well, because the a scale is well figured along with the scopular seta.


222. scopular setae tenent surface (female): proper view, closeup (SEM)

When present!
Tip: generic; by default use tarsus I



15. claw tuft setae (female): retrolateral-proper view, closeup (SEM)

When present!
Tip: generic; by default use tarsus I



16. claw tuft setae base (female): retrolateral-proper view, closeup (SEM)

When present!
Tip: generic; by default use tarsus I



17. claw tuft setae tenent surface (female): proper view, closeup (SEM)

When present!
Tip: generic; by default use tarsus I



223. chemosensory setae (female): proper view, closeup (SEM)

Tip: by default use cymbial tip or cymbial dorsal pad; check with some examples that e.g., tibial and cymbial setae look similar



353. trichobothrial socket: proper view (SEM)

Tip: by default use female tibia I dorsal; make sure that the setal base is illustrated



354. tarsal organ (female): dorsal-proper view (SEM)

Tip: generic; by default use tarsus I



380. leg cuticle texture: proper view (SEM)

Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in e.g., SV 353, SV 354

Zoom and check: Sometimes the cuticle texture varies in different parts of the leg (e.g., smooth on tarsus, but imbricate on tibia)

The cuticle texture is often well illustrated together with trichobothria or tarsal organ

The cuticle texture is often well illustrated together with trichobothria or tarsal organ



Preparation 6. Leg IV, female

362. leg IV (female): retrolateral view (SEM)

Tip: general SEM of the entire preparation


206. metatarsus > leg IV (female): dorsal view (SEM)

Zoom and check: metatarsal dorsal stopper may have oddities (Sparassidae)



208. metatarsus > leg IV (female): retrolateral view (SEM)



367. preening comb in metatarsus > leg IV (female): ventral view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: include if not adequately illustrated in SV 213



10. calamistrum (female): retrolateral-dorsal view, entire calamistrum (SEM)

When present!
Tip: detail of entire calamistrum (image width slightly larger than calamistrum width)



11. calamistrum (female): retrolateral-dorsal view, calamistrum sector several setae (SEM)

When present!
Tip: image heigth about the calamistrum heigth

Check that tips and bases are in frame.


12. calamistrum seta (female): retrolateral-proper view, one seta (SEM)

When present!

Zoom and check: document presence/absence denticles

Additional structures you may found there: denticles may be present in adjacent setae also


There may be many rows of denticles.


210. tarsus > leg IV (female): dorsal view (SEM)



213. tarsus > leg IV (female): ventral view (SEM)

Tip: include metatarsal tip

Zoom and check: preening comb resolved or add SV 367; tarsal comb resolved or add extra image (may need an additional, non-standard angle); sustentaculum resolved or add in SV 355, or directly as SV 13

Similar to this, but should include more of metatarsus tip.


212. tarsus > leg IV (female): retrolateral view (SEM)



13. sustentaculum > tarsus > leg IV (female): proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 355



14. tarsal combs > tarsus > leg IV (female): proper view, detail seta (SEM)

When present!


355. claws > leg IV (female): ventral view (SEM)

Tip: include modified setae close to claws

Zoom and check: accessory claws; if sustentaculum present and not resolved add SV 13



216. claws > leg IV (female): retrolateral-apical view (SEM)

Tip: retrolateral side shaved, two images show teeth of all claws (or complete with extra images)

Zoom and check: accessory claws



214. claws > leg IV (female): apical view (SEM)

Tip: retrolateral side shaved, two images show teeth of all claws (or complete with extra images)




Preparation 7. Epigyne and vulva trypsine digested

292. epigynum (female): ventral view (photo)

When present!



293. epigynum (female): ventral view (SEM)

When present!



290. epigynum (female): posterior view (SEM)

When present!



296. vulva (female): dorsal view (SEM)

Tip: ex trypsine or KOH digestion

Trypsine works much better for entelegynes.

KOH works very well in haplogynes. In entelegynes, KOH often produces shrinking during the critical point drying.


297. primary spermatheca (SP1, with FD) (female): proper view, closeup of pores (SEM)

When present!

Zoom and check: all pore areas should be imaged in detail, check also ducts

There is some diversity in duct shapes

Check more carefully when the spermathecae are unsclerotized sacs, because the pores are easily overlooked


19. dictynoid pore > vulva (female): proper view (SEM)

When present!



298. secondary spermatheca (SP2 or head) (female): proper view (SEM)

When present!

Zoom and check: including pores



20. epigynal glands > vulva (female): dorsal-proper view (SEM)

When present!




Preparation 8. Spinnerets female

247. spinnerets (female): ventral-posterior view (SEM)


One half is OK, but it is somewhat difficult to interpret spacing and general conformation.


248. spinnerets (female): lateral view (SEM)

Tip: this is to illustrate the relative lengths of the spinnerets, especially the PLS



251. AMS-cribellum-colulus (female): ventral view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: entire spinning field; colulus or bare area usually illustrated together with spinnerets in SV 247



253. cribellar spigots (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!

Zoom and check: ultrastructural details of spigots



254. ALS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Tip: entire spinning field or add extra images

Zoom and check: fine texture of spigots (shaft and base), tartipores, and spinning field cuticle, add extra images if necessary (SV 256, SV 258, SV 260)


Shave distal article when necessary.


256. maAmp > ALS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 254



258. maAmp field > ALS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 254

Get sensilla in focus.


260. Pi > ALS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 254



266. PMS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

Tip: entire spinning field or add extra images

Zoom and check: fine texture of spigots (shaft and base), tartipores, and spinning field cuticle, add extra images if necessary (SV 268, SV 270, SV 272, SV 273)



268. miAmp > PMS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 266


The same image will suffice to document both miAmp and Ac.


270. Ac > PMS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 266

The same image will suffice to document both miAmp and Ac.


272. Cy > PMS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 266



273. PC > PMS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 266



276. PLS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

Tip: entire spinning field or add extra images

Zoom and check: fine texture of spigots (shaft and base), tartipores, and spinning field cuticle, add extra images if necessary (SV 278, SV 280, SV 281, SV 283)

Shave when necessary


278. Ac > PLS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 276



280. Cy > PLS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 276


281. MS > PLS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 284 or SV 276


283. PC > PLS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 276


284. triad > PLS spinning field (female): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!



288. anal tubercle (female): posterior-proper view (SEM)

Tip: one apical image should be sufficient, add more if needed




Preparation 10. Male in alcohol

34. habitus (male): dorsal view (photo)

Tip: no legs



38. habitus (male): ventral view (photo)

Tip: no legs



36. habitus (male): lateral view (photo)

Tip: no legs



378. habitus with legs (male): lateral view (photo)

Tip: with legs



366. cephalothorax and base of appendages (male): ventral view (photo)

Tip: including coxae, trochanters, chelicera and pedicel



50. carapace (male): dorsal view (photo)



307. male palp and genitalia (male): ventral view, tarsus, bulb, tibia (photo)

Tip: this view can be replaced by a drawing (SV 306)

Zoom and check: degree of sclerotization of parts




Preparation 11. Abdomen male

226. abdomen (male): anterior-dorsal view (SEM)

Zoom and check: illustrate sensilla, hairs and oddities around (especially on top of ) pedicel


356. spiracle anterior booklung (male): ventral-proper view, left booklung (SEM)

Conditionally required: usually illustrated in SV 239



239. anterior booklung cover external surface (male): ventral-lateral view (SEM)

Tip: includes entire spiracle

Zoom and check: stridulatory surfaces; if spiracle not inlcuded, then add SV 356



240. epiandrium (male): ventral-posterior view (SEM)

Zoom and check: if spigot origins not clear, add SV 18


Document absence.


18. epiandric spigots (male): ventral-posterior view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: include only if general view (SV 240) is not enough



373. spiracles > 3rd abdominal segment (posterior booklungs or tracheae) (male): ventral view (SEM)

Conditionally required: may be illustrated together with spinnerets in SV 249; shave area if necessary, use also to document absence of spiracle


This view of the spinnerets may serve as well.


249. spinnerets (male): ventral-posterior view (SEM)



255. ALS spinning field (male): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Tip: entire spinning field or add extra images



267. PMS spinning field (male): ventral-proper view (SEM)

Tip: entire spinning field or add extra images



277. PLS spinning field (male): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Tip: entire spinning field or add extra images



285. triad > PLS spinning field (male): ventral-proper view (SEM)

When present!



218. hairs abdomen (male): proper view, closeup one seta (SEM)

Tip: generic; default male, ventral; female ventral hairs from spinnerets mount is good as well



220. scales abdomen (male): proper view, closeup one seta (SEM)

Tip: generic; default male, ventral; female ventral hairs from spinnerets mount is good as well




Preparation 12. Palp, SEM (male)

352. male palp and genitalia (male): dorsal view, tarsus, bulb, tibia (SEM)

Tip: priority orthogonal to cymbium/tarsus longitudinal axis

Zoom and check: if not orthogonal to tibia longitudinal axis, or if tibia details not resolved, add SV 321; if trichobothria not resolved, add SV 28


Include full length of tibiae.


349. male palp and genitalia (male): ventral view, tarsus, bulb, tibia (SEM)

Tip: priority orthogonal to cymbium/tarsus longitudinal axis

Zoom and check: if tibia details not resolved, add SV 324

Additional structures you may found there: modifications and special setae on cymbial tip



351. male palp and genitalia (male): prolateral view, tarsus, bulb, tibia (SEM)

Tip: can tilt slightly to get a better view



350. male palp and genitalia (male): retrolateral view, tarsus, bulb, tibia (SEM)

Tip: can tilt slightly to get a better view

Zoom and check: if tibia details not resolved, add SV 323

Additional structures you may found there: modifications and special setae on cymbial retromargin, paracymbium (SV 29, SV 27)



22. femoral thorns > femur > male palp and genitalia (male): prolateral view, closeup seta (SEM)

When present!
Tip: trochanter and femur of male palp often mounted separately from the rest of the palp


321. tibia > male palp and genitalia (male): dorsal view (SEM)

Conditionally required: may be included in SV 352

Zoom and check: all processes

Additional structures you may found there: gland outlets, stridulatory areas



324. tibia > male palp and genitalia (male): ventral view (SEM)

Conditionally required: usually included in SV 359



323. tibia > male palp and genitalia (male): retrolateral view (SEM)

Conditionally required: may be included in SV 350

Zoom and check: all processes

Additional structures you may found there: gland outlets, stridulatory areas



28. trichobothria > tarsus-cymbium > male palp and genitalia (male): dorsal-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Conditionally required: presence usually documented in SV 352, or SV 326; ultrastructure usuall documented in SV 353



326. tarsus-cymbium > male palp and genitalia (male): dorsal view (SEM)

Conditionally required: usually included in SV 352



29. retrolateral paracymbial processes (male): retrolateral-proper view (SEM)

When present!
Tip: may be included in general views, but recommended



27. cymbial processes other than paracymbium > male palp and genitalia (male): proper view (SEM)

Conditionally required: usually included in general views

For example, the thomisid "tutaculum".


368. copulatory bulb (male): ventral view (SEM)

Zoom and check: all sclerites illustrated in this and other views of the bulb


Sometimes the bulb is dissected and mounted apart.


331. copulatory bulb (male): apical-proper view (SEM)

Tip: detail apical region, same preparation as SV 349


Sometimes the bulb is dissected and mounted apart.



Preparation 13. Palp, expanded (male)

333. copulatory bulb (male): prolateral-proper view, expanded (photo)

Tip: only for expansible palps; can be replaced by an analytical drawing


336. copulatory bulb (male): retrolateral-proper view, expanded (photo)

Tip: only for expansible palps; can be replaced by an analytical drawing


344. spermaphor > copulatory bulb (male): proper view, expanded (drawing)

Tip: analytical; usally one of the drawings of the expanded palp serves for this

Zoom and check: the entire sperm duct should be illustrated, include gland insertions

Additional structures you may found there: internal glands